Identity document
Overview
 
An identity document is any document
Documentation
Documentation is a term used in several different ways. Generally, documentation refers to the process of providing evidence.Modules of Documentation are Helpful...

 which may be used to verify aspects of a person's personal identity
Identity (philosophy)
In philosophy, identity, from , is the relation each thing bears just to itself. According to Leibniz's law two things sharing every attribute are not only similar, but are the same thing. The concept of sameness has given rise to the general concept of identity, as in personal identity and...

. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). In some countries the possession of a government-produced identity card is compulsory while in others it may be voluntary. In countries which do not have formal identity documents, informal ones may in some circumstances be required.

In the absence of a formal identity document, some countries accept driving licences as the most effective method of proof of identity.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
An identity document is any document
Documentation
Documentation is a term used in several different ways. Generally, documentation refers to the process of providing evidence.Modules of Documentation are Helpful...

 which may be used to verify aspects of a person's personal identity
Identity (philosophy)
In philosophy, identity, from , is the relation each thing bears just to itself. According to Leibniz's law two things sharing every attribute are not only similar, but are the same thing. The concept of sameness has given rise to the general concept of identity, as in personal identity and...

. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). In some countries the possession of a government-produced identity card is compulsory while in others it may be voluntary. In countries which do not have formal identity documents, informal ones may in some circumstances be required.

In the absence of a formal identity document, some countries accept driving licences as the most effective method of proof of identity. Most countries accept passport
Passport
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

s as a form of identification.

Most countries have the rule that foreign citizens need to have their passport or occasionally a national identity card from their country available at any time if they do not have residence permit in the country.

Information included in ID documents

Information present on the document or in a supporting database
Database
A database is an organized collection of data for one or more purposes, usually in digital form. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality , in a way that supports processes requiring this information...

 might include the bearer's full name, a portrait photo, age, birth date, address
Address (geography)
An address is a collection of information, presented in a mostly fixed format, used for describing the location of a building, apartment, or other structure or a plot of land, generally using political boundaries and street names as references, along with other identifiers such as house or...

, an identification number, profession
Profession
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain....

 or rank, religion
Religion
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

, ethnic or racial classification, restrictions, and citizenship
Citizenship
Citizenship is the state of being a citizen of a particular social, political, national, or human resource community. Citizenship status, under social contract theory, carries with it both rights and responsibilities...

 status. New technologies
Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

 could allow identity cards to contain biometric
Biometrics
Biometrics As Jain & Ross point out, "the term biometric authentication is perhaps more appropriate than biometrics since the latter has been historically used in the field of statistics to refer to the analysis of biological data [36]" . consists of methods...

 information, such as photograph
Photograph
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic imager such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of...

s, face, hand
Hand geometry
Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file....

 or iris measurements, or fingerprint
Fingerprint
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges...

s. Electronic identity card
Electronic identity card
The electronic identity card or EIC is a government-issued document for online and offline identification. Belgium, Italy as well as other countries are currently issuing EICs which will replace conventional identity cards in most European countries in the future...

s or e-IDs are already available in some territories such as Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, Malaysia, Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 and Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

.

Adoption of identity cards

The universal adoption of identity cards is supported by law enforcement officials who claim that it will make surveillance and identification of criminals easier. However, concern is also expressed about the extensive cost and potential abuse of hi-tech smartcards.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 especially, government-issued compulsory identity cards or, more precisely, their centralised database are a source of debate as they are regarded as an infringement of privacy
Privacy
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively...

 and civil liberties
Civil liberties
Civil liberties are rights and freedoms that provide an individual specific rights such as the freedom from slavery and forced labour, freedom from torture and death, the right to liberty and security, right to a fair trial, the right to defend one's self, the right to own and bear arms, the right...

. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralised and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data. A 2006 survey of UK Open University
Open University
The Open University is a distance learning and research university founded by Royal Charter in the United Kingdom...

 students concluded that the planned compulsory identity card under the Identity Cards Act 2006 coupled with a central government database generated the most negative attitudinal response among several alternative configurations.

Arguments for

  • In order to avoid mismatching people, and to fight fraud
    Fraud
    In criminal law, a fraud is an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual; the related adjective is fraudulent. The specific legal definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Fraud is a crime, and also a civil law violation...

    , there should be way, as a secure as possible, to prove a persons identity.
  • Every human being already carries one's own personal identification in the form of one's DNA
    DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

    , which cannot be falsified or discarded. Even for non-state commercial and private interactions, this may shortly become the preferred identifier
    Identifier
    An identifier is a name that identifies either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical [countable] object , or physical [noncountable] substance...

    , rendering a state-issued identity card a lesser evil than the potentially extensive privacy risks associated with everyday use of a person's genetic profile for identification purposes.

Arguments against

Arguments against identity documents as such:
  • The cost of introducing and administering an identity card system can be very high. Figures from £30 (US$60) to £90 or even higher have been suggested for the proposed UK ID card. However, this argument is also refuted, because in countries like Chile the identity card only costs up to 6 pounds.


Arguments against national identity documents:
  • Rather than focus on government-issued ID cards, federal policy has the alternative to encourage the variety of identification systems that exist in the private marketplace today. Many of the private systems already provide better assurance of identity and trustworthiness than many government-issued ID cards.


Arguments against overuse or abuse of identity documents:
  • Cards with centralised database could be used to track anyone's movements and private life, thus endangering privacy
    Privacy
    Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively...

    . The proposed British ID card (see next section) will involve a series of linked databases, to be managed by the private sector. Managing disparate linked systems using a range of institutions and any number of personnel is alleged to be a security disaster in the making.

National policies

According to Privacy International
Privacy International
Privacy International is a UK-based non-profit organisation formed in 1990, "as a watchdog on surveillance and privacy invasions by governments and corporations." PI has organised campaigns and initiatives in more than fifty countries and is based in London, UK.-Formation, background and...

, , possession of identity cards was compulsory in about 100 countries, though what constitutes "compulsory" varies. In some countries, it is compulsory to have an identity card when a person reaches a prescribed age. The penalty for non-possession is usually a fine, but in some cases it may result in detention until identity is established. In practice, random checks are rare, except in certain times.

A number of countries do not have national identity cards. These include Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 (see below), Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

A number of countries have voluntary identity card schemes. These include Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 (see France section), Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 (however, all citizens of Hungary must have at least one of: valid passport, photocard driving licence, or the National ID card), Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 and Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

's scheme was scrapped in January 2011 and the database was destroyed.

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, states issue optional identity cards for people who do not hold a driver's license as an alternate means of identification. These cards are issued by the same organization responsible for driver's licenses, usually called the Department of Motor Vehicles
Department of Motor Vehicles
In the United States of America, a Department of Motor Vehicles is a state-level government agency that administers vehicle registration and driver licensing. Similar departments exist in Canada...

.

For the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
Western Sahara is a disputed territory in North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its surface area amounts to . It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly...

, pre-1975 Spanish identity cards are the main proof that they were Saharaui citizens as opposed to recent Moroccan colonists. They would thus be allowed to vote in an eventual self-determination referendum
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

.

Some companies and government departments issue ID cards for security purposes; they may also be proof of a qualification. For example, all taxicab drivers in the UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 carry ID cards. Managers, supervisors, and operatives in construction in the UK have a photographic ID card, the CSCS (Construction Skills Certification Scheme) card, indicating training and skills including safety training. Those working on UK railway lands near working lines must carry a photographic ID card to indicate training in track safety (PTS and other cards) possession of which is dependent on periodic and random alcohol and drug screening. In Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

 and Western Australia
Western Australia
Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

, anyone working with children has to take a background check
Background check
A background check or background investigation is the process of looking up and compiling criminal records, commercial records and financial records of an individual....

 and get issued a Blue Card or Working with Children Card, respectively.

Egypt

It is compulsory for all Egyptian citizens age 16 or older to possess ID card (Arabic:betaket tahkik shakhsia)for:
  • Opening or closing a bank account
  • Registering at a school or university
  • Buying a mobile phone and registering the number
  • Interacting with most government agencies, including:
    • Applying for or renewing a driver's license
    • Applying for a passport
    • Applying for any social services or grants
    • Registering to vote, and voting in elections
    • Registering as a taxpayer

some issue about the quality of the photo , religion and name of husband in married women ID

Tunisia

Every citizen of Tunisia should get an ID card by the age of 18. But it still possible to get it earlier with the agreement of one of the parents.

Gambia, The

All Gambian citizens 18 years of age and older are required to have a Gambian National Identity Card. In July 2009, a new biometric Identity card was introduced. A biometric National Identity card is one of the acceptable documents required to apply for a Gambian Driver License.

Mauritius

Mauritius requires all citizens who have reached the age of 18 to apply for a National Identity Card. The National Identity Card is one of the few accepted forms of identification, along with passports. A National Identiy Card is needed to apply for a passport for all adults, and all minors must take with them the National Identity Card of a parent when applying for a passport.

South Africa

All South African citizens and permanent residents
South African nationality law
South Africa rewrote its nationality law since the end of Apartheid in 1994 and the establishment of majority rule in the country under the African National Congress...

, aged 16 years and older, must be in possession of an identity document. The South African identity document resembles a passport but is not valid as a travel document or outside South Africa. Although carrying the document is not required in daily life, it is necessary to show the document or a certified copy as proof of identity when:
  • Signing some contracts, including
    • Opening or closing a bank account
    • Registering at a school or university
    • Buying a mobile phone
      Mobile phone
      A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

       and registering the number
  • Interacting with most government agencies, including
    • Applying for or renewing a driver's license or firearm licence
    • Applying for a passport
    • Applying for any social services or grants
    • Registering to vote, and voting in elections
    • Registering as a taxpayer or for unemployment insurance

The South African "ID Book" used to also contain driving and firearm licences, but these documents are now issued separately in a card format.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabweans are required to apply for National Registration at the age of sixteen. They are issued with an aluminium card with a photograph and their particulars anodised onto it. Along with drivers licences, the National Registration Card is universally accepted as proof of identity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabweans are required by law to carry positive identification on them at all times, and visitors to Zimbabwe are expected to carry passports.

Bangladesh

Biometric identification has existed in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 since 2008. All Bangladeshis who are 18 years of age and older are included in a central Biometric Database, which is used by the Bangladesh Election Commission to oversee the electoral procedure in Bangladesh. All Bangladeshis are issued with an NID Card which can be used to obtain a passport, driving licence, credit card, and to register land ownership.

China, People's Republic of

The People's Republic of China requires every citizen above the age of 16 to carry an identity card. The card is the only acceptable legal document to obtain a resident permit, employment, open bank accounts, obtain passport, driver licence, application for tertiary education and technical colleges, and in security checkpoints in domestic terminals of Chinese airports.

Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Identity Card (or HKID) is an official identity document issued by the Immigration Department of Hong Kong
Immigration Department (Hong Kong)
The Immigration Department of the Government of Hong Kong is responsible for immigration control of Hong Kong. After the People's Republic of China assumed sovereignty of the territory in July 1997, Hong Kong's immigration system remained largely unchanged from its British predecessor model...

 to all people who hold the right of abode, right to land or other forms of limited stay longer than 180 days in Hong Kong. According to Basic Law of Hong Kong, all permanent residents are eligible to obtain the Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card which states that the holder has the right of abode in Hong Kong
Right of abode issue, Hong Kong
The right of abode in Hong Kong is the right to legally reside in Hong Kong and was governed by rules both under British and Chinese administration. As the People's Republic of China stood to resume sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997, the nationality of Hong Kongers as well as their right of abode...

.

India

Multi-purpose national identity cards, carrying 16 personal details and a unique identification number are issued to citizens above 18 years of age since 2007. Biometric data such as fingerprints and a digital signature are contained in a microchip embedded in the card. On it are details of the holder's date and place of birth and a unique 16-digit National Identification Number. The card has a SCOSTA micro-processor chip with a memory of 16 KB which is secured against tampering.

Indonesia

Residents over 17 are required to have the KTP (Kartu Tanda Penduduk) identity card.
The card will identify the citizenship whether as Indonesian citizen or Foreign citizen.

The government starts a two-year ID issuance campaign (starting 2011) that utilise smartcard technology and biometric deduplication of fingerprint and iris. This ID, so called, Electronic KTP (e-KTP), will replace the conventional ID (KTP) in the beginning of 2013. By 2013, approximately 172 million residences would have e-KTP issued to them.

Iran

Every permanent resident of Iran above the age of 15, whether a citizen or not, must hold a valid National Identity Card
Iranian national identity card
Every permanent resident of Iran above the age of 15, whether a citizen or not, must hold a valid National Identity Card or at least obtain their unique National Number from any of the local Vital Records branches of the Ministry of Interior.In order to apply for an NID card, the applicant must be...

 (Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

:کارت ملی) or at least obtain their unique National Number from any of the local Vital Records branches of the Ministry of Interior.

In order to apply for an NID card, the applicant must be at least 15 years old and have a picture attached to their Birth Certificate
Birth certificate
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth...

- which is done by the Vital Records.

Starting June 21, 2008, the NID cards are compulsory for many things in Iran and Iranian Missions abroad (e.g. obtaining a passport, driver's license, any banking procedure,etc.)

Iraq

Every Iraqi
Iraqi people
The Iraqi people or Mesopotamian people are natives or inhabitants of the country of Iraq, known since antiquity as Mesopotamia , with a large diaspora throughout the Arab World, Europe, the Americas, and...

 citizen must have a personal/national card in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

.

Israel

Israeli law requires every permanent resident above the age of 16, whether a citizen or not, to carry an identification card called te'udat zehut in Hebrew or biţāqat huwīya in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

.

The card is designed in a bilingual form, printed in Hebrew and Arabic, but the personal data is presented only in Hebrew. The card must be presented to an official on duty (e.g. a policeman) upon request, but if the resident is unable to do this, one may contact the relevant authority within five days to avoid a penalty.

Until the mid-1990s ,the identification card was considered the only legally reliable document for many actions such as voting, opening a bank account, etc. Since then, the new Israeli driver's licenses which include photos and some extra personal information are now considered equally reliable for most of these transactions. In other situations any government-issued photo ID, such as a passport or a military ID, may suffice.

Japan

Japanese citizens are not required to have identification documents with them within the territory of Japan. When necessary, official documents, such as driving licence, basic resident registration card http://www.soumu.go.jp/english/lab/index.html, radio operator licence http://www.tele.soumu.go.jp/e/sys/operator/index.htm, social insurance card or passport are generally used and accepted. On the other hand, foreigners are required to carry their passport unless they have an Alien registration card
Alien registration in Japan
is a system used to record information regarding aliens resident in Japan. It is handled at the municipal level, parallel to the koseki and juminhyo systems used to record information regarding Japanese nationals.Foreigners staying in Japan for more than 90 days are required to register...

.

Macau

The Macau Special Administrative Region Resident Identity Card
Macau Special Administrative Region Resident Identity Card
The Macau Special Administrative Region Resident Identity Card is an official identity card valid in the Macau Special Administrative Region. There are two types for Resident Identity Cards: one for permanent residents, and one for non-permanent residents....

 is an official identity document issued by the Identification Department to permanent residents and non-permanent residents.

Malaysia

In Malaysia, the MyKad, or Government Multipurpose Card, (GMPC) is the official compulsory identity card. It is regarded as the world's first smart identity card. Part of the Multimedia Super Corridor flagship applications, it was officially launched on 5 September 2001 and incorporates a microchip
Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

, which contains several items of data including biometrics
Biometrics
Biometrics As Jain & Ross point out, "the term biometric authentication is perhaps more appropriate than biometrics since the latter has been historically used in the field of statistics to refer to the analysis of biological data [36]" . consists of methods...

. As of 2006, MyKad has eight current and several planned applications which are mostly related to proof of identity or electronic money
Electronic money
Electronic money is money or scrip that is only exchanged electronically. Typically, this involves the use of computer networks, the internet and digital stored value systems...

. From March 2003, a variant issuable to newborn babies was introduced, known as MyKid.

Malaysia has had an Identity Card system in place since the 50s. Prior to the launch of the MyKad, the Malaysian identity card was called Kad Pengenalan Malaysia. Citizens above the age of 12 are required to apply for an identity card, and are required to renew the card at the age of 18.

Pakistan

In Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, all adult citizens must register for the Computerized National Identity Card (CNIC), with a unique number, at age 18. CNIC serves as an identification document to authenticate an individual's identity as the citizen of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.

Earlier on, National Identity Cards (NICs) were issued to citizens of Pakistan. Now government has shifted all its existing records of National Identity Cards (NIC) to the central computerized database managed by NADRA.
New CNIC's are machine readable and have security features such as facial and finger print informantion.

Singapore

In Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, every citizen, and permanent resident (PR) must register at the age of 15 for an Identity Card (IC). The card is necessary not only for procedures of state but also in the day-to-day transactions of registering for a mobile phone line, obtaining certain discounts at stores, and logging on to certain websites on the internet. Schools frequently use it to identify students, both on-line and in exams.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

, all citizens over the age of 16 need to apply for a National Identity Card
National identity card (Sri Lanka)
The National Identity Card is the identity document in use in Sri Lanka. It is compulsory for all Sri Lankan citizens who are sixteen years of age and older to have their NICs. NICs are issued from the...

 (NIC). Each NIC has a unique 10 digit number, in the format 000000000A (where 0 is a digit and A is a letter). The first two digits of the number are your year of birth (e.g.: 93xxxxxxxx for someone born in 1993). The final letter is generally a 'V' or 'X'. An NIC number is required to apply for a passport (over 16), driving license (over 18) and to vote (over 18). In addition, all citizens are required to carry their NIC on them at all times as proof of identity, given the security situation in the country. NICs are not issued to non-citizens, who are still required to carry some form of photo identification (such as a photocopy of their passport or foreign driving license) at all times. At time the Postal ID card may also be used.

Republic of China (Taiwan)

The "Republic of China National Identification Card" is issued to all Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 citizens who have a household registration in the Taiwan Area
Free Area of the Republic of China
The Free area of the Republic of China is a legal and political description referring to the territories under the control of the government of Republic of China , consisting of the island groups of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and some minor islands...

. The Identification Card is used for virtually all other activities that require identity verification within Taiwan such as opening bank accounts, renting apartments, employment applications
Application for employment
An application for employment, job application, or application form is a form or collection of forms that an individual seeking employment, called an applicant, must fill out as part of the process of informing an employer of the applicant's availability and desire to be employed, and persuading...

 and voting. It is the possession of the Republic of China National Identification Card and not the ROC Passport which grants the holder the right of abode
Right of abode
The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country. A person who has the right of abode in a country does not need permission from the government to enter the country and can live and work there without restriction....

 within the Taiwan Area.

The Identification Card contains the holder's photo, ID number, Chinese name, and (Minguo calendar
Minguo calendar
The Republic of China calendar is the method of numbering years currently used in the Republic of China . It was used in mainland China from 1912 until the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949....

) date of birth.

The back of the card also contains the person's registered address where official correspondence is sent, parents', and even spouse's names.

If the person moves, one must re-register at a municipal office .

