Proximity of blood
Proximity of blood, or closeness in degree of kinship
Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin, through either biological, cultural, or historical descent. And descent groups, lineages, etc. are treated in their own subsections....

, is one of the ways to determine hereditary
Hereditary Title
Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are titles, positions or styles that are hereditary and thus tend or are bound to remain in particular families....

Order of succession
An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant.-Monarchies and nobility:...

 based on genealogy
Genealogy is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral traditions, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members...

. It was at loggerheads with primogeniture
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings . Historically, the term implied male primogeniture, to the exclusion of females...

 in numerous medieval succession disputes.

Feudal custom accorded quite a strong value to this claim.

  • In 1361, the Duchy of Burgundy would have gone to Charles II of Navarre according to primogeniture
    Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings . Historically, the term implied male primogeniture, to the exclusion of females...

    , but went to John II of France according to degree of kinship. Charles II of Navarre
    Charles II of Navarre
    Charles II , called "Charles the Bad", was King of Navarre 1349-1387 and Count of Évreux 1343-1387....

     was grandson and heir to Margaret of Burgundy, second daughter of Duke Robert II of Burgundy. John II of France
    John II of France
    John II , called John the Good , was the King of France from 1350 until his death. He was the second sovereign of the House of Valois and is perhaps best remembered as the king who was vanquished at the Battle of Poitiers and taken as a captive to England.The son of Philip VI and Joan the Lame,...

     was son and heir to Joan of Burgundy, third daughter of Duke Robert II of Burgundy. John was first cousin of Philip's father, whereas Charles was son of a first cousin of Philip's father, i.e. a second cousin himself. Charles' mother Joan had died already 1349. John was thus one degree closer to Dukes of Burgundy than the primogeniture heir Charles.

  • Earlier, Mary of Antioch
    Mary of Antioch
    Maria of Antioch , daughter of Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch and his second wife Melisende de Lusignan, was the pretender to the throne of Jerusalem from 1269 to 1277...

     claimed the throne of Jerusalem in 1269. She was the daughter of Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch and Tripoli (d. 1233) and his second wife Melisend of Cyprus (who died after 1249). Melisend was the youngest daughter of King Amalric I of Cyprus and his third wife Queen Isabella of Jerusalem
    Isabella of Jerusalem
    Isabella I was Queen regnant of Jerusalem from 1190/1192 until her death. By her four marriages, she was successively Lady of Toron, Marchioness of Montferrat, Countess of Champagne and Queen of Cyprus....

    . Since Mary was, at the time of the death of Conradin
    Conrad , called the Younger or the Boy, but usually known by the diminutive Conradin , was the Duke of Swabia , King of Jerusalem , and King of Sicily .-Early childhood:Conradin was born in Wolfstein, Bavaria, to Conrad...

    , the only living grandchild of Queen Isabella, she claimed the throne on basis of proximity in kinship to Conradin and to the Kings of Jerusalem. However, the Haute Cour of Kingdom awarded the succession to an heir of Melisend's elder sister, though he was a great-grandson of Isabella.

  • Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale claimed the crown of Scotland
    Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

     in the 1290s using the argument of proximity of blood, while John Balliol made a rival claim based on primogeniture. Arbitration by Edward I of England
    Edward I of England
    Edward I , also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons...

     awarded the throne to Balliol, but when Edward subsequently attempted to conquer Scotland, Robert de Brus' grandson and namesake
    Robert I of Scotland
    Robert I , popularly known as Robert the Bruce , was King of Scots from March 25, 1306, until his death in 1329.His paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage , and...

     took the throne as king and maintained Scottish independence; Bruce's success led to his acceptance as rightful king and Balliol's reign was disregarded as an usurpation; this established proximity of blood as a valid principle in the Scottish royal succession, although precedent and legislation also had a role.

Other examples:
  • The Swedish
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

    Queen regnant
    A queen regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king. An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire....

     Ulrika Eleonora the Younger
    Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
    Ulrika Eleonora or Ulrica Eleanor , also known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 5 December 1718 to 29 February 1720, and then Queen consort until her death....

     claimed the throne after her brother Charles XII
    Charles XII of Sweden
    Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, , Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl, also known as Charles the Habitué was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718...

    's death in 1718 even though her older sister's son was alive.
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