Royal Scots Fusiliers
Overview
 
The regiment was raised in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 in 1678 by Stuart loyalist Charles Erskine, de jure 5th Earl of Mar
Charles Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar
Charles Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar was a Scottish nobleman.On 2 April 1674 he married Mary Maule, daughter of George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure. Their son John Erskine became 22nd Earl of Mar....

 for service against the rebel covenanting forces during the Second Whig Revolt (1678-1679). They were used to keep the peace and put down brigands, mercenaries, and rebels. In the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau...

 of 1689, the regiment was ordered south. Initially they stayed loyal to James II of England
James II of England
James II & VII was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland...

 until he fled to Ireland, upon which they opted to serve Prince William of Orange
William III of England
William III & II was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland...

. The regiment later ironically fought against the Jacobites during the Second Jacobite Rebellion (1745) at the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the 1745 Jacobite Rising. Taking place on 16 April 1746, the battle pitted the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart against an army commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, loyal to the British government...

 in 1746.
The regiment was converted to fusiliers in 1689, but didn't receive the title officially until 1695.
Encyclopedia

The Earl of Mar's Regiment of Foot ('Mar's Grey Breeks') (1678-1695)

The regiment was raised in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 in 1678 by Stuart loyalist Charles Erskine, de jure 5th Earl of Mar
Charles Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar
Charles Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar was a Scottish nobleman.On 2 April 1674 he married Mary Maule, daughter of George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure. Their son John Erskine became 22nd Earl of Mar....

 for service against the rebel covenanting forces during the Second Whig Revolt (1678-1679). They were used to keep the peace and put down brigands, mercenaries, and rebels. In the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau...

 of 1689, the regiment was ordered south. Initially they stayed loyal to James II of England
James II of England
James II & VII was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland...

 until he fled to Ireland, upon which they opted to serve Prince William of Orange
William III of England
William III & II was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland...

. The regiment later ironically fought against the Jacobites during the Second Jacobite Rebellion (1745) at the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the 1745 Jacobite Rising. Taking place on 16 April 1746, the battle pitted the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart against an army commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, loyal to the British government...

 in 1746.

The Scots Fusilier Regiment of Foot (1695-1712)

The regiment was converted to fusiliers in 1689, but didn't receive the title officially until 1695. It was nicknamed the "Duke of Marlborough's Own" for its excellent service in all of the Duke's campaigns in the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch. As France and Spain were among the most powerful states of Europe, such a unification would have...

 and received the title of "Royal" in 1712.

21st (Royal North British Fusilier) Regiment of Foot (1713-1877)

The regiment was renamed the Royal North British Fusilier Regiment of Foot in 1713. It was later numbered the 21st Regiment in 1751, when seniority numbers were introduced.

21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot (1877-1881)

The regiment finally saw the restoration of "Scots" in their title in 1877.

Childers Reforms of 1881

The regiment did not suffer the indignity of being amalgamated, as it already had two regular battalions. However, it did become the County Regiment of Ayrshire, Dumfries-shire, Kircudbrightshire, Roxburghshire, Selkirkshire, and Wigtownshire in South-West Scotland. This made them a Lowland Regiment and forced them to adopt trews. It also had to lose its numbering, becoming The Scots Fusiliers.

Amalgamations of 1959

The Scots Fusiliers was amalgamated with the Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow Regiment)
Highland Light Infantry
The Highland Light Infantry was a regiment of the British Army from 1881 to 1959. In 1923 the regimental title was expanded to the Highland Light Infantry ...

 in 1959 to form The Royal Highland Fusiliers, (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment). The regular 1st battalions of the two Regiments combined at Redford Barracks
Redford Barracks
Redford Cavalry and Infantry Barracks are located on Colinton Road, near the Edinburgh City Bypass, east of the suburb of Colinton in Edinburgh, Scotland....

, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

 to form the 1st battalion of the new regiment (1 RHF).

Battle honours

The Regiment was awarded the following battle honours
Battle honours of the British and Imperial Armies
The following battle honours were awarded to units of the British Army and the armies of British India and the Dominions of the British Empire. From their institution until the end of the Second World War, awards were made by, or in consultation with, the British government, but, since 1945, the...

