Nikolai Nebogatov
Nikolai Ivanovich Nebogatov ( occasionally transliterated as Nebogatoff, (April 20, 1849 – August 4, 1922) was a Rear-Admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy
Imperial Russian Navy
The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Tsarist fleets prior to the February Revolution.-First Romanovs:Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, construction of the first three-masted ship, actually built within Russia, was completed in 1636. It was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein...

, noted for his role in the final stages of the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 of 1904-1905.


Nebogatov graduated from the Sea Cadets Corps
Sea Cadet Corps (Russia)
The Sea Cadet Corps , occasionally translated as the Marine Cadet Corps or the Naval Cadet Corps, is an educational establishment for training Naval officers for the Russian Navy in Saint Petersburg.It is the oldest existing high school in Russia.-History:...

 in 1869, and was promoted to lieutenant in 1874. In 1882-86 he was executive officer
Executive officer
An executive officer is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.-Administrative law:...

 aboard the cruiser
A cruiser is a type of warship. The term has been in use for several hundreds of years, and has had different meanings throughout this period...

 Razboinik and in 1888 was given command of the gunboat
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.-History:...

 Groza, followed in 1889, by the gunboat Grad. He was in command of numerous Russian warships during his career, including the cruisers Krejs, Admiral Nakhimov
Russian armoured cruiser Admiral Nakhimov
Admiral Nakhimov , was an armoured cruiser in the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War. She was named after Admiral Pavel Nakhimov)-Construction:...

 (1896), and Minin. He was then appointed head of naval artillery
Naval artillery
Naval artillery, or naval riflery, is artillery mounted on a warship for use in naval warfare. Naval artillery has historically been used to engage either other ships, or targets on land; in the latter role it is currently termed naval gunfire fire support...

 training for the Russian Baltic Fleet, and was promoted to rear admiral in 1901.

During the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

, the bulk of the Russian Baltic Fleet was renamed the "Second Pacific Squadron", and set sail under the command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky
Zinovy Rozhestvensky
Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky was an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. He was in command of the Second Pacific Squadron in the Battle of Tsushima, during the Russo-Japanese War....

 on an epic journey to relieve the Russian Pacific Fleet, trapped at the Battle of Port Arthur
Battle of Port Arthur
The Battle of Port Arthur was the starting battle of the Russo-Japanese War...

 by the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

. Largely for political reasons, calls were made for a "Third Pacific Squadron", consisting of mostly obsolete cruisers and coastal defence battleship to supplement the Second Pacific Squadron. Realizing that the ships were highly unsuited for the task, and faced with untrained crews, a number of Russian admirals refused the command; however, Nebogatov accepted the challenge. Despite several incidents of sabotage by pro-revolutionary or anarchist elements within the crews, Nebogatov sailed in February 1905 with the old battleship Nikolai I
Russian battleship Imperator Nikolai I
Imperator Nikolai I was a Russian pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Baltic Fleet in the late 1880s. She participated in the celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America in New York City in 1892. She assigned to the Mediterranean Squadron and visited Toulon in October 1893...

(as flagship
A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, reflecting the custom of its commander, characteristically a flag officer, flying a distinguishing flag...

), cruiser Vladimir Monomakh
Russian armoured cruiser Vladimir Monomakh
Vladimir Monomakh was an armoured cruiser built for the Imperial Russian Navy during the 1880s. The vessel was named after Vladimir II Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kiev. She spent most of her career in the Far East, although the ship was in the Baltic Sea when the Russo-Japanese War began in 1904...

, and coastal-defense battleships Admiral Ushakov
Russian battleship Admiral Ushakov
The Admiral Ushakov was the lead ship in her class of armoured warships of the Imperial Russian Navy, and named after Admiral Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov the Russian naval commander of the 18th century.- Service Life :...

, Admiral Senyavin, and General Admiral Graf Apraxin, as well as numerous transport ships. The squadron passed through the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal , also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation...

 and crossed the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

 to rendezvous with the Second Pacific Squadron at Cam Ranh Bay
Cam Ranh Bay
Cam Ranh Bay is a deep-water bay in Vietnam in the province of Khánh Hòa. It is located at an inlet of the South China Sea situated on the southeastern coast of Vietnam, between Phan Rang and Nha Trang, approximately 290 kilometers / 180 miles northeast of Hồ Chí Minh City / Saigon.Cam Ranh is...

, French Indochina
French Indochina
French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin , Annam , and Cochinchina , as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887....


During the Battle of Tsushima
Battle of Tsushima
The Battle of Tsushima , commonly known as the “Sea of Japan Naval Battle” in Japan and the “Battle of Tsushima Strait”, was the major naval battle fought between Russia and Japan during the Russo-Japanese War...

, the Japanese fleet concentrated its efforts against the Second Pacific Squadron, so Nebogatov's ships survived the fate of Rozhestvenski's battleships during the first day or battle. With Rozhestvenski seriously wounded, and most of the Second Pacific Squadron's warships sunk or lost, Nebogatov took over command. Realizing that his ships were no match for the Japanese fleet, and that the Russian cruiser division under Admiral Oskar Enkvist
Oskar Enkvist
Oskar Adolfovich Enkwist or Oskar Enquist was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy, noted for his role in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.-Biography:...

 would not arrive in time to prevent his annihilation, Nebogatov accepted Admiral Togo Heihachiro
Togo Heihachiro
Fleet Admiral Marquis was a Fleet Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and one of Japan's greatest naval heroes. He was termed by Western journalists as "the Nelson of the East".-Early life:...

's surrender terms, and on May 28, 1905, he surrendered five of his remaining warships: battleships Nikolai I, Oryol, General-Admiral Apraksin, and Admiral Senyavin to the Japanese. The decision was opposed by many of his officers, and Captain Vasili Fersen
Vasili Fersen
Baron Vasili Nikolayevich Fersen was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy. Born in the Governorate of Estonia as Wilhelm Fersen, he was of Scottish ancestry, his forebears name being from clan McPherson.-Biography:...

 of the cruiser Izumrud
Russian cruiser Izumrud
Izumrud was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Russian Navy, and the lead ship in the two-ship class. The Izumrud and her sister ship were based on the German-built .-Background:...

 disobeyed orders and escaped through the Japanese lines. The captain of the battleship Admiral Ushakov, having become lost during the night, was unaware of the orders to surrender, and was sunk the next morning, out-gunned and outnumbered, by the Japanese fleet.

Nebogatov was taken as a prisoner of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 by the Japanese, and while a prisoner was dishonorably discharged by the Russian Admirality. On his return to Russia, he and 77 of his subordinate officers were arrested and taken before a court martial in December 1906. Nebogatov and three of his captains were sentenced to death by firing squad on December 25, 1906, but the sentences were commuted to 10 years in prison by order of Tsar Nicholas
Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Prince of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church.Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until...

. He was released from the prison fortress of Sts. Peter and Paul until May 1909, when he was freed on the occasion of the tsar's birthday.

Nebogatov subsequently moved to Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, where he died in 1922.

Nebogatov was married to Nadezhda Petrovna and had two daughters and one son.
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