San Fernando Valley
Overview
The San Fernando Valley (locally known as "The Valley") is an urbanized valley located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
The Los Angeles metropolitan area, also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland, is the 13th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States....

 of southern California
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, defined by the dramatic mountains of the Transverse Ranges
Transverse Ranges
The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region that runs along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico in North America. The Transverse Ranges begin at the southern end of the California Coast Ranges and lie between...

 circling it. Home to 1.76 million people, it lies north of the larger and more populous Los Angeles Basin
Los Angeles Basin
The Los Angeles Basin is the coastal sediment-filled plain located between the Peninsular and Transverse ranges in southern California in the United States containing the central part of the city of Los Angeles as well as its southern and southeastern suburbs...

.

Nearly half of the land area of the city of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 lies within the San Fernando Valley. The other incorporated cities in the valley are Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

, Glendale
Glendale, California
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

, San Fernando
San Fernando, California
San Fernando is a city located in the San Fernando Valley, in northwestern region of Los Angeles, California, United States. The population was 23,645 at the 2010 census, up from 23,564 at the 2000 census.-History:...

, Hidden Hills
Hidden Hills, California
Hidden Hills is an incorporated city, and also a gated development in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 1,856 at the 2010 census, down from 1,875 at the 2000 census.It is located in the westernmost San Fernando Valley...

 and Calabasas
Calabasas, California
Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

.
The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles (673.4 km²) bounded by the Santa Susana Mountains
Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south, from Santa Clara River Valley to the north, and Santa Clarita...

 to the northwest, the Simi Hills
Simi Hills
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges, located in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States.-Geography:...

 to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains
Santa Monica Mountains
The Santa Monica Mountains are a Transverse Range in Southern California, along the coast of the Pacific Ocean in the United States.-Geography:...

 and Chalk Hills
Chalk Hills
The Chalk Hills are a north—south running low 'mountain' range in the San Fernando Valley perpendicular to and adjoining the Santa Monica Mountains. They are located in the Woodland Hills District of the City of Los Angeles in Southern California.-Environs:...

 to the south, the Verdugo Mountains
Verdugo Mountains
The Verdugo Mountains are a small, rugged mountain range of the Transverse Ranges system, located just south of the western San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, Southern California...

 to the east, and the San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
The San Gabriel Mountains Range is located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, United States. The mountain range lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east...

 to the northeast.
Encyclopedia
The San Fernando Valley (locally known as "The Valley") is an urbanized valley located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
The Los Angeles metropolitan area, also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland, is the 13th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States....

 of southern California
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, defined by the dramatic mountains of the Transverse Ranges
Transverse Ranges
The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region that runs along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico in North America. The Transverse Ranges begin at the southern end of the California Coast Ranges and lie between...

 circling it. Home to 1.76 million people, it lies north of the larger and more populous Los Angeles Basin
Los Angeles Basin
The Los Angeles Basin is the coastal sediment-filled plain located between the Peninsular and Transverse ranges in southern California in the United States containing the central part of the city of Los Angeles as well as its southern and southeastern suburbs...

.

Nearly half of the land area of the city of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 lies within the San Fernando Valley. The other incorporated cities in the valley are Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

, Glendale
Glendale, California
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

, San Fernando
San Fernando, California
San Fernando is a city located in the San Fernando Valley, in northwestern region of Los Angeles, California, United States. The population was 23,645 at the 2010 census, up from 23,564 at the 2000 census.-History:...

, Hidden Hills
Hidden Hills, California
Hidden Hills is an incorporated city, and also a gated development in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 1,856 at the 2010 census, down from 1,875 at the 2000 census.It is located in the westernmost San Fernando Valley...

 and Calabasas
Calabasas, California
Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

.

Geography

The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles (673.4 km²) bounded by the Santa Susana Mountains
Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south, from Santa Clara River Valley to the north, and Santa Clarita...

 to the northwest, the Simi Hills
Simi Hills
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges, located in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States.-Geography:...

 to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains
Santa Monica Mountains
The Santa Monica Mountains are a Transverse Range in Southern California, along the coast of the Pacific Ocean in the United States.-Geography:...

 and Chalk Hills
Chalk Hills
The Chalk Hills are a north—south running low 'mountain' range in the San Fernando Valley perpendicular to and adjoining the Santa Monica Mountains. They are located in the Woodland Hills District of the City of Los Angeles in Southern California.-Environs:...

 to the south, the Verdugo Mountains
Verdugo Mountains
The Verdugo Mountains are a small, rugged mountain range of the Transverse Ranges system, located just south of the western San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, Southern California...

 to the east, and the San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
The San Gabriel Mountains Range is located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, United States. The mountain range lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east...

 to the northeast. The northern Sierra Pelona Mountains
Sierra Pelona Mountains
The Sierra Pelona Mountains , or the Sierra Pelona Ridge, is a mountain range in the Transverse Ranges of Southern California.. They are located within Los Angeles and Kern Counties.-Geography:...

, northwestern Topatopa Mountains
Topatopa Mountains
The Topatopa Mountains are a mountain range in Ventura County, California, north of Santa Paula. They are part of the Transverse Ranges of Southern California. The range lies in an east-west direction northeast of the community of Ojai, and west of the Sespe Condor Sanctuary. The ranges reaches an...

, southern Santa Ana Mountains
Santa Ana Mountains
The Santa Ana Mountains are a short peninsular mountain range along the coast of Southern California in the United States. They extend for approximately 36 mi southeast of the Los Angeles Basin largely along the border between Orange and Riverside counties.- Geography :The range starts in the...

, and Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, United States, located close to the geographic center of the metropolitan area...

 skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods, passes, and parks in the San Fernando Valley.

The Los Angeles River
Los Angeles River
The Los Angeles River is a river that starts in the San Fernando Valley, in the Simi Hills and Santa Susana Mountains, and flows through Los Angeles County, California, from Canoga Park in the western end of the San Fernando Valley, nearly southeast to its mouth in Long Beach...

 begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek (Arroyo Calabasas) and Bell Creek
Bell Creek (Southern California)
Bell Creek is a tributary of the Los Angeles River, in the Simi Hills of Ventura County and the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles County and City, in Southern California.-Route:...

 (Escorpión Creek) at Canoga Park High School
Canoga Park High School
Canoga Park High School is a public school located in Canoga Park in the western San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California, United States, and is in the Los Angeles Unified School District...

 beside Vanowen Boulevard in Canoga Park. Those creeks' headwaters
Source (river or stream)
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the place from which the water in the river or stream originates.-Definition:There is no universally agreed upon definition for determining a stream's source...

 are in the Santa Monica Calabasas
Calabasas, California
Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

 foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills
Hidden Hills, California
Hidden Hills is an incorporated city, and also a gated development in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 1,856 at the 2010 census, down from 1,875 at the 2000 census.It is located in the westernmost San Fernando Valley...

, Santa Susana Field Laboratory
Santa Susana Field Laboratory
The Santa Susana Field Laboratory is a complex of industrial research and development facilities located on a 2,668 acre portion of the Southern California Simi Hills in Simi Valley, California, used mainly for the testing and development of Liquid-propellant rocket engines for the United States...

, and Santa Susana Pass Park
Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park
Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park is a California State Park of approximately located on the boundary between Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, between the communities of Chatsworth and Simi Valley. Geologically, the park is located where Simi Hills meet the Santa Susana Mountains...

 lands. The River flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. The seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash
Tujunga Wash
Tujunga Wash is a stream in Los Angeles County, California. It is a tributary of the Los Angeles River, providing about a fifth of its flow, and drains about...

, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains, and passes through the Hansen Dam
Hansen Dam
Hansen Dam is a dam in Lake View Terrace, Los Angeles, California. It was built in 1940 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District...

 Recreation Center in Tujunga
Sunland-Tujunga, Los Angeles
Sunland-Tujunga is a community served by two post offices in the northeasternmost corner of Los Angeles, California. Though Sunland and Tujunga began as separate settlements, they are today linked through a single police station, branch library, neighborhood council. chamber of commerce, City...

 south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the Valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the River include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek
Bull Creek (Los Angeles County)
Bull Creek is a tributary of the Los Angeles River in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles County, California.The stream begins in the eastern Santa Susana Mountains and enters a debris basin adjacent to the Los Angeles Reservoir...

, Pacoima Wash
Pacoima Wash
Pacoima Wash, long, is a major tributary of the Tujunga Wash, itself a tributary of the Los Angeles River, in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles County, California....

, and Verdugo Wash
Verdugo Wash
Verdugo Wash is a tributary of the Los Angeles River, in the Glendale area of Los Angeles County, California.The stream begins just south of Interstate 210 in the Crescenta Valley...

. The elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 to 1200 ft (365.8 m) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

.

Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdictional boundaries of the city of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the Valley as well; Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

 and Glendale
Glendale, California
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

 are in the southeast corner of the Valley, Hidden Hills
Hidden Hills, California
Hidden Hills is an incorporated city, and also a gated development in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 1,856 at the 2010 census, down from 1,875 at the 2000 census.It is located in the westernmost San Fernando Valley...

 and Calabasas
Calabasas, California
Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

 are in the southwest corner, and San Fernando
San Fernando, California
San Fernando is a city located in the San Fernando Valley, in northwestern region of Los Angeles, California, United States. The population was 23,645 at the 2010 census, up from 23,564 at the 2000 census.-History:...

, which is completely surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeast valley. Universal City
Universal City, California
Universal City is a community in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, California, that encompasses the 415 acre property of Universal Studios...

, an enclave in the southern part of the Valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios
Universal Studios
Universal Pictures , a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, is one of the six major movie studios....

 filming lot. Mulholland Drive
Mulholland Drive
Mulholland Drive is a street and road in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California. It is named after Los Angeles pioneer civil engineer William Mulholland...

, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the Valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside.

Government and political representation

San Fernando Valley is composed of six incorporated cities
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

. The majority of the valley is governed by the incorporated City of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

. The unincorporated communities (Census-designated place
Census-designated place
A census-designated place is a concentration of population identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes. CDPs are delineated for each decennial census as the statistical counterparts of incorporated places such as cities, towns and villages...

s) are governed by County of Los Angeles
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 9,818,605, making it the most populous county in the United States. Los Angeles County alone is more populous than 42 individual U.S. states...

.

Representation

The Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 12. Of the 99 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the Valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California. It is a bicameral body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members...

 by seven members of the State Assembly
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. There are 80 members in the Assembly, representing an approximately equal number of constituents, with each district having a population of at least 420,000...

 and five members of the State Senate
California State Senate
The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. There are 40 state senators. The state legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote...

. The valley is divided into five congressional districts. It is represented in Congress by senior figures from both parties including Representative Brad Sherman
Brad Sherman
Bradley J. "Brad" Sherman is an American politician. He has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1997, representing ....

 (D), Representative Henry Waxman
Henry Waxman
Henry Arnold Waxman is the U.S. Representative for , serving in Congress since 1975. He is a member of the Democratic Party. He is considered to be one of the most influential liberal members of Congress...

 (D), Representative Howard Berman
Howard Berman
Howard Lawrence Berman is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2003. He is a member of the Democratic Party. He earlier served in the California State Assembly from 1974 to 1982, and as the U.S...

 (D), and Representative Howard McKeon
Howard McKeon
Howard Philip "Buck" McKeon is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1993. He is a member of the Republican Party.-Early life, education and career:...

 (R). In the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five-member nonpartisan governing board of Los Angeles County, California. Members of the board of supervisors are elected by district. They were as of December 2, 2008:*District 1: Gloria Molina...

, it is represented by two supervisorial districts.

The San Fernando Valley is for the most part, a politically divided region, swinging between Republicans and Democrats in national and state elections. However, in local elections, along with the Los Angeles Harbor
South Bay, Los Angeles
The South Bay is a region of the southwest peninsula of Los Angeles County, California, United States. The name stems from its geographic features stretching along the southern shores of Santa Monica Bay which forms its western border.The picture at right uses the broadest definition of the...

 district, it tends to support Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 candidates.

The Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station, municipal and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices. Northridge is home to California State University, Northridge
California State University, Northridge
California State University, Northridge is a public university in Northridge, a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley area of Los Angeles, California, United States....

 (originally named San Fernando Valley State College).

Services

  • Branch libraries of the Los Angeles Public Library
    Los Angeles Public Library
    The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of Los Angeles, California, United States. With over 6 million volumes, LAPL is one of the largest publicly funded library systems in the world. The system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the...

     are in many of the "Communities of the City of Los Angeles" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below.
  • For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities (independent)" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below.

  • Los Angeles Police Department
    Los Angeles Police Department
    The Los Angeles Police Department is the police department of the city of Los Angeles, California. With just under 10,000 officers and more than 3,000 civilian staff, covering an area of with a population of more than 4.1 million people, it is the third largest local law enforcement agency in...

    , Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
    Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
    The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is a local county law enforcement agency that serves Los Angeles County, California. It is the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States, with the New York City Police Department being the first. The second largest is the Chicago Police...

    , and independent valley city departments.
  • Los Angeles Fire Department
    Los Angeles Fire Department
    The Los Angeles Fire Department is the agency that provides fire protection and emergency medical services for the city of Los Angeles....

    , Los Angeles County Fire Department
    Los Angeles County Fire Department
    The Los Angeles County Fire Department , serves unincorporated parts of Los Angeles County, as well as 58 cities and towns that choose to have the county provide fire and EMS services, including La Habra. It should not be confused with the Los Angeles City Fire Department, which serves the city of...

    , Burbank Police Department, and independent valley city departments.




History

Pre-statehood

The Tongva, later known as the Fernandeño=Gabrieleño Mission Indians
Mission Indians
Mission Indians is a term for many Native California tribes, primarily living in coastal plains, adjacent inland valleys and mountains, and on the Channel Islands in central and southern California, United States. The tribes had established comparatively peaceful cultures varying from 250 to 8,000...

 after colonization, and the Tataviam
Tataviam
The Tataviam , were called the Alliklik by their neighbors the Chumash , are a Native American group in southern California...

 to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the Valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years. They had numerous settlements, and trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

 arrived and took their homeland in 1797 for the Mission San Fernando Rey de España
Mission San Fernando Rey de España
Mission San Fernando Rey de España was founded on "The Feast of the Birth of Mary" , 1797. The settlement is located on the former Encino Rancho in the Mission Hills community of northern Los Angeles, near the site of the first gold discovery in Alta California.-History:Mission San Fernando Rey de...

 and Las Californias
Las Californias
The Californias, or in — - was the name given by the Spanish to their northwestern territory of New Spain, comprising the present day states of Baja California and Baja California Sur on the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico; and the present day U.S. state of California in the United States of...

 rancho
Ranchos of California
The Spanish, and later the Méxican government encouraged settlement of territory now known as California by the establishment of large land grants called ranchos, from which the English ranch is derived. Devoted to raising cattle and sheep, the owners of the ranchos attempted to pattern themselves...

s.

The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley or El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de los Encinos, called 'Rancho Encino' (present day Mission Hills on the Camino Viejo before Newhall Pass), in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes
Juan Francisco Reyes (soldier)
Juan Francisco Reyes , soldado de cuero on the 1769 Portola expedition, alcalde of the Pueblo de Los Angeles for three terms, and recipient of the Spanish land grant for Los Encino and later Lompoc.-Juan Francisco Reyes:In 1769 Francisco Reyes, left his home in Mexico to join the Spanish army...

 built an adobe
Adobe
Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material , which the builders shape into bricks using frames and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for...

 dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria
Ranchería
The Spanish word ranchería, or rancherío, refers to a small, rural settlement. In the Americas the term was applied to native villages and to the workers' quarters of a ranch. English adopted the term with both these meanings, usually to designate the residential area of a rancho in the American...

 at natural springs
Spring (hydrosphere)
A spring—also known as a rising or resurgence—is a component of the hydrosphere. Specifically, it is any natural situation where water flows to the surface of the earth from underground...

, but 'Rancho Encino' was short lived with the land traded so a Mission
Spanish missions in California
The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of religious and military outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Christian faith among the local Native Americans. The missions represented the first major effort by Europeans to...

 could be sited and built there. Mission San Fernando Rey de España
Mission San Fernando Rey de España
Mission San Fernando Rey de España was founded on "The Feast of the Birth of Mary" , 1797. The settlement is located on the former Encino Rancho in the Mission Hills community of northern Los Angeles, near the site of the first gold discovery in Alta California.-History:Mission San Fernando Rey de...

 was established in 1797 as the 17th of the twenty-one missions. The land trade granted Juan Francisco Reyes the similarly named Rancho Los Encinos
Rancho Los Encinos
Rancho Los Encinos was a Spanish grazing concession, and later Mexican land granted cattle and sheep rancho and travelers way-station on the El Camino Real in the San Fernando Valley, in present day Encino, Los Angeles County, California...

, also beside springs (Los Encinos State Historic Park
Los Encinos State Historic Park
Los Encinos State Historic Park is located near the corner of Balboa and Ventura Blvd. in Encino, California. It was the hub of Rancho Los Encinos...

 in present day Encino). Later the Mexican land grants of Rancho El Escorpión
Rancho El Escorpión
Rancho El Escorpión was a Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1845 by Governor Pío Pico to three Chumash Native Americans - Odón Eusebia, Urbano, and Mañuel....

 (West Hills), Rancho Providencia
Rancho Providencia
Rancho La Providencia was a Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given by governor Juan B. Alvarado in 1843 to Vincente de la Osa. The majority of Rancho Providencia land north of the modern channel of the Los Angeles River is now part of Burbank. The street grid...

 and Rancho Cahuenga
Rancho Cahuenga
Rancho Cahuenga was a Mexican land grant in the San Fernando Valley, in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1843 by governor Manuel Micheltorena to José Miguel Triunfo. Rancho Cahuenga is now a part of the city of Burbank, with the Los Angeles River channel running through it...

 (Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

), and Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando
Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando
Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando was a Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California granted in 1846 by Governor Pío Pico to Eulogio de Celis...

 (rest of valley) were established to cover the San Fernando Valley.

The Treaty of Cahuenga
Treaty of Cahuenga
The Treaty of Cahuenga, also called the "Capitulation of Cahuenga," ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in Alta California in 1847. It was not a formal treaty between nations but an informal agreement between rival military forces in which the Californios gave up fighting...

, ending the Mexican-American War fighting in Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

, was signed in 1847 by Californios and Americans at Campo de Cahuenga
Campo de Cahuenga
The Campo de Cahuenga, near the historic Cahuenga Pass in present day Studio City, Los Angeles, California, was an adobe ranch-house on the Rancho Cahuenga where the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed between Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont and General Andrés Pico in 1847, ending hostilities in...

, the Verdugo Family adobe at the entrance to the Cahuenga Pass
Cahuenga Pass
The Cahuenga Pass is a mountain pass through the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Hollywood district of the City of Los Angeles, California....

 in the southeast San Fernando Valley (North Hollywood). The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico City, that ended the Mexican-American War on February 2, 1848...

 ended the entire war.

Statehood and beyond

The valley, not 'a desert,' was naturally a "Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a terrestrial biome whose predominant vegetation consists of grasses and/or shrubs. The climate is temperate and semi-arid to semi-humid....

 biome
Biome
Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a...

" of grassland
Grassland
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants . However, sedge and rush families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica...

, oak savanna
California oak woodland
California oak woodland is a plant community found throughout the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of California in the United States and northwestern Baja California in Mexico...

, and chaparral shrub forest
Chaparral
Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the U.S. state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico...

 types of plant community habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

s, along with lush riparian plants along the river, creeks, and springs. This Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 meant that post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support was primarily limited to cattle and sheep grazing, with small vineyards, crops, and orchards the exception. This continued with subsequent Mexican, Californio, and American ranchers while the Valley became part of Mexican Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

 (1821), the California Republic
California Republic
The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, is the name used for a period of revolt against Mexico initially proclaimed by a handful of American settlers in Mexican California on June 14, 1846, in Sonoma. This was shortly before news of the Mexican–American War had reached the area...

 (1846), and a U. S. State (1850). In 1874 'dry wheat' farming was introduced by J. B. Lankershim and Issac Van Nuys
Isaac Newton Van Nuys
Isaac Newton Van Nuys was an American businessman, real estate developer, banker, and agricultural entrepreneur. He founded the community of Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley of Southern California in 1911...

 and became very productive for their San Fernando Homestead Association that owned the southern half of the Valley. In 1876 they sent the very first wheat shipment from both San Pedro Harbor and from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

.

Aqueduct

Through late 19th century court decisions, Los Angeles had won the rights to all surface flow water atop and aquifer
Aquifer
An aquifer is a wet underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology...

 groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 beneath the Valley, without it being within the city limits. After the construction and opening of the Los Angeles Aqueduct
Los Angeles Aqueduct
The Los Angeles Aqueduct system comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power...

 (Owens Valley Aqueduct
Owens Valley
Owens Valley is the arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin section...

) in 1913, pressure was put upon the residents of each independent Valley town to vote for annexation to the city with the 'benefit' being connected to the municipal water system. Concurrently and perhaps pre-aware, the Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by Harry Chandler
Harry Chandler
Harry Chandler was an American newspaper publisher and investor who became owner of the largest real estate empire in the U.S.-Biography:...

, Hobart Johnstone Whitley
Hobart Johnstone Whitley
Hobart Johnstone Whitley , also known as H.J. Whitley is the "Father of Hollywood", was a real estate developer who helped create the Hollywood subdivision in Los Angeles, Southern California. He and his wife, Margaret Virginia Whitley named the town while on their honeymoon in 1886...

, president of the company. James B. Lankershim, and Isaac Van Nuys
Isaac Newton Van Nuys
Isaac Newton Van Nuys was an American businessman, real estate developer, banker, and agricultural entrepreneur. He founded the community of Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley of Southern California in 1911...

, extended the Pacific Electric Railway
Pacific Electric Railway
The Pacific Electric Railway , also known as the Red Car system, was a mass transit system in Southern California using streetcars, light rail, and buses...

 (Red Cars) through the Valley to Owensmouth (now Canoga Park and West Hills) and laid out plans for roads and the towns of Lankershim (now Toluca Lake), Van Nuys, Marion (now Reseda) and Owensmouth. The rural areas became annexed by Los Angeles in 1915. The growing towns voted for annexation, for example; Owensmouth (Canoga Park) (1917), Laurel Canyon (1923), Lankershim (1923), Sunland
Sunland-Tujunga, Los Angeles
Sunland-Tujunga is a community served by two post offices in the northeasternmost corner of Los Angeles, California. Though Sunland and Tujunga began as separate settlements, they are today linked through a single police station, branch library, neighborhood council. chamber of commerce, City...

 (1926), La Tuna Canyon (1926), and the incorporated city of Tujunga
Sunland-Tujunga, Los Angeles
Sunland-Tujunga is a community served by two post offices in the northeasternmost corner of Los Angeles, California. Though Sunland and Tujunga began as separate settlements, they are today linked through a single police station, branch library, neighborhood council. chamber of commerce, City...

 (1932); more than doubling the size of the city. A fictionalized story based on these events is told in the 1974 film Chinatown.

The Aqueduct water shifted farming from wheat to irrigated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and cotton; orchards of apricots, persimmons, and walnuts; and major citrus groves of oranges and lemons. They continued until the next increment of development converted land use, with post-war suburbanization
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

 leaving only a few enclaves, such as the 'open air museum' groves at the Orcutt Ranch Park
Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center
The Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center, formally known as Rancho Sombra del Roble, is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument located in the West Hills section of Los Angeles, California, USA.-William Orcutt's vacation home:...

 and CSUN campus.