Unlike the Republic of China passport which can be issued overseas at Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office
A Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office , sometimes known as a Taipei Economic and Cultural Office or a Taipei Representative Office , is a representative office, established by the Republic of China in countries that have diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China...

s, the National Identification Card is issued only in Taiwan at municipal offices. Dual Passport holders that have a household registration can apply for the Identification Card only after they enter Taiwan using a Republic of China Passport.

United Arab Emirates

Emirates Identity Authority is responsible for the processing of residents and nationals for the mandatory identity card and population register in the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

.

European Union

Within the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, identity cards meeting a European standard can also be used by European citizens as a travel document
Travel document
A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of persons across international boundaries...

 in place of a passport
Passport
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

.

During the UK Presidency of the EU in 2005 a decision was made to: "Agree common standards for security features and secure issuing procedures for ID cards (December 2005), with detailed standards agreed as soon as possible thereafter. In this respect, the UK Presidency has put forward a proposal for EU-wide use of biometrics in national ID cards."
Belgium


In Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, everyone above the age of 12 is issued an identity card ( in French, in Dutch and in German), and from the age of 15 carrying this card at all times is mandatory. For foreigners residing in Belgium similar cards (foreigner's cards, in Dutch, in French) are issued, although they may also carry a passport, a work permit or a (temporary) residence permit.

Since 2000, all newly issued Belgian identity cards have a chip (eID card
Electronic identity card
The electronic identity card or EIC is a government-issued document for online and offline identification. Belgium, Italy as well as other countries are currently issuing EICs which will replace conventional identity cards in most European countries in the future...

), and roll-out of these cards is expected to be complete in the course of 2009. Since early 2009, the aforementioned foreigner's card has also been replaced by an eID card, containing a similar chip. The eID cards can be used both in the public and private sector for identification and for the creation of legally binding electronic signatures.
Bulgaria


Identity card (Bulgarian - лична карта, lichna karta) is obligatory at the age of 14.
Any person above 14 being checked by the police without carrying at least some form of
identification is liable to a fine of about 25 Euros (50 Bulgarian leva).
Cyprus

Legal citizens of the Republic of Cyprus have to get an identity card at the card at the age of 21.
Czech Republic


An identity card with a photo is issued to all citizens of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 at the age of 15. It is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 for intra EU travel. Travelling outside the EU mostly requires the Czech passport
Czech passport
The Czech passport is issued to Czech citizens at any age, and is the primary document of international travel issued by the Czech Republic. The passport, along with the national identity card allows for free rights of movement and residence in any of the states of the European Union and European...

.
Denmark

Denmark is one of few EU countries that currently does not issue national ID cards (not counting driver's licenses and passports issued for other purposes).

Danish citizens are not, by law, required to carry an ID card. A traditional identity document (without photo), the personal identification number certificate (Danish:Personnummerbevis) is of little use in Danish society, as it has been largely replaced by the much more versatile National Health Insurance Card (Danish:Sundhedskortet) which contains the same information and more. The National Health Insurance Card is issued to all citizens age 12 and above. It is commonly referred to as an identity card despite the fact it has no photo of the holder. Both certificates retrieve their information from the Civil Registration System. However, the personnummerbevis is still issued today and has been since September 1968.

Until 2004, the national debit card Dankort
Dankort
right|thumb|200px|The Dankort logoThe Dankort is a Danish debit card and is the national credit card of Denmark. Today it is usually combined with a VISA card so it can be used abroad.- History :...

 contained a photo of the holder and was widely accepted as an identity card. The Danish banks lobbied successfully to have pictures removed from the national debit cards and so since 2004 the Dankort no longer contains a photo. Hence it is rarely accepted for identification.

Danish driver's licenses and passports are the only ID cards issued by the government containing both the personal identification number
Personal identification number (Denmark)
The Danish Personal Identification number is a national identification number, which is part of the personal information stored in the Civil Registration System ....

 and a photo. A foreign citizen without driving skills living in Denmark can not get such documents. Foreign driver's licenses and passports are accepted with limitations.
Estonia


The Estonian ID card is a chipped picture ID in the Republic of Estonia. An Estonian ID card is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 for intra EU travel. For travelling outside the EU, Estonian citizens may also require a passport
Estonian passport
An Estonian Passport is an identity document as well as a travel document of an Estonian citizen issued by the Citizenship and Migration Board of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Estonia and by Estonian foreign representations abroad.-Physical Appearance:...

.

The card's chip stores a key pair, allowing users to cryptographically sign digital documents based on principles of public key cryptography using DigiDoc. Under Estonian law, since 15 December 2000 the cryptographic signature is legally equivalent to a manual signature
Signature
A signature is a handwritten depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory. Similar to a handwritten signature, a signature work describes the work as readily identifying...

.

The Estonian ID card is also used for authentication in Estonia's ambitious Internet-based voting
Electronic voting in Estonia
The idea of having electronic voting in Estonia gained popularity in 2001 with the "e-minded" coalition government. Estonia became the first nation to hold legally binding general elections over the Internet with their pilot project for the municipal elections in 2005.The electronic voting system...

 programme. In February 2007, Estonia was the first country in the world to institute electronic voting for parliamentary elections. Over 30 000 voters participated in the country's e-election.
Finland

In Finland, any citizen can get an identification card (henkilökortti/identitetskort). This, along with the passport, is one of two official identity documents. It is available as an electronic ID card (sähköinen henkilökortti/elektroniskt identitetskort), which enables logging in to certain government services on the Internet.

Driving licenses and KELA (social security) cards with a photo are also widely used for general identification purposes even though they are not officially recognized as such. However, KELA has ended the practice of issuing social security cards with the photograph of the bearer, while it has become possible to embed the social security information onto the national ID card.
France

France has had a national ID card for all citizens since the beginning of World War II in 1940. Some compulsory identity documents were created before for some categories of workers from 1803 to 1890, nomads in 1912 and foreigners in 1917 during World War I.

National identity cards were first issued as the carte d'identité Française under the law of October 27, 1940, and were compulsory for everyone over the age of 16. Identity cards were valid for 10 years, had to be updated within a year in case of change of residence, and their renewal required paying a fee. Under the Vichy regime, in addition to the face photograph, the family name, first names, date and place of birth, the card included the national identity number managed by the national statistics INSEE
INSEE
INSEE is the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies. It collects and publishes information on the French economy and society, carrying out the periodic national census. Located in Paris, it is the French branch of Eurostat, European Statistical System...

, which is also used as the national service registration number, as the Social Security account number for health and retirement benefits, for access to court files and for tax purposes.
Under the decree 55-1397 of October 22, 1955 a revised non-compulsory card, the carte nationale d'identité (CNI) was introduced.

The law (Art. 78-1 to 78-6 of the French Code of criminal procedure (Code de procédure pénale)) mentions only that during a ID check performed by police, gendarmerie or customs, one can prove his identity "by any means", the validity of which is left to the judgment of the law enforcement official. Though not stated explicitly in the law, an ID card, a driving licence, a passport, a visa, a Carte de Séjour
Permanent residency
Permanent residency refers to a person's visa status: the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country of which he or she is not a citizen. A person with such status is known as a permanent resident....

, a voting card
Voter registration
Voter registration is the requirement in some democracies for citizens and residents to check in with some central registry specifically for the purpose of being allowed to vote in elections. An effort to get people to register is known as a voter registration drive.-Centralized/compulsory vs...

 are sufficient according to jurisprudency. The decision to accept other documents, with or without the bearer's photograph, like a Social Security card, a travel card
Travel card
A travel card is a ticket usable on more than one journey, route or mode of public transport within a specific area using bulk or discounted payment; some systems only cover travel by disabled or elderly people...

 or a bank card
ATM card
An ATM card is a card issued by a bank, credit union or building society that can be used at an ATM for deposits, withdrawals, account information, and other types of transactions, often through interbank networks.Some ATM cards can also be used:* at a branch, as identification for in-person...

, is left to the discretion of the law enforcement officer.

According to Art. 78-2 of the French Penal Procedure Code ID checks are only possible:
  • alineas 1 & 2 : if you are the object of inquiries or investigations, have committed, prepared or attempted to commit an offence, a misdemeanour or a felony or if you are able to give informations about it (contrôle judiciaire);
  • alinea 4 : until 20 km from the French borders and in the ports, airports and railway stations open to international traffic (contrôle aux frontières);
  • alinea 3 : whatever the person's behaviour, to prevent a breach of public order and in particular an offence against the safety of persons or property (contrôle administratif).

The last case allows checks of passers-by ID by the police, especially in neighborhoods with a higher criminality rate which are often the poorest at the condition, according to the Cour de cassation
Court of Cassation (France)
The French Supreme Court of Judicature is France's court of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream but only scope of review to determine a miscarriage of justice or certify a question of law based solely on points of law...

, that the policeman doesn't refer only to "general and abstract conditions" but to "particular circumstances able to caracterise a risk of breach of public order and in particular an offence against the safety of persons or property" (Cass. crim. 05/12/1999, n°99-81153, Bull., n°95).

In case of necessity to establish your identity, not being able to prove it "by any means" (for example the legality of a road trafic procès-verbal
Proces-verbal
Procès-verbal is a legal term with a number of meanings:-In law:...

depends of it), may lead to a temporary arrest (vérification d'identité) of up to 4 hours for the time strictly required for ascertaining your identity according to art. 78-3 of the French Code of criminal procedure (Code de procédure pénale).

For financial transactions, ID cards and passports are almost always accepted as proof of identity. Due to possible forgery
Identity document forgery
Identity document forgery is the process by which identity documents issued by governing bodies are copied and/or modified by persons not authorized to create such documents or engage in such modifications, for the purpose of deceiving those who would view the documents about the identity or status...

, driver's licenses are sometimes refused. For transactions by cheque involving a larger sum, two different ID documents are frequently requested by merchants.

The current identification cards are now issued free of charge and optional. The current government has proposed a compulsory biometric card system, which has been opposed by human rights groups and by the national authority and regulator on computing systems and databases, the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés, CNIL
CNIL
The Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés or CNIL is an independent French administrative authority whose mission is to ensure that data privacy law is applied to the collection, storage, and use of personal data. Its existence was established by French , concerning computers,...

. Another non-compulsory project is being discussed.
Germany

It is compulsory for all German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 citizens age 16 or older to possess either a Personalausweis (identity card) or a passport but not to carry one. While police officers and some other officials have a right to demand to see one of those documents, the law does not state that one is obliged to submit the document at that very moment. But as driver's licences are not legally accepted forms of identification in Germany, some people choose to carry their Personalausweis with them.

Beginning in November 2010, German ID cards are issued in the ID-1 format and can also contain an integrated digital signature, if so desired. Until October 2010, German ID cards were issued in ISO/IEC 7810 ID-2 format.
Gibraltar


Gibraltar has operated an identity card system since 1943.

The cards issued were originally folded cardboard, similar to the wartime UK Identity cards abolished in 1950. There were different colours for British and non-British residents. Gibraltar requires all residents to hold identity cards, which are issued free.

In 1993 the cardboard ID card was replaced with a laminated version. However, although valid as a travel document to the UK, they were not accepted by Spain.

A new version in a EU compliant format was issued and is valid for use around the EU although as very few are seen there are sometimes problems in its use, even in the UK. ID cards are accepted financial transactions, but apart from that and to cross the frontier with Spain, they are not in common use.
Greece

A compulsory, universal ID system based on personal ID cards has been in place in Greece since World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. ID cards are issued by the police on behalf of the Headquarters of the Police (previously issued by the Ministry of Public Order, now incorporated in the Ministry of Internal Affairs) and display the holder's signature, standardized face photograph, name and surname, father's name and surname, mother's name and maiden surname, date and place of birth, height, municipality, and the issuing police precinct. There are also two optional fields designed to facilitate emergency medical care: ABO
Abo
Abo may refer to:* ABO blood group system, a human blood type and blood group system** ABO , enzyme encoded by the ABO gene that determines the ABO blood group of an individual* Abo of Tiflis , an Arab East Orthodox Catholic saint...

 and Rhesus factor
Rhesus blood group system
The Rh blood group system is one of thirty current human blood group systems. Clinically, it is the most important blood group system after ABO. At Present, the Rh blood group system consists of 50 defined blood-group antigens, among which the 5 antigens D, C, c, E, and e are the most important...

 blood typing
Blood type
A blood type is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells . These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system...

.

Fields included in previous ID card formats, such as vocation or profession, religious denomination, domiciliary address, name and surname of spouse, fingerprint, eye and hair color, citizenship and ethnicity were removed permanently as being intrusive of personal data and/or superfluous for the sole purpose of personal identification.

Since 2000, name fields have been filled in both Greek
Greek alphabet
The Greek alphabet is the script that has been used to write the Greek language since at least 730 BC . The alphabet in its classical and modern form consists of 24 letters ordered in sequence from alpha to omega...

 and Latin
Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most recognized alphabet used in the world today. It evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome...

 characters. According to the Signpost Service of the European Commission [reply to Enquiry 36581], old type Greek ID cards "are as valid as the new type according to Greek law and thus they constitute valid travel documents that all other EU Member States are obliged to accept." In addition to being equivalent to passports within the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
The European Economic Area was established on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between the member states of the European Free Trade Association and the European Community, later the European Union . Specifically, it allows Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway to participate in the EU's Internal...

, Greek ID cards are the principal means of identification of voters during elections.

Since 2005, the procedure to issue an ID card has been automated and now all citizens over 12 years of age must have an ID card, which is issued within one work day. Prior to that date, the age of compulsory issue was at 14 and the whole procedure could last several months.

In Greece, an ID card is a citizen's most important state document. For instance, it is required to perform banking transactions if the teller personnel is unfamiliar with the apparent account holder, to interact with the Citizen Service Bureaus (KEP), receive parcels or registered mail etc. Citizens are also required to produce their ID card at the request of law enforcement personnel.

All the above functions can be fulfilled also with a valid Greek passport (e.g. for people who have lost their ID card and have not yet applied for a new one, people who happen to carry their passport instead of their ID card or Greeks who reside abroad and do not have an identity card, which can be issued only in Greece in contrast to passports also issued by consular authorities abroad).
Hungary


Currently, there are three types of valid ID documents (Személyi igazolvány, abbr. Sz.ig.) in Hungary: the oldest valid ones are hard-covered, multipage booklets and issued before 1989 by the People's Republic of Hungary, the second type is a soft-cover, multipage booklet issued after the change of regime; these two have one, original photo of the owner embedded, with original signatures of the owner and the local police's representative. The third type is a plastic card with the photo and the signature of the holder digitally reproduced. These are generally called Personal Identity Card.

The plastic card shows the owners full name, maiden name if applicable, birth date and place, mother's name, sex, the ID's validity period and the local state authority which issued the card. The card has a 6 number + 2 letter unique ID. It does not have any information about the owners residual address, nor his/her Personal ID – this sensitive information is contained on a separate card, called Authority ID. Personal IDs have been compulsory since 1975: it has the following format in numbers: sex (1 number) – birth date (6 numbers) – unique ID (4 numbers). It is no longer used as a personal identification number, but as a statistical signature.

Other valid documents are the passport (blue colored or red colored with RFID chip) and the driver's license; an individual is required to have at least one of them on hand all the time. The Personal Identity Card is mandatory to vote in state elections or open a bank account in the country.

ID cards are issued to permanent residents of Hungary; if he is a foreign citizen, the card has a different color.
Italy


All Italian citizens can request an identity card issued by the municipality in which they live. The card lasts ten years and is a valid document to leave the country when travelling to another EU
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 country.
It is not compulsory to carry the card itself, as the authorities only have the right to ask for the identity of a person, not for a specific document. However, if public-security officers are not convinced of the claimed identity, such as may be the case for a verbally provided identity claim, they may arrest the claimant until his/her identity is ascertained; such an arrest is limited to the time necessary for identification and has no legal consequence.

A classic Italian identity card (now in the process of being replaced by a newer template) has four pages, containing:
  1. Issuing municipality, card number and owner's name and surname;
  2. Owner's name, surname, birth date and place, citizenship, city of residence, address, civil status (optional) and profession; in addition, physical features such as height, hair and eye color, and any other particular feature not visible from the photo (e.g. having a twin or being an amputee) can be noted;
  3. Photo and signature of the owner, date of issue and stamp of the issuing municipality.
  4. Expiration date and card number.

A field for fingerprints has been present for a long time at the bottom of the third page, but is rarely if ever used. Also, physical features are normally not measured rigorously, but are just verbally asked to the applicant (such as height) or quickly ascertained by administrative personnel on the spot, with no checks for hair dying or cosmetic lenses.
The classic Italian ID card is made of paper, not plastic, and its lamination with plastic pouches is explicitly forbidden, because it defeats some anti-forging techniques.
Lamination of ID cards was popular and widely practiced until the current prohibition was introduced, because of the low quality of the employed paper, which tends to break apart after a few months in a wallet.
Removable pouches are often employed to limit damage, but the odd size of the card (about 1 cm larger than a plastic credit card in both directions) makes it difficult to store it easily in a wallet.
Furthermore, the usage of paper makes the card easy to forge, and foreign countries outside the EU sometimes refuse to accept it as a valid document.
These common criticism were considered in the development of the Italian electronic identity card
Italian electronic identity card
The Carta d'Identità Elettronica , is a personal identification document that is replacing the paper-based ID card in Italy. The first Italian electronic ID cards were issued in 2001. As of 1 January 2006 the Italian government requires that paper based ID cards are replaced by EICs...

, which is in the more common credit-card format.

All foreigners in Italy are required by law to have an ID with them at all times.
Citizens of EU member countries must be always ready to display an identity document that is legally government-issued in their country. Non-EU residents must have their passport with customs entrance stamp or a residence permit issued by Italian authorities; while all the resident/immigrant aliens must have a residence permit (otherwise they are illegal and face deportation), foreigners from certain non-EU countries staying in Italy for a limited amount of time (typically for tourism) may be only required to have their passport with proper customs stamp. Additionally permanently resident foreigners can ask to be issued an Italian ID card by the local authorities of their city/town of residence.
Netherlands


Dutch citizens from the age of 14 are required to be able to show a valid identity document upon request by a police officer or similar official. Furthermore, identity documents are required when opening bank accounts and upon start of work for a new employer. Official identity documents for residents in the Netherlands are:
  • Dutch passport
    Dutch passport
    A Dutch passport is issued to citizens of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for the purpose of international travel. As the Netherlands only distinguish one category of citizen , for all countries in the Kingdom, passports are the same for all four countries...

  • Dutch identity card
    Dutch identity card
    The Dutch identity card is an official non-compulsory identity document issued to Dutch nationals in the European part of the Netherlands and certain diplomatic missions...

  • Alien's Residence permit
  • Geprivilegieerdenkaart (amongst others for the corps diplomatique and their family members)
  • Passports/national ID cards of members of other E.E.A. countries
    European Economic Area
    The European Economic Area was established on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between the member states of the European Free Trade Association and the European Community, later the European Union . Specifically, it allows Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway to participate in the EU's Internal...


For the purpose of identification in public (but not for other purposes), also a Dutch driving license serves as an identity document.
In the Caribbean Netherlands, the Dutch Identity Card is not valid; and the Identity card BES
Identity card BES
The Identity card BES is a uniform identity card for residents in the Caribbean Netherlands introduced upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010. The cards are machine-readable and have the size of a creditcard...

 is an obligatory document for all residents.
Poland

Every Polish citizen over 18 who is resident in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 must have an Identity Card (Dowód osobisty) issued by the local administration. Other Polish citizens may obtain it on a voluntary basis.
Portugal

All Portuguese citizens are required by law to obtain an Identity Card as they turn 16 years of age. They are not required to carry with them always but are obligated to present them to the lawful authorities if requested.
The old format of the cards (yellow laminated paper document) featured the photo, the fingerprint, and the name of parents. It is currently being replaced by grey plastic cards with a chip, called Cartão de Cidadão (Citizen's Card).
Characteristics

The new Citizen's Card is technologically more advanced than the former Identity Card and therefore enjoys the following characteristics:
  • From the physical point of view the Citizen's Card will have a 'smart card' format and will replace the existing Identity Card, taxpayer card, Social Security card, voter's card and National Health Service user's card.
  • From the visual point of view the front of the card will display the holder's photograph and basic personal details. The back will list the numbers under which the holder is registered with the different bodies whose cards the Citizen's Card combines and replaces. The back will also contain an optical reader and the chip.
  • From the electronic point of view the card will have a contact chip, with digital certificates (for electronic authentication and signature purposes). The chip may also hold the same information as the physical card itself, together with other data such as the holder's address.

Romania


Every citizen of Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 must register for an ID card (Carte de identitate, abbreviated CI) at the age of 14. The CI offers proof of the identity, address, sex and other data of the possessor. It has to be renewed every 10 years. It can be used instead of a passport for travel inside the European Union and several other countries outside the EU.

Another ID Card is the Provisional ID Card (Cartea de Identitate Provizorie) issued temporarily when an individual cannot get a normal ID Card for some reason. Its validity extends for up to 1 year.

Other forms of officially accepted identification include the driver's license and the birth certificate. However, these are accepted only in limited circumstances and cannot take the place of the ID Card in most cases. In particular, the ID Card is mandatory for dealing with government institutions, banks or currency exchange shops. Some of these may also accept a valid passport but usually only for foreigners.

In addition, citizens can be expected to provide the personal identification number (CNP) in many circumstances; purposes range from simple unique identification and internal book-keeping (for example when drawing up the papers for the warranty of purchased goods) to being asked for identification by the police. The CNP is 13 characters long, with the format S-YY-MM-DD-RR-XXX-Y. Where S is the sex, YY is year of birth, MM is month of birth, DD is day of birth, RR is a regional id, XXX is a unique random number and Y is a control digit.

Presenting the ID Card is preferred but not mandatory when asked by police officers; however, in such cases people are expected to provide a CNP or alternate means of identification which can be checked on the spot (via radio if needed).

The information on the ID Card is required to be kept updated by the owner; current address of domicile in particular. Doing otherwise can expose the citizen to certain fines or be denied service by those institutions that require a valid, up to date Card. In spite of this, it is common for people to let the information lapse or go around with expired ID Cards.

A new electronic ID Card is under project of implementation and should be fully implemented by 2014.
Slovakia

The Slovak ID card is a picture ID in Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

. It is issued to citizens of Slovak Republic that are 15 or older. An Slovak ID card is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 for travel within the EU. For travel outside the EU, Slovak citizens may also require a passport
Slovak passport
Slovak passports are issued to citizens of Slovakia to enable legal international travel. For traveling inside the European Union and EFTA, Slovak citizens do not need passports and can use their Slovak identity cards instead. Passports in Slovakia are issued by the police force.- History :Slovakia...

, which is a legally accepted form of picture ID as well. Police officers and some other officials have a right to demand to see one of those documents, and the law states that one is obliged to submit such a document at that very moment. If one fails to comply, law enforcement officers are allowed to insist on personal identification at the police department.
Spain

Contrary to popular belief you are not required to always carry your ID card in Spain CONSULTA AL MINISTERIO DE INTERIOR SOBRE PORTAR EL DNI. Everybody in Spain over 14 must acquire a National Identity Card (Documento nacional de identidad usually abbreviated to DNI) issued by the National Police in ID-1 (bank-card) format. On the front side there is a black and white photograph, the name and two surnames (see Spanish naming customs), the bearer's signature, an id number, the issue date and the expiration date. On the reverse appears the birth date and place, the gender, both parents' names (if known), and the current address. At the bottom, key information is present in a machine-readable zone
Machine-readable passport
A Machine Readable Passport is a travel document where the data on the identity page is encoded in optical character recognition format. Many countries began to issue machine readable travel documents in the 1980s....

. Depending on holder's age, the card has a validity of 5 years, 10 years or indefinite (for the elderly).

The ID number is an eight digit number followed by a letter. The letter is a check number
Cyclic redundancy check
A cyclic redundancy check is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data...

 used to verify the correctness of the number. This id number is a personal social security number, which is used by the Spanish Hacienda Pública to keep track of each citizen's income taxes and financial status.

In Spain, the ID card is the most important piece of identification for citizens. It is used in all public and private transactions. It is required to open a bank account, to sign a contract, to have state insurance, to register in a university and should be shown when being fined by a police officer. It is one of the official documents required to vote at any election, although any other form of official ID such as a driving license or passport may be used. The card also constitutes a valid travel document
Travel document
A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of persons across international boundaries...

 within the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 and Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

.

Since 2006 a new version of the 'DNI' is being introduced. The new 'Electronic DNI' is a Smart card
Smart card
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card , is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. A smart card or microprocessor cards contain volatile memory and microprocessor components. The card is made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes acrylonitrile...

 that allows for digital signing of documents. The chip contains most of the personal information, which is printed on the card, as well as a digitized version of the bearer's face, signature and finger prints. The card conveys the same printed information as the older version, but in a plastic card with a different design.
Sweden


Sweden does not have a legal statute for compulsory identity documents. However ID-cards are regularly used to ascertain a person's identity when completing certain transactions. These include but are not limited to banking and age verification. Also interactions with public authorities often require it, in spite of the fact that there is no law explicitly requiring it, because there are laws requiring authorities in some situations to somehow verify people's identity. Identity cards have therefore become an important part of everyday life.

There are currently three public authorities that issue ID-cards. The tax office (Skatteverket), the Police and the transport board.

The tax office cards can only be used within Sweden to validate a persons identity, but they can be obtained both by Swedish citizens and those that currently reside in Sweden. A Swedish personal identity number
Personal identity number (Sweden)
The personal identity number is the Swedish national identification number. When it was introduced in 1947 it was probably the first of its kind covering the total resident population of a country...

 is required. It is possible to get one without having any Swedish id-card. Then must a person having such a card guarantee the identity, and the person must be a verifiable relative or the boss at the company the person has been working for some time or a few other verifiable people.

The Police can only issue identity documents to Swedish citizens. They issue an internationally recognised id-card according to EU standard usable for intra-Schengen travel. The police also issue passports to Swedish citizens which are acceptable as identity documents inside the EU.

The Transport board issues drivers licences which are valid as identity documents in Sweden. To obtain one, one must be approved as a driver and strictly have another Swedish identity document as proof of identity.

Without Swedish identity documents difficulties can occur accessing health care services, receiving prescription medications and getting salaries or grants. From 2008 EU passports have been accepted for some of these services due to EU legislation, but non-EU passports are not accepted.

In the past there have been certain groups that have experienced problems obtaining valid identification documents. This was due to the initial process that was required to validate one's identity. Since July 2009, the tax office has begun to issue identity cards and this has simplified the identity validation process for foreign passport holders. Still there are requirements for the identity validation that can cause trouble especially for foreign citizens but the list of people who can validate one's identity is extended.
United Kingdom

The UK had an identity card during World War 2 as part of a package of emergency powers invoked and was abolished soon after. Identity cards were first proposed in the mid 1980s for people attending football matches, following a series of high profile hooliganism
Football hooliganism
Football hooliganism, sometimes referred to by the British media as the English Disease, is unruly and destructive behaviour—such as brawls, vandalism and intimidation—by association football club fans...

 incidents involving English football fans. However, this proposed identity card scheme never went ahead as Lord Taylor
Peter Taylor, Baron Taylor of Gosforth
Peter Murray Taylor, Baron Taylor of Gosforth PC was the Lord Chief Justice of England from 1992 until his premature retirement in 1996, due to poor health which led to his death the following year.-Family:...

 of Gosforth
Gosforth
Gosforth is an area of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England, United Kingdom, to the north of the city centre. Gosforth constituted an urban district from 1895 to 1974, when it became part of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne. It has a population of 23,620...

 ruled it out as "unworkable" in the Taylor Report
Taylor Report
The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster Inquiry report, better known as the Taylor Report is a document, whose development was overseen by Lord Taylor of Gosforth, concerning the aftermath and causes of the Hillsborough disaster in 1989. An interim report was published in August 1989, and the final...

 of 1990.

By 2006 several groups such as No2ID
NO2ID
NO2ID, the public campaign, was formed in 2004 to campaign against the United Kingdom government's plans to introduce UK ID Cards and the associated National Identity Register, which it believes has negative implications for privacy, civil liberties and personal safety.NO2ID is entirely independent...

 had formed to campaign against ID cards in Britain. The UK Labour government progressively introduced compulsory identity cards for foreign nationals resident in the UK from late 2008. Identity cards for British nationals was introduced in 2009 on a voluntary basis and only workers in certain high-security professions, such as airport workers, were required to have an identity card. Driving licences
Driving licence in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, the driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicle on public roads. In England, Scotland and Wales they are administered by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency and in Northern Ireland by the Driver & Vehicle...

 (particularly the photocard driving licence, introduced in 1998) and passport
Passport
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

s are now the most widely used ID documents. There are also various PASS
PASS
PASS is a government-backed scheme in the UK that gives young people a valid and accepted form of proof of age identification...

-accredited cards, used mainly for proof of age purposes.

After the 2010 general election a new government was formed, comprising a coalition between two parties that have pledged to scrap ID cards - the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats - and the Home Office announced that the national identity register was destroyed on 10 February 2011.
Albania


From January 12, 2009 the Government of Albania
Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

 is issuing a compulsory electronic and biometric ID Card
Albanian Identity Card
The Albanian Identity Card is a national identity card that is issued by the Albanian authorities to their citizens. It is proof of identity, citizenship and residence of the Albanian citizens. The current version is in ID1 format and biometric.-History:Albania issued identity cards to its...

 (Letërnjoftim) for its citizens.
Every citizen at age 16 must apply for Biometric ID card.
Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bosnia and Herzegovina allows every person over the age of 15 to apply for an ID card, and all citizens over the age of 18 must have the national ID card with them at all times. A penalty is issued if the citizen does not have the acquired ID card on them or if the citizen refuses to show proof of identification.
Croatia


Croatian citizens over the age of 15 may request an Identity Card. All persons over the age of 16 must have an Identity Card and carry it at all times outside their place of residence. Refusal to carry or produce an Identity Card to a police officer can lead to a fine of 100 kuna
Croatian kuna
The kuna is the currency of Croatia since 1994 . It is subdivided into 100 lipa. The kuna is issued by the Croatian National Bank and the coins are minted by the Croatian Monetary Institute....

 or more and detention until the individual's identity can be verified by fingerprints.

Croatia is currently in the process of replacing the Unique Citizen Identity Number (JMBG) and the Identity Card Number with a unified Personal Identification Number (OIB) which complies with EU regulations on character length and the ISO 7064 standard. Currently, the OIB is to be used concurrently with the JMBG and Identity Card Number, thought OIB is due to become the only nationally used Identity Number on 1 January 2010.
Macedonia


The Macedonian identity card is a compulsory identity document issued in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

. The document is issued by the police on behalf of the Ministry of Interior.Every person over 18 can get and must get an identity card.
Moldova

In Moldova Identity Cards are being issued since 1996. The first person to get identity card was former president of Moldova - Mircea Snegur
Mircea Snegur
Mircea Ion Snegur was the first President of Moldova 1990-1996. Before that he was Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 1989-1990 and Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 27 April to 3 September 1990...

. Since then all the Moldovan citizens are required to have and use it inside the country. It can't be used to travel outside the country, however it is possible to pass so-called Transnistria
Transnistria
Transnistria is a breakaway territory located mostly on a strip of land between the Dniester River and the eastern Moldovan border to Ukraine...

n border with it.

Moldovan Identity card can be obtained by a child from his early birth. State company "Registru" is responsible for issuing Identity cards and for storing data of all Moldovan citizens.
Montenegro

In Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

 every resident citizen over the age of 14 can have their Lična karta
Montenegrin identity card
Montenegrin identity card is the national identification card used in Montenegro. Though Lična karta is a primary photo ID, Montenegrin passport and national driver's license are used as valid photo IDs for various purposes...

issued, and all persons over the age of 18 must have ID cards and carry them at all times when they are in public places. It can be used for international travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

, Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 and Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 instead of the passport.
Russia

The role of identity document is primarily played by the so-called internal passport
Internal passport
An internal passport is an identity document used in some countries to control the internal movement and residence of its people. Countries that currently have internal passports include Russia, Ukraine, China and North Korea...

, a passport-size booklet which contains person's photograph, birth data, and some other information, such as registration at the place of residence (informally known as propiska
Propiska
Propiska was both a residence permit and migration recording tool in the Russian Empire before 1917 and from 1930s in the Soviet Union. It was documented in local police registers and certified with a stamp in internal passports....

), marital data, information about military service and underage children. Internal passports are issued by MVD
Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del is the interior ministry of Russia. Its predecessor was founded in 1802 by Alexander I in Imperial Russia...

 to all citizens who reach their 14th birthday and do not reside outside Russia. They are re-issued at the age 20 and 45.

Internal passport is commonly considered the only acceptable ID document in governmental offices, banks, while traveling by train or plane, getting a subscription service, etc. If the person does not have an internal passport (i.e. foreign nationals or Russian citizens who live abroad), international passport can be accepted instead, theoretically in all cases.

Internal passport can also be used to travel to Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Other documents, such as driver license or student ticket, can sometimes be accepted as id, subject to regulations.
Serbia

In Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 every resident citizen over the age of 10 can have their Serbian identity card
Serbian identity card
Serbian identity card is the national identification card used in Serbia. Though the ID card is a primary photo ID, Serbian passport and national Drivers license are used as valid photo IDs for various purposes...

issued, and all persons over the age of 16 must have ID cards and carry them at all times when they are in public places. It can be used for international travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 and Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

 instead of the passport. Contact microchip on ID is optional.

Turkey

The Turkish national ID card is compulsory for all Turkish citizens from birth. Cards for males and females have a different colour. The front shows the first and last name of the holder, first names of both parents, birth date and place, and an 11 digit ID number. The back shows marital status, religious affiliation, the region of the country of origin, and the date of issue of the card. On February 2, 2010 the European Court of Human Rights had ruled in a 6 to 1 vote that the religious affiliation portion of the Turkish identity card violated articles 6, 9, and 12 of European Convention of Human Rights, which Turkey is a signatory to. The ruling should bear some weight on the Turkish government to completely omit religious affiliation on future identity cards. The Turkish police is allowed to ask any person to show ID, and refusing to comply may lead the arrest. It can be used for international travel to Northern Cyprus and Georgia (country)
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

 instead of the passport.

Canada

In Canada, different forms of identification documentation are used, but there is no de jure national identity card. The Canadian passport is issued by the federal (national) government, and the provinces and territories issue various documents which can be used for identification purposes. The most commonly used forms of identification within Canada are the driver's licence and health care cards issued by provincial and territorial governments. The widespread usage of these two documents for identification purposes has made them de facto identity cards.

In Canada, a driver's licence usually lists the name, home address, and date of birth of the bearer. A photograph of the bearer is usually present, as well as additional information, such as restrictions to the bearer's driving licence. The bearer is required by law to keep the address up to date.

A few provinces, such as Québec and Ontario, issue provincial health care cards which contain identification information, such as a photo of the bearer, their home address, and their date of birth. In British Columbia, the BCID card is a convenient form of identification for individuals who do not possess a driving licence. The BCID card contains a picture of the bearer, as well as their home address and date of birth.

For travel abroad, a passport is almost always required. There are a few minor exceptions to this rule, with these exceptions mainly applying to international travel within North America, such as the NEXUS programme and the enhanced driving licence programme implemented by a few provincial governments as a pilot project. These programmes have not yet gained widespread acceptance, and the Canadian passport remains the most useful and widely accepted international travel document.

Costa Rica

Every Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

n citizen must carry an identity card after turning 18. The card is named Cédula de Identidad
Cédula de identidad
A Cédula de Identidad also known as cédula de ciudadanía or Documento de identidad is a national identity document used in many countries in Central and South America...

and it is issued by the local elections committee (Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones). Each card has a unique number composed of nine numerical digits, the first of them being the province where the citizen was born (with other significance in special cases such as granted citizenship to foreigners, adopted persons
Adoption
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original parent or parents...

 or in rare cases with old people where no birth certificate
Birth certificate
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth...

 was processed at birth) after this digit, two block of four digits follows, the combination corresponds to the unique identifier of the citizen.

It is widely requested as part of every legal and financial purpose, often requested at payment with credit
Credit card
A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services...

 or debit cards for identification guarantee and requested for buying alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

ic beverages, cigarettes or upon entrance to an adults-only place like bars.

The card must be renewed every ten years and is freely issued again if lost. Among the information included there are, in the front, two identification pictures and digitized signature of the owner, identification number (Known colloquially just as the cédula), first name, first and second-last names and an optional known as field. In the back there is again the identification number, birth date, where the citizen issues its vote for national elections or referendums, birth place, gender, date when must be renewed and a matrix code
Barcode
A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which shows data about the object to which it attaches. Originally barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or 1 dimensional . Later they evolved into rectangles,...

 that includes all this information and even a digitized fingerprint of the thumb and index finger.

The matrix code is not currently being used nor inspected by any kind of scanner.

Besides this identification card, every vehicle driver must carry a driver's license, an additional card that uses the identification number for the driving license number. A passport is also issued.

Dominican Republic

A "Cédula de identidad y electoral" is a national ID that is also used for voting. Each "Cédula de identidad y electoral" has its own unique number, composed by the serial of the municipality of issue and a secuential number. This National ID card is required for people aged 16 and older, and they must carry it on with their person at all times. It is required for job applications, contracts and so on. It is issued free of charge by the Junta Central Electoral.

El Salvador

In El Salvador, ID Card is called Documento Único de Identidad (DUI) (Unique Identity Document). Every citizen above 18 years must carry this ID for identification purposes at any time. It is not based on a smartcard but on a standard plastic card with two-dimensional bar-coded information with picture and signature.

Guatemala

In January 2009, the National Registry of Persons (RENAP) in Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast...

 began offering a new identity document in place of the Cédula de Vecindad (neighborhood identity document) to all Guatemala citizens and foreigners. The new document is called "Documento Personal de Identification" (DPI) (Personal Identity Document). It's based on a smartcard with a chip and includes an electronic signature and several measures against fraud. http://www.renap.gob.gt

Mexico

Not mandatory, but needed in almost all official documents, the CURP is the standarized version of an identity document. it actually could be a printed green wallet-sized card or simply a 18-character identification key printed on a birth or death certificate.

Unlike most other countries, Mexico has assigned a CURP to nearly all minors, since both the government and most private schools ask parents to supply their children's CURP to keep a data base of all the children. Also, minors must produce their CURP when applying for a passport or being registered at Public Health services by their parents.

Most adults need the CURP code too, since it is required for almost all governmental paperwork like tax filings and passport applications. Most companies ask for a prospective employee's CURP, voting card, or passport rather than birth certificates.

To have a CURP issued for a person, a birth certificate or similar proof must be presented to the issuing authorities to prove that the information supplied on the application is true. Foreigners applying for a CURP must produce a certificate of legal residence in Mexico. Foreign-born Mexican naturalized citizens must present their naturalization certificate.
On 21 August 2008 the Mexican cabinet passed the National Security Act, which compels all Mexican citizens to have a biometric identity card, called Citizen Identity Card (Cédula de identidad ciudadana) before 2011.

On February 13, 2009 the Mexican government designated the state of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

 to start procedures for issuing a pilot program of the national Mexican ID card.

Although the CURP is the de jure
De jure
De jure is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact".De jure = 'Legally', De facto = 'In fact'....

official identification document in Mexico, the Federal Electoral Institute's voting card is the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

official identification and proof of legal age for citizens of ages 18 and older.

On July 28, 2009 Mexican President Felipe Calderón, facing the Mexican House of Representatives, announced the launch of the Mexican national Identity card project, which will see the first card issued before the end of 2009.

United States

Since February 1, 2008, the United States issues the Passport card
Passport card
The passport card is an alternative to a passport produced in the United States to meet the documentary requirements of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative. The U.S. Passport Card is a wallet-size travel document, issued to U.S...

 to its citizens upon request. Although its main purpose is for land and sea travel within North America, under the REAL ID Act
REAL ID Act
The REAL ID Act of 2005, , was an Act of Congress that modified U.S. federal law pertaining to security, authentication, and issuance procedures standards for the state driver's licenses and identification cards, as well as various immigration issues pertaining to terrorism.The law set forth...

, the passport card will also be accepted for federal purposes (such as domestic air travel or entering federal buildings), which may make it an attractive option for people living in states whose driver's licenses and ID cards are not REAL ID-compliant when those requirements go into effect. TSA regulations list the passport card as an acceptable identity document at airport security checkpoints.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has indicated that the U.S. Passport Card may be used in the Employment Eligibility Verification Form I-9 (form)
I-9 (form)
The Employment Eligibility Verification Form I-9 is a U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services form. It is used by an employer to verify an employee's identity and to establish that the worker is eligible to accept employment in the United States....

 process. The passport card is considered a “List A” document that may be presented by newly hired employees during the employment eligibility verification process to show work authorized status. “List A” documents are those used by employees to prove both identity and work authorization when completing the Form I-9.

The passport card can be used as a valid proof of citizenship and proof of identity both inside and outside the United States.

For most people, Driver's licenses issued by the respective state and territorial governments have become the de facto identity card for several purposes, including purchasing alcohol and tobacco, opening bank accounts, and boarding planes. Individuals who do not drive are able to obtain an identification card with the same functionality from the same state agency that issues driver's licenses.

The United States passed a bill entitled the REAL ID Act
REAL ID Act
The REAL ID Act of 2005, , was an Act of Congress that modified U.S. federal law pertaining to security, authentication, and issuance procedures standards for the state driver's licenses and identification cards, as well as various immigration issues pertaining to terrorism.The law set forth...

 on May 11, 2005. The bill compels states to begin redesigning their driver's licenses to comply with federal security standards by December 2009. Federal agencies would reject licenses or identity cards that do not comply, which would force Americans accessing everything from airplanes to national parks and some courthouses to have the federally mandated cards. At airports, those not having compliant licenses or cards would simply be redirected to a secondary screening location. The REAL ID Act is highly controversial, and with 25 states have approved either resolutions or binding legislation not to participate in the program, and with President Obama's selection of Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano is the third and current United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She is the fourth person to hold the position, which was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A member of the Democratic Party, she was the 21st...

 (a prominent critic of the program) to head the Department of Homeland Security, the future of the law remains uncertain, and bills have been introduced into Congress to amend or repeal it. The most recent of these, dubbed PASS ID
PASS ID
PASS ID is a proposed U.S. law intended to replace REAL ID. Like REAL ID, it implements federal standards for state identification documents. Currently, states are not obligated to follow the standards, but if PASS ID takes full effect, federal agencies will only accept identification from states...

, would eliminate many of the more burdensome technological requirements but still require states to meet federal standards in order to have their ID cards accepted by federal agencies.

The bill takes place as governments are growing more interested in implanting technology in ID cards to make them smarter and more secure. In 2006, the U.S. State Department studied issuing passports with Radio-frequency identification, or RFID, chips embedded in them. Virginia may become the first state to glue RFID tags into all its driver's licenses. Seventeen states, however, have passed statutes opposing or refusing to implement the Real ID Act.

Australia

Identification is usually required to purchase alcohol and tobacco, and to enter nightclubs. Generally, the main form of identification used is the Australian Driver Licence; however, some states such as Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

 allow the option for individuals to purchase an optional "proof-of-age" keycard.

There have been two proposals to introduce ID cards for tax and social security access in Australia: The Australia Card
Australia Card
The Australia Card was a controversial proposal for a national identification card for Australian citizens and resident foreigners. The proposal was made in 1985, and abandoned in 1987....

 in 1985 by the Hawke Labor Government
Bob Hawke
Robert James Lee "Bob" Hawke AC GCL was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia from March 1983 to December 1991 and therefore longest serving Australian Labor Party Prime Minister....

 and the Health and Social Services Access Card
Health and social services access card (Australia)
The health and social services access card is a proposed Australian Government non-compulsory health and social services access card. John Howard, the then Australian Prime Minister announced its introduction on Wednesday 26 April 2006...

 in 2006 by the Howard Liberal Government
John Howard
John Winston Howard AC, SSI, was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007. He was the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister after Sir Robert Menzies....

. Although neither card would have been an official compulsory ID card, they were both criticised as leading to de facto ID cards. Ultimately, both proposals failed. Currently, driver's licences, issued by the states and territories
States and territories of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a union of six states and various territories. The Australian mainland is made up of five states and three territories, with the sixth state of Tasmania being made up of islands. In addition there are six island territories, known as external territories, and a...

, are the most widely used ID document.

A drivers licence is a de facto identity card as it lists a persons full name, date of birth, current living address and picture and is commonally used as proof of identification to obtain various government permits and documentation (for example, passport or Tax File Number) as well as in the private sector (opening a bank account or applying for a credit card). This makes a drivers licence vital and thus it is almost universally held.

For those persons who do not have a valid driver licence and may or may not have a valid passport, the 18+ Card is a valid form of proof of age. It is provided by Australian State Governments for those persons over the age of 18 in order for them to prove they are legally able to purchase alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

, tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

 products and anything else with an age limit. It is also available to people with a valid driver licence who do not wish to use it.

New Zealand

Legal forms of identification are used mainly for purchase of alcohol and cigarettes and entry to nightclubs. They can also be required for the purchase of spray paint and glues and often bank transactions. Forms of legal identification are New Zealand and overseas passport, New Zealand Drivers licence and 18+ card from the Hospitality Association of New Zealand. Firearms licences are a form of photo identification issued by the New Zealand Police.

Argentina

Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 issues a booklet called Documento Nacional de Identidad at birth. At the age of 8, it must be updated with a picture and right thumb print. At 16, it must be replaced with a new one. It includes pages for a vote log, military service, wish to donate organs and legal address change log.

There is also a card named Cédula de Identidad issued by the federal police, valid in Mercosur
Mercosur
Mercosur or Mercosul is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people,...

 countries; these are also issued by provincial police, but are valid only in Argentina.

One of these documents is required for driving (in addition to a driver's license) and using credit or debit cards.

Brazil

In Brazil, at the age of 18, all Brazilian citizens are supposed to be issued a cédula de identidade (ID card), usually known by its number, the Registro Geral (RG), Portuguese for "General Registry". The cards are needed to obtain a job, to vote, and to use credit cards. Foreigners living in Brazil have a different kind of ID card. Since the RG is not unique, being issued in a state-basis, in many places the CPF (the Brazilian revenue agency's identification number) is used as a replacement. The current Brazilian driver's license contains both the RG and the CPF, and as such can be used as an identification card as well.

There are plans in course to replace the current RG system with a new Registro de Identidade Civil (Civilian Identity Registry), which will be national in scope, and to change the current ID card with a new smartcard.

Colombia

Every resident of Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 over the age of 14 must bear an identity card (Tarjeta de Identidad). Upon turning 18 every resident must obtain a Cédula de Ciudadanía, which is the only document that proves the identity of a person for legal purposes. ID cards must be carried at all times and must be presented to the police or military upon request. If the individual fails to present the ID card upon request by the police or the military, he/she is most likely going to be detained for 24 hours at a UPJ (Unidad Permanente de Justicia) even if he/she is not a suspect of any wrong doing. ID cards are needed to obtain employment, open bank accounts, obtain a passport, driver's license, military card, to enroll in educational institutions, vote or enter public buildings including airports and courthouses. Failure to produce ID is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine.

ID cards are free of charge, and duplicates are also free.

Chile

Every resident of Chile over the age of 18 must have and carry at all times their ID Card called Cédula de Identidad issued by the Civil Registry and Identification Service. It contains the full name, gender, nationality, date of birth, photograph of the data subject, right thumb print, ID number, and personal signature.

This is the only official form of identification for residents in Chile and is widely used and accepted as such. It is necessary for every contract, most bank transactions, voting, driving (along with the driver's licence) and other public and private situations.

Refusal to carry or show this ID card to a law enforcement agent (civil or uniformed police) can lead to detention up to 8 hours or until the identity can be verified, whichever occurs first.

Peru

In Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

, it is mandatory for all citizens over the age of 18, whether born inside or outside the territory of the Republic, to obtain a National Identity Document (Documento Nacional de Identidad).
The DNI is a public, personal and untransferable document.

The DNI is the only means of identification permitted for participating in any civil, legal, commercial, administrative, and judicial acts. It is also required for voting
Voting
Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion—often following discussions, debates, or election campaigns. It is often found in democracies and republics.- Reasons for voting :...

 and must be presented to authorities upon request. The DNI can be used as a passport
Passport
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

 to travel to all South American countries that are members of UNASUR.

The DNI is issued by the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status (RENIEC). For Peruvians abroad, service is provided through the Consulates of Peru, in accordance with Articles 26, 31 and 8 of Law No. 26,497.

The document is card-sized as defined by ISO format ID-1 (prior to 2005 the DNI was size ISO ID-2; renewal of the card due to the size change was not mandatory, nor did previously-emitted cards lose validity). The front of the card presents photographs of the holder's face, their name, date and place of birth (the latter in coded form), gender
Gender
Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. Depending on the context, the discriminating characteristics vary from sex to social role to gender identity...

 and marital status
Marital status
A person's marital status indicates whether the person is married. Questions about marital status appear on many polls and forms, including censuses and credit card applications.In the simplest sense, the only possible answers are "single" or "married"...

; the bottom quarter consists of machine-readable
Machine-readable passport
A Machine Readable Passport is a travel document where the data on the identity page is encoded in optical character recognition format. Many countries began to issue machine readable travel documents in the 1980s....

 text. Three dates are listed as well; the date the citizen was first registered at RENIEC; the date the document was issued; and the expiration date of the document. The back of the DNI features the holder's address (including district
Districts of Peru
The districts of Peru are the third-level country subdivisions of Peru. They are subdivisions of the provinces, which in turn are subdivisions of the larger regions or departments...

, department and/or province
Regions of Peru
The regions of Peru are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru. Since its 1821 independence, Peru had been divided into departments but faced the problem of an increasing centralization of political and economic power in its capital, Lima...

) and voting group. Eight voting record blocks are successively covered with metallic labels when the citizen presents themselves at their voting group on voting days. The back also denotes whether the holder is an organ donor, presents the holder's right index finger print, a PDF417
PDF417
PDF417 is a stacked linear barcode symbol format used in a variety of applications, primarily transport, identification cards, and inventory management. PDF stands for Portable Data File. The 417 signifies that each pattern in the code consists of 4 bars and spaces, and that each pattern is 17...

 bar code, and a 1D bar code.

Uruguay

Identity Card (Renewal)

In Uruguay, the identity card is issued by the Ministry of Interior and the National Civil Identification (DNIC). It is mandatory and essential for several steps at either governmental or private. The document is mandatory for all inhabitants of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, are native citizens, legal citizens or resident aliens in the country, even for children from 45 days old.

It is a laminated cardboard 9 cm wide and approximately 5 cm high, dominated by the blue color, showing the flag in the center of the Treinta y Tres Orientales, with the inscription "Liberty or Death." On the back appears the photo of the owner, the number assigned by the DNIC (Including a self-generated or check digit), name / s full / s with name / s and the corresponding signature (or proof of not knowing or not to sign).
On the reverse appears nationality, date of birth, date of issuing the document and the date it is due (usually 10 years after the date of issue, even if issued after 70 years of age, lifetime and for the children is valid for five years). There is also the right thumbprint and observations if any.

Identity cards are demanded widespread in all formal transactions, from credit card purchases to any identity validation, proof of age, and so on.

Not to be confused with the civic badge, which is used exclusively for voting in elections (elections and plebiscites).

Check Digit Calculation '
They take the 7 card numbers and multiply each by 2987634 one by one (the first number by 2, the second by 9 and so on, when each result exceeds one digit, the unit takes only).

Example:
UT: 1234567-X -> 2987634 -> 2, 8, 4, 8, 0, 8, 8

It is the sum of the results, the example would be 2 +8 +4 +8 +0 +8 +8 = 38 for the first number is greater than 38 that ends in 0 and is subtracted: 40-38 = 2 (is the same as 10 - (38 mod 10)). X = 2 then the check digit for the card 1,234,567.

Another simple way to look at it as a scalar product of vectors in module 10. The first 7 digits of the card can be viewed as a vector of length 7. This vector is multiplied by the vector scalar obtaining a number N 8123476 The check digit is found to be N module 10.

Example: CI: 1234567-X -> X = [(1x8) + (2x1) + (3x2) + (4x3) + (5x4) + (6x7) + (7x6)] mod 10 -> X = [ 8 +2 +6 +12 +20 +42 +42] mod 10 = 132 mod 10 = 2

Venezuela

Identity cards in Venezuela consist of a plastic-laminated paper which contains the national ID number (Cédula de Identidad) as well as a color-photo and the last names, given names, date of birth, right thumb print, signature, and marital status
Marital status
A person's marital status indicates whether the person is married. Questions about marital status appear on many polls and forms, including censuses and credit card applications.In the simplest sense, the only possible answers are "single" or "married"...

 (single, married, divorced, widowed) of the bearer. It also contains the documents expedition and expiration date. Two different prefixes can be found before the ID number: "V" for Venezuelans and "E" for foreigners (Extranjeros in Spanish). This distinction is also shown in the document at the very bottom by a bold all-caps typeface displaying either the word VENEZOLANO or EXTRANJERO, respectively.

Despite Venezuelan being the second country in the Americas (after the United States) to adopt a biometric passport
Biometric passport
A biometric passport, also known as an e-passport or ePassport, is a combined paper and electronic passport that contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of travelers...

, the current Venezuelan ID document is remarkably low-security, even for regional standards. It can hardly be called a card. The paper inside the laminated cover contains almost no security measures, be it engravings, wet seals, holograms, or watermarks. The laminated cover itself is very simplistic and quite large for the paper it covers. Government officials in charge of issuing the document openly recommend each individual to cut the excess plastic off and re-laminate the document in order to protect it from bending. The requirements for getting a Venezuelan identity document are quite relaxed and Venezuela lacks high-security in its birth certificates and other documents that give claim to citizenship.

Because one can get a Venezuelan passport and register to vote only by virtue of possessing a Venezuelan identity card, and since the Venezuelan government has been accused by the media and the opposition of naturalizing substantial amounts of foreigners for electoral purposes; many Venezuelans accused the government of a lack of a plan to ramp-up the security of the cédula de identidad along with other Venezuelan vital documents such as birth certificates as part of a strategy by the Chávez regime to continue the alleged practice of naturalizing foreigners for electoral purposes. The government has announced that a new cédula de identidad will be available to all citizens somewhere around the first quarter of 2011. This proposed ID is indeed a polycarbonate bankcard-sized document with biometric and RFID technology. It resembles the analogous card that has been in place in the Venezuelan biometric passports since 2007. However, the release of this new card to the public has been delayed in several occasions and as of May 2011 there are no news as to when it will be available.

See also

  • List of identity card policies by country
  • Access badge
    Access badge
    An access badge is a credential used to gain entry to an area having automated access control entry points. Entry points may be doors, turnstiles, parking gates or other barriers....

  • Anthropometry
    Anthropometry
    Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the human individual...

  • Common Access Card
    Common Access Card
    The Common Access Card is a United States Department of Defense smart card issued as standard identification for active-duty military personnel, reserve personnel, civilian employees, other non-DoD government employees, state employees of the National Guard, and eligible contractor personnel.The...

  • GlobalPlatform standard
    GlobalPlatform
    GlobalPlatform is an independent, not-for-profit organization concerned with a standardized infrastructure for development, deployment and management of smart cards...

  • Home Return Permit
    Home Return Permit
    A ‘Home Return Permit’ , also referred to as a ‘Home Visit Permit’ or ‘China Back Home Pass’ , is the colloquial name for the national identity document officially known as the Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents issued to PRC citizens who are permanent residents of Hong Kong...

  • Location-based authentication
    Location-based authentication
    Location based authentication is a special procedure to prove an individual's identity and authenticity on appearance simply by detecting its presence at a distinct location....

  • Magnetic stripe card
    Magnetic stripe card
    A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card...

  • NO2ID
    NO2ID
    NO2ID, the public campaign, was formed in 2004 to campaign against the United Kingdom government's plans to introduce UK ID Cards and the associated National Identity Register, which it believes has negative implications for privacy, civil liberties and personal safety.NO2ID is entirely independent...

  • Pass laws
    Pass laws
    Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and limit severely the movements of the non-white populace. This legislation was one of the dominant features of the country's apartheid system. The Black population were required to carry these pass books with them when outside...

  • Physical security
    Physical security
    Physical security describes measures that are designed to deny access to unauthorized personnel from physically accessing a building, facility, resource, or stored information; and guidance on how to design structures to resist potentially hostile acts...

  • Police certificate
    Police certificate
    A police certificate is an official document issued by police or government agency of a country to enumerate any criminal records that the applicant may or may not have...

  • Proximity card
    Proximity card
    Proximity card is a generic name for contactless integrated circuit devices used for security access or payment systems. The standard can refer to the older 125 kHz devices or the newer 13.56 MHz contactless RFID cards, most commonly known as contactless smartcards.Modern proximity cards...

  • Warrant card
    Warrant card
    A warrant card is proof of identification and authority carried by police officers. The term is normally used only within the United Kingdom and in current and former Commonwealth countries...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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