Russian passport
Russian passports are of two types: domestic passports issued to citizens of Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 for the purpose of certifying identity, international passports are issued for the purpose of international travel.

Internal passport

The Russian internal passport
Internal passport
An internal passport is an identity document used in some countries to control the internal movement and residence of its people. Countries that currently have internal passports include Russia, Ukraine, China and North Korea...

is the primary identity document
Identity document
An identity document is any document which may be used to verify aspects of a person's personal identity. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card...

 for citizens of the Russian Federation residing in Russia. It is initially issued at the age of 14 by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del is the interior ministry of Russia. Its predecessor was founded in 1802 by Alexander I in Imperial Russia...

, and has to be renewed at the ages of 20 and 45. Every citizen over 14 residing in Russia is required to have a valid internal passport.

The passport contains the full name, sex, date and place of birth and a photograph of the bearer. It also contains remarks about the holder's registered home address, military duty, marital status, children under 14, other internal and foreign passports issued by the Russian authorities, blood type (optional) and individual taxpayer identification number (also optional). Any unauthorized remarks render the passport invalid. All the data is filled in Russian.

The Russian police will sometimes do random ID checks to look for draft
Conscription is the compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of national service, most often military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names...

 dodgers, illegal immigrants, people who don't have the proper registration, etc.

The Russian internal passport is also a valid identity document in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, in addition its holder is free to enter the republics of Abkhazia
Abkhazia is a disputed political entity on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny...

 and South Ossetia
South Ossetia
South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region is a disputed region and partly recognized state in the South Caucasus, located in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic....

 (read more in 2008 Ossetia War). Passport for travel abroad (in sometimes translated as international passport or foreign passport) is required for travel abroad to all other countries.

In November 2010 Federal Migration Service had made an announcement of possible cancellation of internal passports with a replacement with plastic ID-cards or drivers licenses.

International passport

Two types of passports are being issued now in Russia: old type passport and new type biometric passport. Old type passport is currently valid for only 5 years, biometric passport issued before March 1st 2010 is valid for 5 years too. Contemporary biometric passports issued after March 1st 2010 are valid for 10 years and they are also have increased number of pages to 46 (from 36 for the old type passports).

A citizen can be denied a passport for travel abroad, and hence the right to leave Russia if (s)he:
  • had, in order to get access to classified information
    Classified information
    Classified information is sensitive information to which access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of persons. A formal security clearance is required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation...

    , signed a contract with the government that included a provision restricting his/her right to leave the country;
  • has been conscripted to the military or alternative civil service;
  • is a defendant under criminal prosecution or convicted by court (with unspent conviction);
  • is in breach of a court order;
  • provided false information in his/her application.

Children under 18 travelling without being accompanied by at least one parent must have written consent of both parents certified by a notary.

In addition to the standard zagranichny pasport there are three special-purpose types of passports for traveling abroad: diplomatic passport, service passport (issued to government employees going abroad on official business) and seaman's passport.

Data page and Signature page of the International passport

Each passport has a data page and a signature page. Illustration: data page and signature page – right.

A data page has a visual zone and a machine-readable zone. The visual zone has a digitized photograph of the passport holder, data about the passport, and data about the passport holder:
  • Photograph
  • Type [of document, which is "P" for "passport"]
  • Code [of the issuing country, which is "RUS" for "Russian Federation"]
  • Passport Series and No.
  • Surname
  • Given Name(s)
  • Nationality [which is "Russian Federation"]
  • Date of Birth
  • Place of Birth (lists only the city and "USSR" for people born before 1992 or "RUSSIA" for people born after 1992)
  • Sex
  • Date of Issue
  • Date of Expiration
  • Authority

At the bottom of a data page is the machine-readable zone, which can be read both visually and by an optical scanner. The machine-readable zone consists of two lines. There are no blank spaces in either line. A space which does not contain a letter or a number is filled with "<".

The first line of a machine-readable zone of a passport contains a letter to denote the type of travel document ("P" for passport), the code for the citizenship of the passport holder (e.g., "RUS" for "Russian Federation"), and the name (surname first, then given name or names) of the passport holder.

The second line of a machine-readable zone of a passport contains the passport number, supplemented by a check digit; the code of the issuing country (e.g., "RUS" for "Russian Federation"); the date of birth of the passport holder, supplemented by a check digit; a notation of the sex of the passport holder ("M" or "F"); the date of expiration of the passport, supplemented by a check digit; and, at the end of the line, one overall check digit.

A signature page has a line for the signature of a passport holder. A passport is not valid until it is signed by the passport holder.

See also

  • Visa requirements for Russian citizens
    Visa requirements for Russian citizens
    Holders of the ordinary Russian passport for travel abroad traveling as tourists may visit at least 96 countries visa-free or with a visa-on-arrival. Reciprocal visa-free travel agreements are already signed or currently negotiated - but not yet in force - with Bangladesh, Ecuador Holders of the...

  • Passport system in the Soviet Union
    Passport system in the Soviet Union
    The Soviet passport is an identity document issued upon the laws of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics for the citizen of the USSR. For the general purposes of identity certification Soviet passports contained such data as name, date of birth, sex, place of birth, nationality and citizenship...

  • Propiska
    Propiska was both a residence permit and migration recording tool in the Russian Empire before 1917 and from 1930s in the Soviet Union. It was documented in local police registers and certified with a stamp in internal passports....

  • Wolf ticket (Russia)
    Wolf ticket (Russia)
    Wolf ticket is a literal translation of the Russian language term волчий билет , a colloquial expression to denote a version of a document with restrictive clauses in comparison to the full document...

  • 101st kilometre
    101st kilometre
    101st kilometre is a colloquial name for the law restricting freedom of movement in the Soviet Union.In the Soviet Union, the rights of an inmate released from the prison would typically still be restricted for a long period of time...

  • Closed cities

External links

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