Developments

Also the advent of three new introductions and industries in the early 20th century – motion pictures, automobiles, and aircraft – spurred urbanization and population growth. World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 production and the subsequent postwar boom accelerated this growth so that by 1960, the valley had a population of well over one million. Los Angeles continued to consolidate its territories in the San Fernando Valley by annexing the former Rancho El Escorpión
Rancho El Escorpión
Rancho El Escorpión was a Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1845 by Governor Pío Pico to three Chumash Native Americans - Odón Eusebia, Urbano, and Mañuel....

 for Canoga Park-West Hills (1959), and the huge historic "Porter Ranch" at the foot of the Santa Susana Mountains
Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south, from Santa Clara River Valley to the north, and Santa Clarita...

 for the new planned developments in Porter Ranch (1965). The additions expanded the Los Angeles portion of San Fernando Valley from the original 169 square miles (438 km²) to 224 square miles (580 km²) today.

Six Valley cities incorporated independently from Los Angeles: Glendale
Glendale, California
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

 (1906), Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

 (1911), San Fernando
San Fernando, California
San Fernando is a city located in the San Fernando Valley, in northwestern region of Los Angeles, California, United States. The population was 23,645 at the 2010 census, up from 23,564 at the 2000 census.-History:...

 (1911) Hidden Hills
Hidden Hills, California
Hidden Hills is an incorporated city, and also a gated development in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 1,856 at the 2010 census, down from 1,875 at the 2000 census.It is located in the westernmost San Fernando Valley...

 (1961), and Calabasas
Calabasas, California
Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

 (1991). Universal City
Universal City, California
Universal City is a community in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, California, that encompasses the 415 acre property of Universal Studios...

 is an unincorporated enclave that is home to Universal Studios
Universal Studios
Universal Pictures , a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, is one of the six major movie studios....

 theme park and Universal CityWalk
Universal CityWalk
Universal CityWalk is the name given to the entertainment and retail districts located adjacent to the theme parks of Universal Parks & Resorts. Originating as an expansion of Universal's first park, Universal Studios Hollywood, CityWalk serves as an entrance plaza from the parking lots to the...

. Other unincorporated areas in the Valley are Bell Canyon
Bell Canyon, California
Bell Canyon is a census-designated place in Ventura County, California. Bell Canyon is a residential unincorporated community located near West Hills and the western San Fernando Valley in the Simi Hills. Although only minutes from the Los Angeles city limits, Bell Canyon is a Horse Community. ...

 and West Chatsworth.

Northridge earthquake

The 1994 Northridge
Northridge, Los Angeles, California
Northridge is a community located in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California, United States.The 1994 Northridge earthquake is named for the place based on early estimates of the location of the quake's epicenter; however, further refinements showed it to be technically...

 earthquake, striking on January 17, measured 6.7 on the Richter Scale. It was one of the few major earthquakes to originate and strike directly under a large city in modern times. Its epicenter was 'precisely' located just east of the intersection of Elkwood Street and Baird Avenue under Reseda.

Parks and recreation

The San Fernando Valley is home to numerous neighborhood 'pocket parks,' city parks
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

, Recreation areas, and large Regional Open Space preserves
Nature reserve
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research...

. Many preserves are maintained as public parkland by: the National Park Service's Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area
The Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area or SMMNRA, is a United States National Recreation Area containing many individual parks and open space preserves, located primarily in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California...

, the California State Parks, and local county and municipal parks districts. A place to enjoy the big overview is the Top of Topanga Overlook, as shown in the photo at page-top here.

Small garden parks

  • Gardens: The CSUN Botanic Garden
    California State University Northridge Botanic Garden
    The California State University Northridge Botanic Garden or CSUN Botanic Garden is located in the northern San Fernando Valley, in the southeast section of the California State University, Northridge campus in the community of Northridge in Los Angeles, California.The site includes a botanical...

    , and Sepulveda Basin Sepulveda Park: Japanese Garden
    The Japanese Garden
    right|thumb|250px|rightThe Japanese Garden 6.5 acres is located on the grounds of the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant in Woodley Park, at 6100 Woodley Avenue, Van Nuys, California, USA, in the midst of the San Fernando Valley. It was designed by Dr. Koichi Kawana and constructed between 1980 and...

     are mid-Valley for garden ideas and relaxation.
  • Gardens at Adobes
    Adobes
    Adobes is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2004 census , the municipality has a population of 68 inhabitants....

    : The Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center
    Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center
    The Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center, formally known as Rancho Sombra del Roble, is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument located in the West Hills section of Los Angeles, California, USA.-William Orcutt's vacation home:...

     historic house and garden, with a community garden and annual public citrus picking; the Leonis Adobe
    Leonis Adobe
    Leonis Adobe, built in 1844, is one of the oldest surviving private residences in Los Angeles County and one of the oldest surviving buildings in the San Fernando Valley. Located in what is now Calabasas, California, the adobe was occupied by the wealthy rancher, Miguel Leonis, until his death in...

    ; Andrés Pico adobe
    Rómulo Pico Adobe
    Rómulo Pico Adobe, also known as Ranchito Rómulo and Andres Pico Adobe, was built in 1853 and is the oldest residence in the San Fernando Valley, and the second oldest residence in the City of Los Angeles. Located in the Mission Hills section of Los Angeles, the Rómulo Pico Adobe is a short...

    ; Los Encinos State Historic Park
    Los Encinos State Historic Park
    Los Encinos State Historic Park is located near the corner of Balboa and Ventura Blvd. in Encino, California. It was the hub of Rancho Los Encinos...

    ; and the evocative Mission San Fernando.

Recreation areas

  • Griffith Park
    Griffith Park
    Griffith Park is a large municipal park at the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The park covers of land, making it one of the largest urban parks in North America...

    : The largest of Los Angeles' municipal parks, lies at the southeastern end of the valley in the Hollywood Hills
    Hollywood Hills
    The Hollywood Hills is an affluent and exclusive neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in the southeastern Santa Monica Mountains. It is bound by Laurel Canyon Boulevard to the west, Vermont Avenue to the east, Mulholland Drive to the north, and Sunset Boulevard to the south.-Hollywood Hills...

     of the Santa Monica Mountains
    Santa Monica Mountains
    The Santa Monica Mountains are a Transverse Range in Southern California, along the coast of the Pacific Ocean in the United States.-Geography:...

    .
  • Recreation areas: Two large areas dedicated to sports and recreation are the Sepulveda Basin Recreation Area and Wildlife Preserve behind Sepulveda Dam
    Sepulveda Dam
    Located in Los Angeles, California, the Sepulveda Dam is a project of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, built in 1941 to withhold winter flood waters along the Los Angeles River...

    , and the Hansen Dam Recreation Area behind Hansen Dam
    Hansen Dam
    Hansen Dam is a dam in Lake View Terrace, Los Angeles, California. It was built in 1940 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District...

    .
  • Los Angeles River
    Los Angeles River
    The Los Angeles River is a river that starts in the San Fernando Valley, in the Simi Hills and Santa Susana Mountains, and flows through Los Angeles County, California, from Canoga Park in the western end of the San Fernando Valley, nearly southeast to its mouth in Long Beach...

    : There is an emerging bikeway, and numerous parks of various sizes, along and near the Valley's stretch of the River, and also the Tujunga Wash
    Tujunga Wash
    Tujunga Wash is a stream in Los Angeles County, California. It is a tributary of the Los Angeles River, providing about a fifth of its flow, and drains about...

    .

Mountain open-space parks

  • Santa Susana Mountains
    Santa Susana Mountains
    The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south, from Santa Clara River Valley to the north, and Santa Clarita...

    : In the northern Valley the O'Melveny Park
    O'Melveny Park
    O'Melveny Park is a public park located in the Santa Susana Mountains, in the Granada Hills community of the northern San Fernando Valley, in Los Angeles, California.-History:...

     above Granada Hills preserves Bee Canyon; and Rocky Peak Park
    Rocky peak
    Rocky Peak, located in Rocky Peak Park, is the third-highest point in the Santa Susana Mountains, and overlooks the San Fernando Valley and Chatsworth, the Simi Hills, and the Simi Valley in Southern California...

     at the west, all are protected parks in the Santa Susana Mountains for enjoyment.
  • Simi Hills
    Simi Hills
    The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges, located in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States.-Geography:...

    : In the northeastern Valley's mountains are the Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park
    Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park
    Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park is a California State Park of approximately located on the boundary between Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, between the communities of Chatsworth and Simi Valley. Geologically, the park is located where Simi Hills meet the Santa Susana Mountains...

    , Chatsworth Park South, and Sage Ranch Park. The sizeable recreation areas in the west Valley at Bell Canyon Park
    Bell Canyon Park
    Bell Canyon Park is a large open-space regional park located in the Simi Hills at the western end of the San Fernando Valley in West Hills and Bell Canyon, California. Bell Creek, a primary tributary to the Los Angeles River, flows through the park with riparian zone vegetation along its natural...

    , El Escorpión Park
    El Escorpion Park
    El Escorpión Park is a three-acre park located in the Simi Hills of the western San Fernando Valley, in the West Hills district of Los Angeles, California...

    , and Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve
    Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve
    The Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve is a large open space nature preserve owned and operated by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy spanning nearly in the Simi Hills of western Los Angeles County and eastern Ventura County....

     at the end of Victory Boulevard
    Victory Boulevard (Los Angeles)
    Victory Boulevard is a major east-west arterial road that runs traversing the entire length of the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles County. Through much of the San Fernando Valley, Victory Boulevard divides the affluent communities at the southern end of the Valley , from the less affluent...

     in West Hills and Woodland Hills give a large greenbelt and miles of hiking, mountain-biking, and horseback riding in the southern Simi Hills. They adjoin the Palo Commado-Cheeseboro Open Space Preserve and El Escorpión Park for an immense system of trails, with others in the Hills.
  • Verdugo Mountains
    Verdugo Mountains
    The Verdugo Mountains are a small, rugged mountain range of the Transverse Ranges system, located just south of the western San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, Southern California...

    : In the east side mountains are; Deukmejian Wilderness Park, La Tuna Park, Brand Park, and Verdugo Mountains Open Space Preserve, among other Verdugos parks.
  • Santa Monica Mountains
    Santa Monica Mountains
    The Santa Monica Mountains are a Transverse Range in Southern California, along the coast of the Pacific Ocean in the United States.-Geography:...

    : In the southern Valley Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park
    Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park
    Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park is a park in the Santa Monica Mountains with its trailhead at the southern terminus of Reseda Boulevard in Tarzana, Los Angeles, California. The park was named for former Los Angeles City Councilman Marvin Braude who for more than 30 years led the effort to...

    , Wilacre Park Wilacre Park, Laurel Canyon Park, and numerous others allow exploration of the Santa Monica Mountains', with Topanga State Park
    Topanga State Park
    Topanga State Park is a California state park located in Los Angeles County. It is located adjacent to the unincorporated community of Topanga, California, within the city of Los Angeles, California...

     nearby.

Future Valley natural area

The Backbone Trail System
Backbone Trail System
The Backbone Trail System is a long distance trail extending 67.79 miles across the length of the Santa Monica Mountains in the U.S. state of California. Its western terminus is Point Mugu State Park and its eastern terminus is Will Rogers State Historic Park in Pacific Palisades...

, Rim of the Valley Trail, and Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
thumb|325px|MAP: [[Juan Bautista de Anza]] National Historic Trail routes in [[Arizona]] and [[California]].The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail is a National Park Service unit in the United States National Historic Trail and National Millennium Trail programs...

 are each in incremental land acquisition and construction through and around the Valley, with future completion dates. The City of Los Angeles :: Los Angeles River Revitalization Plan and City of Los Angeles :: River Improvement Overlay District – RIO are in planning stages for returning the River to an aesthetic and 'green' amenity with safe and accessible recreation, among many goals, for the 'upper river' in the Valley and downstream.

Many future large tracts of undeveloped or ranch lands in the mountains surrounding the Valley are in the priority sights to be transformed into parkland. The Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy
Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy
The Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy is an agency of the state of California in the United States founded in 1980 and dedicated to the acquisition of land for preservation as open space, for wildlife and California native plants habitat Nature Preserves, and for public recreation...

 and its affiliated agencies contract property trades, conservation easements, land donations, and outright purchases – of small to substantial natural lands in all the Valley's surrounding Ranges; the Santa Monicas, Santa Susanas, Simi Hills, Verdugo Mountains
Verdugo Mountains
The Verdugo Mountains are a small, rugged mountain range of the Transverse Ranges system, located just south of the western San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, Southern California...

, and San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
The San Gabriel Mountains Range is located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, United States. The mountain range lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east...

.

Municipalities and districts

Incorporated cities (independent)

  • Burbank
    Burbank, California
    Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

  • Calabasas
    Calabasas, California
    Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

  • Hidden Hills
    Hidden Hills, California
    Hidden Hills is an incorporated city, and also a gated development in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 1,856 at the 2010 census, down from 1,875 at the 2000 census.It is located in the westernmost San Fernando Valley...

  • San Fernando
    San Fernando, California
    San Fernando is a city located in the San Fernando Valley, in northwestern region of Los Angeles, California, United States. The population was 23,645 at the 2010 census, up from 23,564 at the 2000 census.-History:...

  • Glendale
    Glendale, California
    Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...


Unincorporated communities

  • Bell Canyon
    Bell Canyon, California
    Bell Canyon is a census-designated place in Ventura County, California. Bell Canyon is a residential unincorporated community located near West Hills and the western San Fernando Valley in the Simi Hills. Although only minutes from the Los Angeles city limits, Bell Canyon is a Horse Community. ...

  • Universal City
    Universal City, California
    Universal City is a community in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, California, that encompasses the 415 acre property of Universal Studios...

  • Calabasas Highlands
  • West Chatsworth
  • Kagel Canyon

Communities of the City of Los Angeles



+ Common usage of the term San Fernando Valley include these communities that are in Crescenta Valley.

Economy

The Valley is home to numerous companies, the most well-known of which are involved in motion pictures, music recording, and television production. The former movie ranch
Movie ranch
A movie ranch is a ranch that is at least partially dedicated to being used as a site for the creation and production of motion pictures, and television productions...

es were branches of original studios now consisting of CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

 Studio Center, NBCUniversal, The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company is the largest media conglomerate in the world in terms of revenue. Founded on October 16, 1923, by Walt and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, Walt Disney Productions established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into...

 (and its ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

 television network), and Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc., also known as Warner Bros. Pictures or simply Warner Bros. , is an American producer of film and television entertainment.One of the major film studios, it is a subsidiary of Time Warner, with its headquarters in Burbank,...



The Valley was previously known for stellar advances in aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 technology and nuclear research by companies such as Lockheed
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

, Rocketdyne
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne is a United States company that designs and produces rocket engines that use liquid propellants. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, headquartered in Canoga Park, California, is a division of Pratt & Whitney, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation...

 and its Santa Susana Field Laboratory
Santa Susana Field Laboratory
The Santa Susana Field Laboratory is a complex of industrial research and development facilities located on a 2,668 acre portion of the Southern California Simi Hills in Simi Valley, California, used mainly for the testing and development of Liquid-propellant rocket engines for the United States...

, Atomics International
Atomics International
Atomics International was a division of the North American Aviation company which engaged principally in the early development of nuclear technology and nuclear reactors for both commercial and government applications...

, Litton Industries
Litton Industries
Named after inventor Charles Litton, Sr., Litton Industries was a large defense contractor in the United States, bought by the Northrop Grumman Corporation in 2001.-History:...

, Marquardt, and TRW's predecessor Thompson Ramo Wooldridge
TRW
TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses, mainly aerospace, automotive, and credit reporting. It was a pioneer in multiple fields including electronic components, integrated circuits, computers, software and systems engineering. TRW built many spacecraft,...

.

Adult entertainment

The Valley became the pioneering region for producing adult films in the 1970s and since then has been home to a multi-billion dollar pornography industry
Pornography in the United States
In the United States, there have been several notable court decisions relating to the definition of pornography and obscenity, personal possession, and its relation to prostitution. The total market value of pornography in the U.S. is estimated between $2-$13 billion per year...

, earning the monikers "Porn Valley", "San Pornando Valley", or "Silicone Valley"—a play on Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

 with silicone breast implants. The leading trade paper for the industry, AVN Magazine, is based in the Northwest Valley, as are a majority of the nation's adult video and magazine distributors. According to the HBO series Pornucopia
Pornucopia
Pornucopia was a special documentary series by HBO spun off from Real Sex that focuses on the Californian porn industry. It featured interviews with Jenna Jameson, Jenna Haze, Katie Morgan, Dave Cummings, Evan Stone, Jeff Stryker, and much more....

, nearly 90% of all legally distributed pornographic films made in the United States are either filmed in or produced by studios based in the San Fernando Valley.

Transportation

Automobiles

The automobile still remains the dominant form of transportation in the region of the Valley, though gridlock
Gridlock
The term gridlock is defined as "A state of severe road congestion arising when continuous queues of vehicles block an entire network of intersecting streets, bringing traffic in all directions to a complete standstill; a traffic jam of this kind." The term originates from a situation possible in...

 of freeway and surface street transport network
Transport network
A transport network, or transportation network in American English, is typically a network of roads, streets, pipes, aqueducts, power lines, or nearly any structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity....

s grows. Major freeways cross the Valley, including Interstate 405
Interstate 405 (California)
Interstate 405 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass of Interstate 5, running along the western areas of the Greater Los Angeles Area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north...

 – San Diego Freeway, U.S. Route 101 – Ventura Freeway / Hollywood Freeway, State Route 118
California State Route 118
State Route 118 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California that begins running west to east through Ventura and Los Angeles counties in southern California. It travels from Saticoy in Ventura County east to Lake View Terrace in Los Angeles...

 – Reagan Freeway, State Route 170 – Hollywood Freeway, Interstate 210
Interstate 210 (California)
Interstate 210 and State Route 210 together form a contiguous highway, called the Foothill Freeway, in the Greater Los Angeles area of the U.S. state of California. The western portion of the route is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, while the eastern portion is a state highway...

 – Foothill Freeway, and Interstate 5 – Golden State Freeway. Most of the major thoroughfares run on a cartographic grid: notable streets include Sepulveda Boulevard
Sepulveda Boulevard
Sepulveda Boulevard is a street in Los Angeles, California, which stretches some 42.8 miles from Rinaldi Street at the north end of the San Fernando Valley to the city limits of Hermosa Beach, where it "jumps" east and continues on to Long Beach. It generally runs north-south, passing underneath...

, Ventura Boulevard
Ventura Boulevard
Ventura Boulevard is one of the primary east–west thouroughfares in the San Fernando Valley, USA; as it was originally a part of the El Camino Real , Ventura Boulevard is one of the oldest routes in the San Fernando Valley. It was also U.S...

, Laurel Canyon Boulevard
Laurel Canyon Boulevard
Laurel Canyon Boulevard is a major street in the city of Los Angeles, California. It starts off at Polk Street in Sylmar in the northern San Fernando Valley near the junction of the San Diego and the Golden State ) freeways. Laurel Canyon Boulevard bypasses the city of San Fernando to the west,...

, San Fernando Road
San Fernando Road
San Fernando Road is a major street in the city and county of Los Angeles. It starts off in Castaic as The Old Road, passing through Santa Clarita and the Newhall Pass, whereupon its intersection with Sierra Highway near the junction of the Golden State and the Antelope Valley Freeways, it...

, Victory Boulevard
Victory Boulevard (Los Angeles)
Victory Boulevard is a major east-west arterial road that runs traversing the entire length of the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles County. Through much of the San Fernando Valley, Victory Boulevard divides the affluent communities at the southern end of the Valley , from the less affluent...

, Reseda Boulevard
Reseda Boulevard
Reseda Boulevard is a major north-south arterial road that runs through the western San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles County, California.Reseda Boulevard runs approximately from the Santa Monica Mountains at the Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park in the south to the Santa Susana Mountains and...

, Riverside Drive
Riverside Drive (Los Angeles, California)
Riverside Drive is a northeast-southwest road connecting the San Fernando Valley and Downtown Los Angeles, California. It follows the course of the Los Angeles River.-Overview:...

, Mulholland Drive
Mulholland Drive
Mulholland Drive is a street and road in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California. It is named after Los Angeles pioneer civil engineer William Mulholland...

, and State Route 27
California State Route 27
State Route 27 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California that runs from Pacific Coast Highway at Topanga State Beach near Pacific Palisades, through Topanga Canyon including the community of Fernwood Pacific also known as Topanga, and continuing through Woodland Hills, Canoga Park, West...

 – Topanga Canyon Boulevard.

Rapid transit

Rapid, rail, and public transit, provided by many agencies and reaches of service, are growing in ease of use, flexibility options and ridership in the Valley. Ironically it is the historic Pacific Electric Railway
Pacific Electric Railway
The Pacific Electric Railway , also known as the Red Car system, was a mass transit system in Southern California using streetcars, light rail, and buses...

 urban 'Red Car' system, that first accelerated population growth here, whose former right-of -ways give locations for new systems.

Metro systems (LACMTA)

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is the California state-chartered regional transportation planning agency and public transportation operating agency for the County of Los Angeles formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the...

 acronyms: LACMTA; MTA; and METRO, and "Red and Orange" LINES.
  • The Valley has two Metro Red Line Subway stations; located at Universal City
    Universal City, California
    Universal City is a community in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, California, that encompasses the 415 acre property of Universal Studios...

     and North Hollywood, which connect the Valley directly to Hollywood and Downtown Los Angeles
    Downtown Los Angeles
    Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, United States, located close to the geographic center of the metropolitan area...

    , with continually updated Metro Red Line Timetable. With transfers, they connect the Valley to the entire Metro
    Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
    The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is the California state-chartered regional transportation planning agency and public transportation operating agency for the County of Los Angeles formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the...

     regional light rail and subway network; with many stops en-route to Mid-Wilshire
    Mid-Wilshire
    Mid-Wilshire is a district in the City of Los Angeles, California. It is part of the Wilshire region.It mostly encompasses the area bounded by La Cienega Boulevard to the west, Melrose Avenue to the north, Hoover Street to the east and the Santa Monica Freeway to the south, although some...

    , San Gabriel Valley
    San Gabriel Valley
    The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, United States. It lies to the east of Los Angeles, to the north of the Puente Hills, to the south of the San Gabriel Mountains, and west of the Inland Empire. It derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows...

    , LAX adjacent, and Long Beach
    Long Beach, California
    Long Beach is a city situated in Los Angeles County in Southern California, on the Pacific coast of the United States. The city is the 36th-largest city in the nation and the seventh-largest in California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257...

     terminuses.


The Metro Red Line's two Valley subway stations are also multi-system junctions for travel: nationwide – Bob Hope Airport
Bob Hope Airport
Bob Hope Airport is a public airport located 3 miles northwest of the central business district of Burbank, a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States...

, statewide – Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

, inter-county – Metrolink
Metrolink (Southern California)
Metrolink is a commuter rail system serving Los Angeles and the surrounding area of Southern California; it currently consists of six lines and 55 stations using of track....

, regional – Metro Rapid
Metro Rapid
Metro Rapid is a bus rapid transit service in Los Angeles County, California that operates in mixed traffic environments and has fewer stops than the Metro Local service. The system is mainly operated by LACMTA. Two routes are operated by Santa Monica Transit and one by Culver City Transit...

, citywide – Metro Local
Metro Local
Metro Local is a bus system in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority . This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service...

, and valley-long – Metro Orange Line
LACMTA Orange Line
The Orange Line is one of two lines on the Metro Liner bus rapid transit network in Los Angeles County, California. It operates between Warner Center in the Woodland Hills and the North Hollywood Metro Station in the San Fernando Valley where it connects with the Red Line on the Metro Rail light...

.
Valley's Orange Line

The Valley's Bus Rapid Transit
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 Metro Orange Line uses a dedicated transitway
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 route, running the east-west length of the Valley connecting the North Hollywood (Los Angeles Metro station) (subway – eastern) to Metro Rapid-Metro Local Warner Center Transit Hub – (Woodland Hills – western), with a continually updated Orange Line Timetable & Map. An extension is under construction through Canoga Park to Chatsworth. Another inter-county Metrolink access junction will be created at Chatsworth.
The Orange Line features a very high frequency of service, using train-like" long articulated buses on its dedicated transitway with parking and bike lockers at many of its modern stations.
Metro Rapid

Six Metro Rapid
Metro Rapid
Metro Rapid is a bus rapid transit service in Los Angeles County, California that operates in mixed traffic environments and has fewer stops than the Metro Local service. The system is mainly operated by LACMTA. Two routes are operated by Santa Monica Transit and one by Culver City Transit...

 bus rapid transit lines serve the Valley area on its major boulevards, with stops spaced widely and only at major intersections, unlike Metro Local
Metro Local
Metro Local is a bus system in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority . This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service...

. The 'San Fernando Valley Sector' plans and operates Metro service in the Valley, under the policies and oversight of its Governance Council. The six cross-valley Metro Rapid route numbers are 734, 741, 750, 761, 780, and 794)
Numerous Metro Local
Metro Local
Metro Local is a bus system in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority . This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service...

 routes crisscross the entire Valley, with many stops for local destinations and reaching rapid system stations.

Daily 'Metro Rapid' bus service between Sylmar and the Santa Clarita Valley
Santa Clarita Valley
The Santa Clarita Valley is the valley of the Santa Clara River in Southern California. It stretches through Los Angeles County and Ventura County. Its main population center is the city of Santa Clarita. The valley was part of the Rancho San Francisco Mexican land grant...

 in Santa Clarita
Santa Clarita, California
Santa Clarita is the fourth largest city in Los Angeles County, California, United States and the twenty-fourth largest city in the state of California. The 2010 US Census reported the city's population grew 16.7% from the year 2000 to 176,320 residents. It is located about northwest of downtown...

 to the north is operating commute service also now, with Route Map & Schedules.
Metro Local

Metro Local
Metro Local
Metro Local is a bus system in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority . This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service...

 routes can be found on the List of current Metro Local bus routes, with Valley service help and current updates via S.F. Valley Metro Local available.

Rail and air

  • Metrolink
    Metrolink (Southern California)
    Metrolink is a commuter rail system serving Los Angeles and the surrounding area of Southern California; it currently consists of six lines and 55 stations using of track....

     commuter rail has two Valley lines, the Antelope Valley Line and Ventura County Line, connect the Valley and beyond to downtown Los Angeles and south, becoming one line at the Burbank station. These Metrolinks serve commuters during regular work hours, operating on a focused limited Schedule.


Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

's Pacific Surfliner
Pacific Surfliner
The Pacific Surfliner is a Amtrak regional passenger train route serving communities on the coast of Southern California between San Diego and San Luis Obispo....

 long distance rail line has stops at Glendale
Glendale, California
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

, Burbank Airport station, Van Nuys, and Chatsworth station
Chatsworth (Amtrak station)
The Chatsworth Amtrak/Metrolink Station, sometimes referred to as the Chatsworth Transportation Center, is an Amtrak and Metrolink rail station in the Los Angeles community of Chatsworth, California, USA. It is served by both Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner from San Luis Obispo to San Diego and...

, before proceeding on to Ventura County
Ventura County, California
Ventura County is a county in the southern part of the U.S. state of California. It is located on California's Pacific coast. It is often referred to as the Gold Coast, and has a reputation of being one of the safest populated places and one of the most affluent places in the country...

, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. Situated on an east-west trending section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply-rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean...

, and upper California (north) or Union Station and San Diego.

The California High Speed Rail is planning two stations in the Valley, in downtown Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

 and in Sylmar – with an initial section possibly opening in 2020.

Air service is located at the Bob Hope Airport
Bob Hope Airport
Bob Hope Airport is a public airport located 3 miles northwest of the central business district of Burbank, a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States...

 Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena airport (scheduled public flights), and the Van Nuys Airport
Van Nuys Airport
Van Nuys Airport is a public airport located in Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley section of the city limits of Los Angeles, California, United States. No major commercial airlines fly into this airport; it is used by private, chartered, and small commercial aircraft...

 (private planes). The Van Nuys – Airport FlyAway Terminal provides non-stop scheduled shuttle service to LAX and back to the Valley, with parking.

Pre-secession annexation

Through late 19th century court decisions, Los Angeles had won the rights to all surface flow water atop and aquifer
Aquifer
An aquifer is a wet underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology...

 groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 beneath the Valley, without it being within the city limits. With the opening of the 'Owens Valley Aqueduct' in 1913, pressure was put upon the residents of each independent Valley town to vote for annexation to the city with the 'benefit' being connected to the municipal water system. Concurrently and perhaps pre-aware, the Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by Harry Chandler
Harry Chandler
Harry Chandler was an American newspaper publisher and investor who became owner of the largest real estate empire in the U.S.-Biography:...

, Hobart Johnstone Whitley
Hobart Johnstone Whitley
Hobart Johnstone Whitley , also known as H.J. Whitley is the "Father of Hollywood", was a real estate developer who helped create the Hollywood subdivision in Los Angeles, Southern California. He and his wife, Margaret Virginia Whitley named the town while on their honeymoon in 1886...

, James B. Lankershim, and Isaac Van Nuys
Isaac Newton Van Nuys
Isaac Newton Van Nuys was an American businessman, real estate developer, banker, and agricultural entrepreneur. He founded the community of Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley of Southern California in 1911...

, extended the Pacific Electric Railway
Pacific Electric Railway
The Pacific Electric Railway , also known as the Red Car system, was a mass transit system in Southern California using streetcars, light rail, and buses...

 (Red Cars) through the Valley to Owensmouth (now Canoga Park and West Hills) and laid out plans for roads and the towns of Lankershim (now Toluca Lake), Van Nuys, Marion (now Reseda) and Owensmouth. Over the 1920s most of the growing towns voted for annexation. Half a century later some reconsidered the decision, and took action.

Independence movements

The Valley had attempted to secede in the 1970s, but the state passed a law barring city formation without the approval of the City Council. In 1997, Assemblymen Bob Hertzberg
Robert Hertzberg
Robert Myles Hertzberg served as Speaker of the California State Assembly. He was twice elected unanimously Speaker of the State Assembly, and served two terms. In the State Assembly, he represented more than 400,000 constituents in the San Fernando Valley communities of Los Angeles...

 and Tom McClintock
Tom McClintock
Thomas Miller McClintock II is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2009. He is a member of the Republican Party. He is a former Assemblyman and state Senator...

 helped pass a bill that would make it easier for the Valley to secede by removing the City Council veto. AB 62 was signed into law by Governor Pete Wilson
Pete Wilson
Peter Barton "Pete" Wilson is an American politician from California. Wilson, a Republican, served as the 36th Governor of California , the culmination of more than three decades in the public arena that included eight years as a United States Senator , eleven years as Mayor of San Diego and...

. Meanwhile, a grassroots movement to split the Los Angeles Unified School District
Los Angeles Unified School District
Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in California. It is the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population...

 (LAUSD) and create new San Fernando Valley-based school districts became the focal point of the desire to leave the city. Though the state rejected the idea of Valley-based districts, it remained an important rallying point for Hertzberg's mayoral campaign, which proved unsuccessful.

Measure F

In 2002, the San Fernando Valley portion of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 again seriously campaigned to secede
Secession
Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. Threats of secession also can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.-Secession theory:...

 from the rest of the city and become its own new independent and incorporated city. The movement gained some momentum as many San Fernando Valley residents within city limits felt they were not receiving Los Angeles city services on par with the rest of the city and their tax contributions.

Before secession could come out for a vote, the Local Agency Formation Commission
Local Agency Formation Commission
A Local Agency Formation Commission is one of several decision making government entities in California with the responsibility to decide boundary issues pertaining to city and county lands, including spheres of influence, and issues about the annexation of county lands into a city or special...

 (LAFCO) studied the fiscal viability of the new city and decided that the new city must mitigate any fiscal loss incurred by the rest of Los Angeles. LAFCO concluded that a new San Fernando Valley city would be financially viable, but would need to mitigate the $60.8 million that the remaining portion of Los Angeles would lose in revenues. Secessionists took this figure as evidence that the Valley gave more money to Los Angeles than it received back in services. This triggered a petition drive led by Valley VOTE to put secession on the ballot. Measures F (the proposed new SFV city) and H (the proposed new Hollywood City, which was on the same ballot) not only decided whether the valley became a city but voters also got to pick a new name for it. The proposed names on the ballot were as follows: San Fernando Valley, Rancho San Fernando, Mission Valley, Valley City, and Camelot. Along with Measures F and H, elections were held for fourteen council members and a mayor.

Valley politicians such as State Senator Richard Alarcon and City Council President Alex Padilla
Alex Padilla
Alejandro "Alex" Padilla is a California State Senator. He was elected as the state senator for California's 20th State Senate district in November 2006 and was inaugurated in early December. Prior to serving in the Senate he served 7½ years on the Los Angeles City Council representing the 7th...

 opposed the initiatives. The leader of the LAUSD breakup and former congresswoman and busing opponent Bobbi Fiedler
Bobbi Fiedler
Bobbi Fiedler is a former U.S. Representative from California who made a name for herself as a strong opponent of forced busing.-Biography:...

 also campaigned against secession. Supporters pointed out that the Valley suffered from many of the same problems of poverty, crime, drug and gang activity as the rest of the city.

Measure F did not receive the necessary votes to pass for the Valley to secede. The proposal passed with a slight majority in the Valley, but was defeated by the rest of Los Angeles due to a heavily-funded campaign against it led by then-Los Angeles mayor James Hahn
James Hahn
James Kenneth "Jim" Hahn is an American politician. Hahn was elected the 40th Mayor of Los Angeles in 2001. He served until 2005, at which time he was defeated in his bid for re-election...

. Republican Assemblyman Keith Richman
Keith Richman
Keith Stuart Richman was a California Republican politician. From 2000 to 2006, he served in the California State Assembly representing the 38th Assembly District based in Northwest Los Angeles County....

 of Northridge was voted in as mayor of the stillborn city, which according to vote returns would have been named San Fernando Valley. Richman and other activists behind the secession movement attempted to redirect their civic energies toward influencing Los Angeles city politics, but their efforts largely fizzled. Hertzberg's 2005 mayoral campaign, which received heavy support in the Valley, nonetheless finished in third place (only a few percentage points behind incumbent Mayor Hahn), and no secession supporters were elected to positions on the Los Angeles City Council.

Had the measure passed, the southern portion of the city would have remained as the city of Los Angeles, with about 2.1 million people. The northern Valley portion would have created a new municipality of 211 square miles (546 km²) with about 1.3 million residents. Then the ranking at that time in 2002, if secession had passed, would have had the nation's most populous cities as: New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, Houston, Philadelphia, and the new "City of San Fernando Valley" .

Internal renaming secession

Many neighborhoods of Los Angeles in the San Fernando Valley have 'seceded' from one another in the form of renaming and reforming known community boundaries. Groups are motivated by the desire to disassociate themselves from undesirable connotations that some communities have inherited and, in the process, increase property values. Lake Balboa broke away from Van Nuys. Valley Village separated from North Hollywood. Valley Glen included portions of both Van Nuys and North Hollywood. West Hills and Winnetka separated from Canoga Park. Porter Ranch seceded from Northridge. Arleta broke off from Pacoima but failed to establish its own ZIP code
ZIP Code
ZIP codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, is properly written in capital letters and was chosen to suggest that the mail travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly, when senders use the...

. The new separatist districts are so in name only, none of them gained any governmental authority and remained districts within the City of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, merely with new names.

Demographics

According to the 2008 San Fernando Valley Census Report the population of the San Fernando Valley is 1.76 million, as of 2007. Of the population 45% were Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is...

, 40% were Hispanic or Latino
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

, 5% were African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

s and 10% were Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

. The largest cities located entirely in the valley are Glendale
Glendale, California
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

 and Burbank
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....

. The most populous districts of Los Angeles in the valley are North Hollywood and Van Nuys. Each of the two cities and the two districts named has more than 100,000 residents. Despite the San Fernando Valley's reputation for sprawling, low-density development, the valley communities of Panorama City, North Hollywood, Van Nuys, Reseda, Canoga Park, and Northridge, all in Los Angeles, have numerous apartment complexes and contain some of the densest census tracts in Los Angeles.

Latinos and non-Hispanic whites are nearly even in numbers. In general, communities in the northeastern and central parts of the Valley have the highest concentration of Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites live mainly along the communities along the region's mountain rim and in the northwestern, southern and southeastern sections of the valley. The city of Glendale has a large Armenian community.

Asian American
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

s make up 10% of the population and live throughout the valley, but are most numerous in the city of Glendale and the Los Angeles communities of Chatsworth, Panorama City, Northridge, Porter Ranch and Granada Hills
Granada Hills, Los Angeles
Granada Hills is a district in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles.It is located just north of the North Hills and Northridge districts, west of the Mission Hills and Sylmar districts, and just east of the Porter Ranch district. It is accessible by the Ronald Reagan , San...

.
African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

s compose 5% of the Valley's population, living mainly in the Los Angeles sections of Lake View Terrace, Pacoima
Pacoima, Los Angeles, California
Pacoima is a district in the San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles, California.It is bordered by the Los Angeles districts of Mission Hills on the west, Arleta on the south, Sun Valley on the southeast, Lake View Terrace on the northeast, and by the city of San Fernando on the north...

, Reseda, Valley Village, Van Nuys, and Northridge. Another large ethnic element is the Iranian
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 community with 200,000 people living mainly in west San Fernando Valley such as Tarzana, Calabasas
Calabasas, California
Calabasas is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California in the western United States. It is located in the hills in the southwestern San Fernando Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, and Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city...

, Woodland Hills, Encino, & Sherman Oaks. The valley is also home to a large Jewish
American Jews
American Jews, also known as Jewish Americans, are American citizens of the Jewish faith or Jewish ethnicity. The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews who emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, and their U.S.-born descendants...

 community, with a large part of its population in the North Hollywood and Valley Village areas.

Poverty rates in the San Fernando Valley are lower than the rest of the county (15.3% compared to 17.9%). Nevertheless, in eight San Fernando Valley communities, at least one in five residents lives in poverty.

The Pacoima district of Los Angeles is widely known in the region as a hub of suburban blight. Other San Fernando Valley communities, such as the Los Angeles sections of Mission Hills, Arleta, and Northridge, have poverty rates well below the regional average.

Many wealthy families live in the hills south of Ventura Boulevard.

Property values

In August 2005, the median
Median
In probability theory and statistics, a median is described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to...

 price of an average one family home in the San Fernando Valley reached $600,000. In 1997, it was only $155,000. In the summer of 2003, it reached $400,000 and by July 2005, it reached $578,500. From July to August (one month) 2005, it rose by $100,000. A cooling off was noted in 2006, when between November 2005 and November 2006, median prices rose by the smallest amount of any 12 month period since mid-1997. Indeed, November prices were lower than October prices, and sales for November had fallen 19.1% compared to a year earlier. The United States housing market correction
United States housing market correction
A United States housing market correction is a market correction or "bubble bursting" of a United States housing bubble; the most recent began following a national home price peak first identified in July 2006. Because realty trades in illiquid markets relative to financial assets such as common...

 affected the San Fernando Valley in 2007–2009 making housing significantly more affordable in the area, the median sales price fell from $660,000 at the peak in May 2007, to $500,000 by March 2008, stabilizing in 2009 at around $330,000 – $340,000.

Movie Making in the valley

1912 Providencia Ranch - Oak Crest Ranch - Universal Ranch - "a tale two Movie Cities" :Universal (Providencia property) and (Lankershism property).

See Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills)
Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills)
Forest Lawn – Hollywood Hills Cemetery is part of the Forest Lawn chain of Southern California cemeteries. It is at 6300 Forest Lawn Drive in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, California, on the lower north slope at the far east end of the Santa Monica...


See Providencia Ranch
Providencia Ranch
Providencia Ranch, part of 'Providencia Land and Water Development Company' property, was a piece of land in California, USA that was used as a filming location for some early motion pictures; most notably for battle scenes in the silent classic about the American Civil War, The Birth of a Nation...


see Nestor Studios
Nestor Studios
The Nestor Motion Picture Company was a motion picture studio/production company located in Bayonne, New Jersey, and Hollywood, California, which was owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley....


See Universal City
Universal City
Universal City may refer to:In the entertainment industry:* Universal City Studios, an alternate name of Universal Studios* Universal City RecordsThe following places owned by Universal Studios:* Universal City, California...

 Oak Crest Ranch -two locations
see Lasky Ranch  Paramount Ranch
See First National
First National
First National was an association of independent theater owners in the United States that expanded from exhibiting movies to distributing them, and eventually to producing them as a movie studio, called First National Pictures, Inc. It later merged with Warner Bros.-Early history:The First National...


see Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc., also known as Warner Bros. Pictures or simply Warner Bros. , is an American producer of film and television entertainment.One of the major film studios, it is a subsidiary of Time Warner, with its headquarters in Burbank,...

 First National
See Republic Pictures
Republic Pictures
Republic Pictures was an independent film production-distribution corporation with studio facilities, operating from 1934 through 1959, and was best known for specializing in westerns, movie serials and B films emphasizing mystery and action....

 Mac Sennett
See The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company is the largest media conglomerate in the world in terms of revenue. Founded on October 16, 1923, by Walt and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, Walt Disney Productions established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into...


see Columbia Ranch
Columbia Ranch
Columbia Ranch is located in Burbank, California and is now called Warner Ranch .It was the backdrop for many of the Columbia Pictures movies and Screen Gems television shows, including Dennis the Menace, The Donna Reed Show, High Noon, The Wild One, Mr...


see Burbank, California
Burbank, California
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, north of downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population in 2010 was 103,340....


see Movie ranch
Movie ranch
A movie ranch is a ranch that is at least partially dedicated to being used as a site for the creation and production of motion pictures, and television productions...


see David Horsley
David Horsley
David Horsley was an English born pioneer of the movie industry who built the first movie studio in Hollywood....


see Centaur Film Company
Centaur Film Company
Centaur Film Company - Nestor Studios merged with Universal Studios in 1912.-Formation:David Horsley met a former employee of Biograph Studios, Charles Gorman, and along with his brother William Horsley , they formed the Centaur Film Company in a converted store.By 1910, their operation was...


See Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett was a Canadian-born American director and was known as the innovator of slapstick comedy in film. During his lifetime he was known at times as the "King of Comedy"...


see Griffith Park
Griffith Park
Griffith Park is a large municipal park at the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The park covers of land, making it one of the largest urban parks in North America...

  "Birth of a Nation" locations
See Edendale, Los Angeles studios used valley for filming location - Bison/Universal Plant 1912

The Valley in the movies

  • Numerous films were shot from the 1920s–50s at the movie ranch
    Movie ranch
    A movie ranch is a ranch that is at least partially dedicated to being used as a site for the creation and production of motion pictures, and television productions...

    es located in the east and west Valley hills, within the 30 miles (48.3 km) studio zone
    Studio zone
    In the American entertainment industry, the studio zone, also known as the thirty-mile zone or the TMZ, is the area within a 30-mile radius from the intersection of West Beverly Boulevard and North La Cienega Boulevard in Los Angeles, California...

     union range, making some of the Valley scenery very familiar around the world.

Motion pictures set in and about life in the San Fernando Valley have been filmed and produced by many companies in the San Fernando Valley, including:

  • Backfire (1950 film)
    Backfire (1950 film)
    Backfire is a thriller and crime film in the film noir style directed by Vincent Sherman and starring Edmond O'Brien, Virginia Mayo, Gordon MacRae, Viveca Lindfors, and Dane Clark. It was written by Larry Marcus, Ben Roberts, and Ivan Goff. It is notable for launching the film noir careers of its...

  • The Children's Hour (1961), filmed at Shadow Ranch
    Shadow Ranch
    Shadow Ranch is a historic ranch house, built from 1869-1872 using adobe and redwood lumber, on the original Workman Ranch in the western San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California...

    ,
  • Chinatown (1974),
  • The Bad News Bears (1976),
  • Thank God It's Friday
    Thank God It's Friday
    The triple album was, unlike the movie, a commercial success. It contained contributions from some of the biggest names in disco at the time, including Donna Summer, Diana Ross, Thelma Houston, The Commodores, and many others....

     (1978),
  • The Onion Field
    The Onion Field (film)
    The Onion Field is a 1979 American drama film directed by Harold Becker. The screenplay by Joseph Wambaugh is based on his 1973 true crime novel of the same title...

     (1979),
  • Foxes (1980),
  • Fast Times at Ridgemont High
    Fast Times at Ridgemont High
    Fast Times at Ridgemont High is a 1982 American coming-of-age teen comedy film written by Cameron Crowe and adapted from his 1981 book of the same name...

     (1982),
  • E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
    E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
    E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial is a 1982 American science fiction film co-produced and directed by Steven Spielberg, written by Melissa Mathison and starring Henry Thomas, Dee Wallace, Robert MacNaughton, Drew Barrymore, and Peter Coyote...

     (1982),
  • Valley Girl
    Valley Girl (film)
    Valley Girl is a 1983 romantic comedy film, starring Nicolas Cage, Deborah Foreman, Elizabeth Daily, Cameron Dye, and Joyce Heiser. The film was the directorial debut of Martha Coolidge, and was the first film in which Nicolas Coppola was billed as Nicolas Cage.The American release of Valley Girl...

     (1983),
  • Private Teacher (1983),
  • Back to the Future (1985),
  • La Bamba
    La Bamba (film)
    La Bamba is a 1987 American biographical film written and directed by Luis Valdez. The picture features Lou Diamond Phillips, Esai Morales, Rosanna DeSoto, Elizabeth Peña, Danielle von Zerneck, and Joe Pantoliano...

     (1987),
  • Earth Girls Are Easy
    Earth Girls Are Easy
    Earth Girls Are Easy is a 1988 American musical comedy film directed by Julien Temple. It stars Geena Davis, Jeff Goldblum, Michael McKean, Julie Brown, Jim Carrey and Damon Wayans. The film is marketed with the tagline "An out-of-this-world, down-to-earth comedy adventure"...

     (1988),
  • Back to the Future Part II
    Back to the Future Part II
    Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 American science fiction comedy film and the second installment of the Back to the Future trilogy. It was directed by Robert Zemeckis, written by Zemeckis and Bob Gale, and starred Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd, Thomas F. Wilson and Lea Thompson...

     (1989),
  • Back to the Future Part III
    Back to the Future Part III
    Back to the Future Part III is a 1990 American science fiction comedy Western film. It is the third installment of the Back to the Future trilogy. The film was directed by Robert Zemeckis and starred Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd, Mary Steenburgen, Thomas F. Wilson and Lea Thompson. The film...