. Those shown in bold from the two World Wars were those selected to be emblazoned on the King's Colour.
  • Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde, Malplaquet, Dettingen, Bellisle, Martinique 1794, Bladensburg, Alma, Inkerman, Sevastopol, South Africa 1879, Burma 1885-87, Tirah, Relief of Ladysmith, South Africa 1899-1902

  • The Great War (18 battalions): Mons, Le Cateau, Retreat from Mons, Marne 1914, Aisne 1914, La Bassée 1914, Ypres 1914 '17 '18, Langemarck 1914, Gheluvelt, Nonne Bosschen, Neuve Chapelle, Aubers, Festubert 1915, Loos, Somme 1916 '18, Albert 1916 '18, Bazentin, Delville Wood, Pozières, Flers-Courcelette, Le Transloy, Ancre Heights, Ancre 1916, Arras 1917 '18, Scarpe 1917 '18, Arleux, Messines 1917, Pilckem, Menin Road, Polygon Wood, St Quentin, Bapaume 1918, Rosières, Lys, Estaires, Hazebrouck, Bailleul, Béthune, Scherpenberg, Drocourt-Quéant, Hindenberg Line, Canal du Nord, Courtrai, Selle, France and Flanders 1914-18, Doiran 1917 '18, Macedonia 1916-18, Helles, Gallipoli 1915-16, Rumani, Egypt 1916-17, Gaza, El Mughar, Nebi Samwil, Jerusalem, Jaffa, Tel Asur, Palestine 1917-18

  • The Second World War: Defence of Arras, Ypres-Comines Canal, Somme 1940, Withdrawal to Seine, Odon, Fontenay le Pesnil, Cheux, Defence of Rauray, Mont Pincon, Estry, Falaise, Le Vie Crossing, La Touques Crossing, Aart, Nederrijn, Best, Le Havre, Antwerp-Turnhout Canal, Scheldt, South Beveland, Lower Maas, Meijel, Venlo Pocket, Roer, Rhineland, Reichswald, Cleve, Goch, Rhine, Dreirwalde, Uelzen, Bremen, Artlenberg, North-West Europe 1940 '44-45, Landing in Sicily, Sicily 1943, Sangro, Garigliano Crossing, Minturno, Anzio, Advance to Tiber, Italy 1943-44, Madagascar, Middle East 1942, North Arakan, Razabil, Pinwe, Shweli, Mandalay, Burma 1944-45

  • 4th Battalion: South Africa 1900-02

  • 5th Battalion: South Africa 1900-01

Famous Officers

  • Sir Andrew Agnew
    Sir Andrew Agnew, 5th Baronet
    Lt-Gen. Sir Andrew Agnew, 5th Baronet JP was the son of Sir James Agnew, 4th Baronet and Lady Mary Montgomerie.-Succession:He succeeded his father as 5th Baronet Agnew, of Lochnaw on the latter's death on 9 March 1735...

     (in command at the Battle of Dettingen)
  • Field Marshal Sir Paul Haynes (in command at Inkerman).
  • Lord Trenchard
    Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard
    Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard GCB OM GCVO DSO was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force...

     (founder of the Royal Air Force
    Royal Air Force
    The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

     and later made Marshal of the Royal Air Force
    Marshal of the Royal Air Force
    Marshal of the Royal Air Force is the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. In peacetime it was granted to RAF officers in the appointment of Chief of the Defence Staff, and to retired Chiefs of the Air Staff, who were promoted to it on their last day of service. Promotions to the rank have ceased...

    ) served as a subaltern during the Second Boer War
    Second Boer War
    The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

    .
  • Deneys Reitz
    Deneys Reitz
    Deneys Reitz , son of Francis William Reitz, was a Boer soldier, later a South African soldier in the First World War, and a politician....

    , one time deputy Prime Minister of South Africa and South African High Commissioner in London. Reitz served as a Commando against the British during the Second Boer War but served on the British side against the Germans in Africa, later commanding the 1st Battalion of The Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front in France.
  • Sir Winston Churchill
    Winston Churchill
    Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

     commanded the 6th Battalion (Territorial Army) of the Regiment for a few months in 1915 on the Western Front while in disgrace after Gallipoli.
    • Churchill's second-in-command was Sir Archibald Sinclair, later made Secretary of State for Air in 1940 as part of Churchill's coalition government.
    • One of Churchill's subalterns was Sir Edmund Hakewell Smith, During World War II, he would later be promoted to Major-General and become commander of 52 (Lowland) Division in 1943.
  • Thomas Corbett, 2nd Baron Rowallan
    Thomas Corbett, 2nd Baron Rowallan
    Thomas Godfrey Polson Corbett, 2nd Baron Rowallan, KT, KBE, MC, TD , had a distinguished military career, was Chief Scout of the British Commonwealth and Empire and Governor of Tasmania.-Early life:...

     commanded the 6th (Pioneer) Battalion during the Battle of France
    Battle of France
    In the Second World War, the Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, which ended the Phoney War. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb , German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes, to cut off and...

    .
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK