Pangaion hills
The Pangaion Hills ancient forms: Pangaeon, Pangaeum, Homeric name: Nysa are a mountain range
Mountain range
A mountain range is a single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age; a component part of a mountain system or of a mountain chain...

 in Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, approximately 40 km from Kavala
Kavala , is the second largest city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala peripheral unit. It is situated on the Bay of Kavala, across from the island of Thasos...

. The highest elevation is 1,956 m and the mountaintop name is Koutra. The Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

 lies to the south and the plains of Philippi-Drama to the north The mountain ranges covers the southeastern portion of the prefecture of Serres as well as northwestern part of the Kavala prefecture which covers the most part of the hills.

The hills are directly across a fertile plain from the ancient city of Philippi
Philippi was a city in eastern Macedonia, established by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest...

, they are located between the Strymon and the Xiropotamos rivers and are covered in Oriental plane
Platanus orientalis
Platanus orientalis, or the Oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, known for its longevity and spreading crown. The species name derives from its historical distribution eastward from the Balkans, where it was recognized in ancient Greek history and literature....

 and Chestnut
Chestnut , some species called chinkapin or chinquapin, is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name also refers to the edible nuts they produce.-Species:The chestnut belongs to the...

 trees. Towns found in the Pangaion hills include Nikisiani and Palaiochori which are agricultural in nature and grow mainly grain
Cereals are grasses cultivated for the edible components of their grain , composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran...

 and tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

. The town of Palaiochori boasts the ruins of an ancient castle
A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble...

 on a peak overlooking the town. Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

 and silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

 were mined in the ancient times. The Athenian tyrant Pisistratus was exiled in the middle of the mountain. It was with the rich gold and silver available in the region in mind that the Athenians sent out a colony in 465
Year 465 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Hermenericus and Basiliscus...

 in an area known as the Nine Roads (Ennea Hodoi). The colonists were massacred by nearby Thracians and the colony was abandoned, though the Athenians would return to the area with their colony at Amphipolis
Amphipolis was an ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day region of Central Macedonia. It was built on a raised plateau overlooking the east bank of the river Strymon where it emerged from Lake Cercinitis, about 3 m. from the Aegean Sea. Founded in...


The municipality of Pangaio
Pangaio is a municipality in the Kavala peripheral unit, Greece, named after the Pangaion hills. The seat of the municipality is in Eleftheroupoli.-Municipality:...

 is named after this mountain range and the seat of the municipality is Nikisiani.

External links

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