     (1990),
  • Terminator 2 (1991),

  • Encino Man
    Encino Man
    Encino Man, released in Europe as California Man, is a 1992 comedy film directed by Les Mayfield and starring Brendan Fraser, Sean Astin and Pauly Shore. The plot revolves around two geeky teenagers from Encino, Los Angeles, California played by Astin and Shore, who discover a caveman in their...

     (1992),
  • Clueless (1995),
  • Safe (1995),
  • 2 Days in the Valley
    2 Days in the Valley
    2 Days in the Valley is a 1996 film, directed by John Herzfeld. The film revolves around the events over 48 hours in the lives of a group of people who are drawn together by a murder. Several parallel storylines overlap one another in the film.-Plot:...

     (1996),
  • Boogie Nights
    Boogie Nights
    Boogie Nights is a 1997 drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. Set in Los Angeles's San Fernando Valley, the script focuses on a young nightclub dishwasher who becomes a popular star of pornographic films, and chronicles his rise and fall from the Golden Age of Porn of the 1970s...

     (1997),
  • Magnolia
    Magnolia (film)
    Magnolia is a 1999 American drama film written, produced, and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, narrated by Ricky Jay, and starring Tom Cruise, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, William H. Macy, Julianne Moore, John C. Reilly, and Jason Robards in his last feature film appearance...

     (1999),
  • Mulholland Drive
    Mulholland Drive (film)
    Mulholland Drive is a 2001 American neo-noir psychological thriller written and directed by David Lynch, starring Justin Theroux, Naomi Watts, and Laura Harring. The surrealist film was highly acclaimed by many critics and earned Lynch the Prix de la mise en scène at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival...

     (2001),
  • Punch-Drunk Love
    Punch-Drunk Love
    Punch-Drunk Love is a 2002 romantic comedy-drama written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, starring Adam Sandler and Emily Watson. Philip Seymour Hoffman and Luis Guzmán also appear....

     (2002),
  • Matchstick Men
    Matchstick Men
    Matchstick Men is a 2003 American drama film directed by Ridley Scott. Based on Eric Garcia's novel Matchstick Men: A Novel about Grifters with Issues , the motion picture stars Nicolas Cage, Sam Rockwell, and Alison Lohman.-Plot:...

     (2003),
  • Crash
    Crash (2004 film)
    Crash is a 2004 American drama film co-written, produced, and directed by Paul Haggis. The film is about racial and social tensions in Los Angeles, California. A self-described "passion piece" for Haggis, Crash was inspired by a real life incident in which his Porsche was carjacked outside a video...

     (2004),
  • A Cinderella Story
    A Cinderella Story
    A Cinderella Story is a 2004 American romantic comedy film. The film stars Hilary Duff, Jennifer Coolidge, Chad Michael Murray and Regina King and was directed by Mark Rosman. The film's plot revolves around two Internet pen pals who meet at a school dance and fall in love but two different worlds...

     (2004),
  • Down in the Valley (2005),
  • The 40-Year-Old Virgin
    The 40-Year-Old Virgin
    The 40-Year-Old Virgin is a 2005 American buddy comedy film about a middle-aged man's journey to finally have sex. The film was written and directed by Judd Apatow and co-written by its lead star, Steve Carell, though the film itself features a great deal of improvised dialogue...

     (2005),
  • Superbad (2007),
  • Knocked Up
    Knocked Up
    Knocked Up is a 2007 American romantic comedy drama film co-produced, written, and directed by Judd Apatow. Starring Seth Rogen, Katherine Heigl, Paul Rudd, and Leslie Mann, the film follows the repercussions of a drunken one-night stand between Rogen's slacker character and Heigl's just-promoted...

     (2007),
  • Down for Life
    Down for Life (film)
    Down for Life is a 2010 American dramatic film directed by Alan Jacobs based on the true story of a 15-year old Latino gang leader in Watts, Los Angeles. The story follows one day in her life as she struggles to break away from her gang...

     (2010).
  • Every Which Way But Loose
    Every Which Way But Loose
    Every Which Way But Loose is a 1978 American adventure comedy film, released by Warner Brothers, produced by Robert Daley and directed by James Fargo...

     (1978)
  • Any Which Way You Can
    Any Which Way You Can
    * Beers To You** Written by Steve Dorff , John Durrill , Sandy Pinkard and Snuff Garrett ** Sung by Ray Charles and Clint Eastwood* Any Which Way You Can...

     (1980)

Also taking place in the San Fernando Valley were:
  • The first and third
    The Karate Kid, Part III
    The Karate Kid, Part III is a 1989 martial arts film, and the second sequel to the hit motion picture The Karate Kid . The film stars Ralph Macchio, Noriyuki "Pat" Morita, Thomas Ian Griffith, Robyn Lively, and Martin Kove. Like the first two films, it was directed by John G. Avildsen and written...

     Karate Kid films (1984 and 1989 respectively) were mostly filmed in and about it, while the second
    The Karate Kid, Part II
    The Karate Kid, Part II is a 1986 American martial arts film and is a sequel to 1984's The Karate Kid. Ralph Macchio and Pat Morita reprise their roles as Daniel LaRusso and Mr. Miyagi, respectively. The original music score was composed by Bill Conti...

     entry (1986) starts there but in the six-month flashforward, moves its story to Okinawa, the original home of the main character's mentor Mr. Miyagi.
  • Alpha Dog
    Alpha Dog
    Alpha Dog is a 2007 crime drama film written and directed by Nick Cassavetes, first screened at the Sundance Film Festival on January 27, 2006, with a wide release the following year on January 12, 2007. The film is based on the true story of the kidnapping and murder of 15-year-old Nicholas...

     (2007) was based on a true story that happened in the San Fernando Valley in 2000, and it was mostly filmed in the valley in Fall 2004, but, for legal reasons, it was fictionalized within the film to take place in the San Gabriel Valley
    San Gabriel Valley
    The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, United States. It lies to the east of Los Angeles, to the north of the Puente Hills, to the south of the San Gabriel Mountains, and west of the Inland Empire. It derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows...

     instead.
  • In the 1994 movie Pulp Fiction
    Pulp Fiction (film)
    Pulp Fiction is a 1994 American crime film directed by Quentin Tarantino, who co-wrote its screenplay with Roger Avary. The film is known for its rich, eclectic dialogue, ironic mix of humor and violence, nonlinear storyline, and host of cinematic allusions and pop culture references...

     directed by Quentin Tarantino
    Quentin Tarantino
    Quentin Jerome Tarantino is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, cinematographer and actor. In the early 1990s, he began his career as an independent filmmaker with films employing nonlinear storylines and the aestheticization of violence...

    , the valley is referenced by Samuel L. Jackson
    Samuel L. Jackson
    Samuel Leroy Jackson is an American film and television actor and film producer. After becoming involved with the Civil Rights Movement, he moved on to acting in theater at Morehouse College, and then films. He had several small roles such as in the film Goodfellas before meeting his mentor,...

    's character, Jules, as being a place where Marsellus Wallace had no friends. This was in response to John Travolta
    John Travolta
    John Joseph Travolta is an American actor, dancer and singer. Travolta first became known in the 1970s, after appearing on the television series Welcome Back, Kotter and starring in the box office successes Saturday Night Fever and Grease...

    's character, Vincent, accidentally shooting a man named Marvin, point blank in the face there in broad daylight.
  • During Ghostbusters II
    Ghostbusters II
    Ghostbusters II is a 1989 science fiction comedy film produced and directed by Ivan Reitman. It is the sequel to the 1984 film Ghostbusters and follows the further adventures of a group of parapsychologists and their organization which combats paranormal activities...

     (1989), Bill Murray
    Bill Murray
    William James "Bill" Murray is an American actor and comedian. He first gained national exposure on Saturday Night Live in which he earned an Emmy Award and later went on to star in a number of critically and commercially successful comedic films, including Caddyshack , Ghostbusters , and...

    's character (Peter Venkman) mocks a ghost warlord with this statement: "You know, I have met some dumb blondes in my life, but you take the taco, pal! Only a Carpathian would come back to life now and choose New York! Tasty pick, bonehead! If you had brain one in that huge melon on top of your neck, you would be living the sweet life out in Southern California's beautiful San Fernando Valley!"
  • Though the show never explicitly claims to take place in Southern California, the Brady Bunch was filmed in Southern California, specifically in the San Fernando Valley. The house can still be found in Studio City. The exterior has been altered but it still looks like the famous house.
  • * Some episodes of A&Es Intervention TV Series
    Intervention (TV series)
    Intervention is an American television program about the realities facing addicts of many kinds.Each program follows one or two participants, each of whom has an addiction or other mentally and/or physically damaging problem and believes that they are being filmed for a documentary on their problem...

     featured Tarzana Treatment Centers
    Tarzana Treatment Centers
    Tarzana Treatment Centers is a community-based, non-profit organization providing integrated healthcare that includes behavioral health, primary medical care, mental health and addiction treatment. TTC was incorporated in 1972 as Free Men, Inc., and later changed its name to Tarzana Treatment...

    .
  • My Name Is Earl is set in fictional Camden County. Creator Greg Garcia says:

“ The show doesn’t technically take place anywhere....we like to think it’s anywhere. We don’t really say exactly where it is." The show is filmed in the San Fernando Valley, in Southern California.

Valley songs and recordings

  • Bing Crosby
    Bing Crosby
    Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby was an American singer and actor. Crosby's trademark bass-baritone voice made him one of the best-selling recording artists of the 20th century, with over half a billion records in circulation....

     had a #1 hit song in 1944 called "San Fernando Valley", written by Gordon Jenkins
    Gordon Jenkins
    Gordon Hill Jenkins was an American arranger, composer and pianist who was an influential figure in popular music in the 1940s and 1950s, renowned for his lush string arrangements...

    .
  • Randy Newman
    Randy Newman
    Randall Stuart "Randy" Newman is an American singer-songwriter, arranger, composer, and pianist who is known for his mordant pop songs and for film scores....

    's song "I Love L.A.
    I Love L.A.
    "I Love L.A." is a song about Los Angeles, California written and recorded by Randy Newman. It was originally released on his 1983 album Trouble in Paradise...

    " mentions Ventura Boulevard
    Ventura Boulevard
    Ventura Boulevard is one of the primary east–west thouroughfares in the San Fernando Valley, USA; as it was originally a part of the El Camino Real , Ventura Boulevard is one of the oldest routes in the San Fernando Valley. It was also U.S...

     and Victory Blvd.
  • Roy Rogers' song "Make My Home the San Fernando Valley."
  • The lifestyles of Valley teens
    Valley girl
    Valley Girl is a stereotype leveled at a socio-economic and ethnic class of American women who can be described as colloquial English-speaking and materialistic...

    , the iconic Valley Girl
    Valley girl
    Valley Girl is a stereotype leveled at a socio-economic and ethnic class of American women who can be described as colloquial English-speaking and materialistic...

     in the 1980s, and their slang (Valspeak
    Valspeak
    Valleyspeak or Valspeak is a common name for an American sociolect, originally of Los Angeles, California, in particular Valley girls. This stereotype, which originated in the 1970s, became an international fad for a certain period...

    ), were satirized in the Frank Zappa
    Frank Zappa
    Frank Vincent Zappa was an American composer, singer-songwriter, electric guitarist, record producer and film director. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Zappa wrote rock, jazz, orchestral and musique concrète works. He also directed feature-length films and music videos, and designed...

     song "Valley Girl." The song featured his daughter, Moon Unit Zappa
    Moon Zappa
    Moon Unit Zappa is an American actress, musician and author. She goes by the name Moon Zappa; "Unit" is her middle name.-Personal life:...

    , performing Valspeak (example: "Like, grody to the max!"). Joe's Garage
    Joe's Garage
    Joe's Garage is a 1979 rock opera by Frank Zappa. Zappa stated that along with Lumpy Gravy, this album was one of his finest achievements. It was originally released as two separate albums, the first comprising Act I, and the second part as a double-album which made up Acts II & III. All three...

     takes place in Canoga Park. "Dummy Up" and "The Blue Light" mention Reseda, both in a drugs-related theme.
  • The protagonist of Tom Petty
    Tom Petty
    Thomas Earl "Tom" Petty is an American singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. He is the frontman of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers and was a founding member of the late 1980s supergroup Traveling Wilburys and Mudcrutch. He has also performed under the pseudonyms of Charlie T...

    's song "Free Fallin'
    Free Fallin'
    "Free Fallin" is the opening track from Tom Petty's 1989 solo album, Full Moon Fever. The song was written by Petty and his writing partner for the album, Jeff Lynne...

    " has ended a relationship with a valley girl, and mentions various locations and landmarks associated with the area: "It's a long day living in Reseda," "all the vampires walkin' through the Valley/ move west down Ventura Boulevard
    Ventura Boulevard
    Ventura Boulevard is one of the primary east–west thouroughfares in the San Fernando Valley, USA; as it was originally a part of the El Camino Real , Ventura Boulevard is one of the oldest routes in the San Fernando Valley. It was also U.S...

    ," and "I wanna glide down over Mulholland
    Mulholland Drive
    Mulholland Drive is a street and road in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California. It is named after Los Angeles pioneer civil engineer William Mulholland...

    ."
  • Soul Coughing
    Soul Coughing
    Soul Coughing was a popular New York-based alternative rock band. The band found modest mainstream success during the mid-to-late 1990s. Soul Coughing developed a devout fanbase and have garnered largely positive response from critics. Steve Huey describes the band as "one of the most unusual cult...

    's song "Screenwriter's Blues" describes a person who is "going to Reseda
    Reseda, Los Angeles, California
    Reseda is a San Fernando Valley district in the city of Los Angeles, California.-History:The area now known as Reseda was originally inhabited by Native Americans of the Tongva tribe that lived close to the Los Angeles River....

     to make love to a model."
  • The Sovernty's debut album "Turning The Page", was recorded in Northridge.
  • Waking Ashland
    Waking Ashland
    Waking Ashland was an American rock band from San Diego, California. Formed in 2003, they were signed to Tooth and Nail and Immortal Records. In all the group released two EPs and two full-length albums before their disestablishment in 2007...

     has a song named Reseda.
  • Bryan Ferry
    Bryan Ferry
    Bryan Ferry, CBE is an English singer, musician, and songwriter. Ferry came to public prominence in the early 1970s as lead vocalist and principal songwriter with the band Roxy Music, who enjoyed a highly successful career with three number one albums and ten singles entering the top ten charts in...

     mentions that "Canoga Park is a straight safe drive" in "Can't Let Go" on The Bride Stripped Bare
    The Bride Stripped Bare (album)
    The Bride Stripped Bare is a 1978 solo album by Bryan Ferry and is his fifth album released independent of Roxy Music. It was recorded after his girlfriend Jerry Hall left him for Mick Jagger in 1977, and appears to contain references to their break-up....

    .
  • "Gone Country" by Alan Jackson
    Alan Jackson
    Alan Eugene Jackson is an American country music singer, known for blending traditional honky tonk and mainstream country sounds and penning many of his own hits. He has recorded 13 studio albums, 3 Greatest Hits albums, 2 Holiday albums, 1 Gospel album and several compilations, all on the Arista...

     features the line: "He commutes to L.A., but he's got a house in the valley..."
  • "Van Nuys" by Sixx:A.M.
    Sixx:A.M.
    Sixx:A.M. is a hard rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 2007 by Nikki Sixx, DJ Ashba, and James Michael, and is the side project of Sixx, who is also the bass guitarist for Mötley Crüe. The group is best known for their songs "Life Is Beautiful" and "Lies of the Beautiful People". The...

     released in 2007 on the album "The Heroin Diaries Soundtrack."
  • "Van Nuys (Es Very Nice)" by Los Abandoned
    Los Abandoned
    Los Abandoned was an American alternative rock band from the Los Angeles, California area. The band's lyrics were in Spanish and English, or a combination of the two known as Spanglish...

     is a lament about the many immigrants who have left their country for the seemingly mundane and uncomfortable lifestyle in Van Nuys: "The summer's hot, it's hell the bus is always late/ The great big cloud of smog that makes you choke and hate/ Y dejaste tu pais por esto?"
  • Phantom Planet
    Phantom Planet
    Phantom Planet are an American alternative rock band from Southern California. Formed in 1994 in Los Angeles, the band consists of Alex Greenwald , Darren Robinson , Sam Farrar and Jeff Conrad . The band is best known for its track "California", which became the theme song for the Fox TV series,...

     sang about the Sherman Oaks Galleria
    Sherman Oaks Galleria
    Sherman Oaks Galleria is a shopping mall and business center located in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States, at the corner of Ventura and Sepulveda Boulevards in the San Fernando Valley....

     in "The Galleria."
  • Rock band Smile Empty Soul
    Smile Empty Soul
    Smile Empty Soul is an American post-grunge band from Santa Clarita, California.-History:Smile Empty Soul formed in 1998, while its original members were attending different high schools in the Santa Clarita area...

    's 2009 album Consciousness
    Consciousness (album)
    - References :# http://tunelab.com/2009/05/31/smile-empty-soul-select-new-single/# # http://music.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=music.artistalbums&artistid=4588478&albumid=13289764...

     features the song "Ban Nuys" – referring to the community of Van Nuys.
  • Punk band
    Punk rock
    Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock...

     Bad Religion
    Bad Religion
    Bad Religion is a punk rock band that formed in Los Angeles in 1979. Their current line-up consists of Greg Graffin , Brett Gurewitz , Jay Bentley , Greg Hetson , Brian Baker and Brooks Wackerman . Gurewitz is also the founder of the label Epitaph Records, which has released almost all of the...

     have a song called "Fuck Armageddon... This is Hell" written about growing up in Woodland Hills.
  • Rap rock
    Rap rock
    Rap rock is a cross-genre fusing vocal and instrumental elements of hip hop with various forms of rock. Rap rock is often confused with rap metal and rapcore, subgenres that include heavy metal-oriented and hardcore punk-oriented bands, respectively....

     band Hollywood Undead
    Hollywood Undead
    Hollywood Undead is an American rap rock band from Los Angeles, California. They released their debut album, Swan Songs, on September 2, 2008, and their live CD/DVD Desperate Measures, on November 10, 2009. Their second studio album, American Tragedy, was released April 5, 2011...

     feature the song "California" in their 2008 album Swan Songs
    Swan Songs (Hollywood Undead album)
    Swan Songs is the debut album by Hollywood Undead, released through Octone Records. The album was released on September 2, 2008. "Everywhere I Go" was the first single to be released, it was a web single and was available for download only on iTunes...

    , in which the first two lines after the chorus say "Comin` straight out of Cali (what)! the 818 valley (what)!"

Valley in books

  • The Onion Field
    The Onion Field
    The Onion Field is a 1973 nonfiction book by Joseph Wambaugh, a sergeant for the Los Angeles Police Department, chronicling the kidnapping of two plainclothes LAPD officers by a pair of criminals during an evening traffic stop and the subsequent murder of Officer Ian James Campbell.- Crime :On the...

    ; Joseph Wambaugh
    Joseph Wambaugh
    Joseph Aloysius Wambaugh, Jr. is a bestselling American writer known for his fictional and non-fictional accounts of police work in the United States...

     (1973)
  • Tortilla Curtain; by T. C. Boyle
  • "various books"; Catherine Mulholland
  • Hoyt St; Mary Helen Ponce (1993)
  • "Less Than Zero"; Bret Easton Ellis
    Bret Easton Ellis
    Bret Easton Ellis is an American novelist and short story writer. His works have been translated into 27 different languages. He was regarded as one of the so-called literary Brat Pack, which also included Tama Janowitz and Jay McInerney...

     (1985)
  • A Year in Van Nuys; Sandra Tsing Loh
    Sandra Tsing Loh
    Sandra Tsing Loh is a Los Angeles, California-based writer, actress, performance-artist, pop-culture analyst, and radio commentator.-Biography:Loh is the daughter of a Chinese father and a German mother...

     (2001)

See also

Places:
  • Rancho Los Encinos
    Rancho Los Encinos
    Rancho Los Encinos was a Spanish grazing concession, and later Mexican land granted cattle and sheep rancho and travelers way-station on the El Camino Real in the San Fernando Valley, in present day Encino, Los Angeles County, California...

  • Rancho El Escorpión
    Rancho El Escorpión
    Rancho El Escorpión was a Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1845 by Governor Pío Pico to three Chumash Native Americans - Odón Eusebia, Urbano, and Mañuel....

  • Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando
    Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando
    Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando was a Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California granted in 1846 by Governor Pío Pico to Eulogio de Celis...

  • CSUN Botanic Garden
    California State University Northridge Botanic Garden
    The California State University Northridge Botanic Garden or CSUN Botanic Garden is located in the northern San Fernando Valley, in the southeast section of the California State University, Northridge campus in the community of Northridge in Los Angeles, California.The site includes a botanical...

Information:
  • List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley
  • History of the San Fernando Valley to 1915
    History of the San Fernando Valley to 1915
    The history of the San Fernando Valley from its exploration by the 1769 Portola expedition to the annexation of much of it by the City of Los Angeles in 1915 is a story of booms and busts, as cattle ranching, sheep ranching, large-scale wheat farming, and fruit orchards flourished and faded...

  • Los Angeles Times suburban sections
    Los Angeles Times suburban sections
    The Los Angeles Times suburban sections or zone sections were printed between 1952 and 2001 as adjuncts to the main newspaper to cover the news of and sell advertising space in various parts of Southern California that the Times considered to be in the prime part of its circulation area...


Geography of Los Angeles County
Adjacent regions:
  • Crescenta Valley
    Crescenta Valley
    The Crescenta Valley is a small inland valley in Los Angeles County, California lying between the San Gabriel Mountains on the northeast and the Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills on the southwest. It opens into the San Fernando Valley at the northwest and the San Gabriel Valley at the southeast...

  • San Gabriel Valley
    San Gabriel Valley
    The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, United States. It lies to the east of Los Angeles, to the north of the Puente Hills, to the south of the San Gabriel Mountains, and west of the Inland Empire. It derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows...

  • Santa Clarita Valley
    Santa Clarita Valley
    The Santa Clarita Valley is the valley of the Santa Clara River in Southern California. It stretches through Los Angeles County and Ventura County. Its main population center is the city of Santa Clarita. The valley was part of the Rancho San Francisco Mexican land grant...

  • Santa Clara River Valley
    Santa Clara River Valley
    The Santa Clara River Valley is a valley that runs from east to west through Ventura County and northwest Los Angeles County, California...

  • Simi Valley
    Simi Valley
    Simi Valley is a synclinal valley in Southern California in the United States. It is an enclosed or hidden valley surrounded by mountains and hills. It is connected to the San Fernando Valley to the east by the Santa Susana Pass & 118 freeway, and in the west the narrows of the Arroyo Simi and 118...

  • Conejo Valley
    Conejo Valley
    The Conejo Valley is a region spanning both southeastern Ventura County and northwestern Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States...

Sociological:
  • Valley Girl
    Valley girl
    Valley Girl is a stereotype leveled at a socio-economic and ethnic class of American women who can be described as colloquial English-speaking and materialistic...

  • FFF (gang)
    FFF (gang)
    Fight For Freedom, more commonly known as FFF, was a gang that was centered in the San Fernando Valley during the 1980s. Unique to this gang in its locale and time was that the group generally consisted of White Americans from middle class and upper middle class backgrounds...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK