Pavlos Karolidis
Pavlos Karolidis or Karolides was one of the most eminent Greek
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 historians of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


Karolidis was born in 1849 in the village of Androniki (Turkish: Endürlük, now a suburb of Kayseri
Kayseri is a large and industrialized city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and...

) in Cappadocia
Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in Nevşehir Province.In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine...

. His father Konstantinos Karolidis or Karloglou was a wealthy landowner and wheat merchant. Like most Cappadocian Greeks (see Karamanlides
The Karamanlides , or simply Karamanlis, are a Greek Orthodox, Turkish-speaking people native to the Karaman and Cappadocia regions of Anatolia...

), Karolidis' mother tongue was Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

, but he was educated at Greek schools, including two of the premier Greek-language institutions of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, the Great School of the Nation in Constantinople
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

 and the Evangelical School of Smyrna
Evangelical School of Smyrna
The Evangelical School was a Greek educational institution established in 1733 in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire, now Izmir, Turkey. The school, initially an Orthodox Church-approved institution, attracted major figures of the Modern Greek Enlightenment...

. In 1867 he enrolled in the School of Philosophy of the University of Athens, and in 1870 he went to Germany on a scholarship. He studied at the universities of Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, Strasbourg
Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking,...

 and Tübingen
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers.-Geography:...

 and was awarded his doctorate in 1872.

On his return from Germany, he initially taught in the Greek high schools of Pera
Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city by the Golden Horn...

 and Chalcedon
Chalcedon , sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari . It is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy...

. In 1876 he went to Smyrna to teach at the Evangelical School. There he remained until 1886, when he moved permanently to Athens in the independent Greek kingdom
Kingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 in the Convention of London by the Great Powers...

. After teaching in a high school for a few months, he was elected assistant professor of General History at the University of Athens. In 1893, he succeeded the dean of modern Greek historians, Constantine Paparrigopoulos, at the chair of Greek History. Initially, Karolidis pursued the idea of occupying a new seat for Oriental Studies, where he was more qualified, but his rivalry with Spyridon Lambros
Spyridon Lambros
Spyridon Lambros or Lampros was a Greek history professor and, briefly, Prime Minister of Greece.He was born in Corfu in 1851 and was educated in London, Paris and Vienna studying history....

 negated this prospect.

As he was still an Ottoman citizen, in 1908 Karolidis was elected to the Ottoman Parliament. His independent-mindedness during his tenure, especially with regards to his ardent anti-Slavic feelings and his hopes for a Greco-Turkish rapprochement, alienated him from the Greek authorities and those Ottoman Greeks who aligned themselves with the policies of the Greek kingdom. Disappointed, Karolidis initially thought to return to Athens and resume his university post, but in the event he was convinced to run as a candidate for the Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
The Committee of Union and Progress began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Ali Hüseyinzade...

, the party of the Young Turks
Young Turks
The Young Turks , from French: Les Jeunes Turcs) were a coalition of various groups favouring reformation of the administration of the Ottoman Empire. The movement was against the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Sultan and favoured a re-installation of the short-lived Kanûn-ı Esâsî constitution...

. This was seen as tantamount to treason by the nationalist Greek press, with rumours even spreading that he had converted to Islam. Karolidis was elected to Parliament and remained at Constantinople until September 1912. As war between the Ottoman Empire and the Balkan League
Balkan League
The Balkan League was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan states of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan peninsula...

, to which Greece had acceded in May, became inevitable, he left for Germany. He returned to Greece only towards the end of the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, pitted the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success...

 in May 1913.

Karolidis resumed his teaching at the University of Athens only in September 1915. A convinced royalist, he supported King Constantine I
Constantine I of Greece
Constantine I was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece won Thessaloniki and doubled in...

 during the National Schism, a fact which cost him his post following the victory of Eleftherios Venizelos
Eleftherios Venizelos
Eleftherios Venizelos was an eminent Greek revolutionary, a prominent and illustrious statesman as well as a charismatic leader in the early 20th century. Elected several times as Prime Minister of Greece and served from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1932...

 and the king's abdication in June 1917. He was reinstated in early 1921, after Venizelos' electoral defeat
Greek legislative election, 1920
The legislative elections of 1920 were probably the most crucial elections in the modern history of Greece, influencing not only the few years afterwards, including Greece's defeat by Kemal Atatürk's reformed Turkish army in 1922, but setting the stage for Greece's political landscape for most of...

, and kept his post until he was pensioned off in 1923. His political leanings changed abruptly in this period, following the Asia Minor Disaster, and he became fiercely critical towards the Greek monarchy. He died in Athens on 26 July 1930.


Karolidis's initial research, during the 1870s and 1880s, was focused on his home region of Cappadocia, with the publication of Kappadokika, a historical and archaeological dissertation on Cappadocia in 1874 and his studies on the city of Comana and the Cappadocian Greek dialect published in 1882 and 1885 respectively.

Although an eminent Orientalist, after his appointment to the University of Athens Karolidis largely neglected the field and instead turned to Greek and general history, in conformity with the chairs he held. He published 18 books and 38 articles in the period 1893–1908, including his three volume History of the 19th Century, a three volume-work (plus the introductory Introduction) which focuses on Greece, and his unfinished Universal or World History, only four of whose projected ten volumes were completed. The latter work is of particular importance as it was one of the rare studies on the historical method
Historical method
Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. The question of the nature, and even the possibility, of a sound historical method is raised in the...

 written in Greek until then. He is also notable as the editor of the revised edition of Paparrigopoulos' History of the Greek Nation, published in 1902–1903.

The period after the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
The Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place in the Balkans in south-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913.By the early 20th century, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia, the countries of the Balkan League, had achieved their independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large parts of their ethnic...

 was not very productive for Karolidis, but after 1922 he produced some of his most famous works, dealing with the post-Byzantine
Byzantine usually refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.Byzantine may also refer to:* A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or native Greek during the Middle Ages...

 period of Greek history (Ottoman Greece
Ottoman Greece
Most of Greece gradually became part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th century until its declaration of independence in 1821, a historical period also known as Tourkokratia ....

 and Modern Greece): the seven-volume Contemporary History (1922–1929) and the History of Greece (1925). The eighth volume of the Contemporary History was eventually published in 1932, incorporated in the sixth edition of Paparrigopoulos' History of the Greek Nation.


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