National Academy of Engineering
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is a government-created non-profit institution in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, that was founded in 1964 under the same congressional act that led to the founding of the National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences commonly refers to the academy in the United States of America.National Academy of Sciences may also refer to :* National Academy of Sciences of Argentina* Armenian National Academy of Sciences...

. As a national academy
National academy
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities. Typically the country's learned societies in...

, it consists of members who are elected by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. The election process for new members is conducted annually. The NAE is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the rest of the National Academies the role of advising the federal government. The NAE operates engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers.

The NAE is part of the United States National Academies
United States National Academies
The United States National Academies comprises four organizations:* National Academy of Sciences * National Academy of Engineering * Institute of Medicine * National Research Council...

, which also includes:
  • National Academy of Sciences
    National Academy of Sciences
    National Academy of Sciences commonly refers to the academy in the United States of America.National Academy of Sciences may also refer to :* National Academy of Sciences of Argentina* Armenian National Academy of Sciences...

  • Institute of Medicine
    Institute of Medicine
    The Institute of Medicine is a not-for-profit, non-governmental American organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences...

  • National Research Council
    United States National Research Council
    The National Research Council of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academies, carrying out most of the studies done in their names.The National Academies include:* National Academy of Sciences...


Formally, "members" of the NAE must be U.S. Citizens. The term "foreign associate" is applied to non-citizens who are elected to the NAE. "The NAE has more than 2,000 peer-elected members and foreign associates, senior professionals in business, academia, and government who are among the world’s most accomplished engineers," according to the NAE site's About page.

Election to the NAE is considered to be the among the highest recognitions in engineering-related fields, and it often comes as a recognition of a lifetime's worth of accomplishments.

The current president of the NAE is Dr. Charles Vest.


Nomination for membership can only be done by a current member of the NAE for outstanding engineers with identifiable contributions or accomplishments in one or both of the following categories:
  • Engineering research, practice, or education, including, where appropriate, significant contributions to the engineering literature.
  • Pioneering of new and developing fields of technology, making major advancements in traditional fields of engineering, or developing/implementing innovative approaches to engineering education.

Though the average age of members is over 70, some members have been elected at a relatively young age, the youngest being Google co-founder Larry Page
Larry Page
Lawrence "Larry" Page is an American computer scientist and internet entrepreneur who, with Sergey Brin, is best known as the co-founder of Google. As of April 4, 2011, he is also the chief executive of Google, as announced on January 20, 2011...

, who was elected in 2004 at the age of 31.

The membership of the NAE includes many notable people – essentially by definition, as the election to membership in the NAE is among the highest forms of recognition of notable accomplishments in engineering.

Major prizes

The Academy annually awards three prizes that each award $500,000 to the winner. The three prizes are the Bernard M. Gordon Prize, the Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize, and the Charles Stark Draper Prize. They are sometimes referred to collectively as the American version of a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 for engineering.

Gordon Prize

The Bernard M. Gordon Prize was started in 2001 by the NAE. It is named after Bernard Marshall Gordon, the founder of Analogic Corporation
Analogic Corporation
Analogic is an American multinational corporation. Analogic Corporation currently employs 1,200 employees worldwide with approximately 400 working at the main facility and headquarters in Peabody, Massachusetts.-History:...

. Its purpose is to recognize leaders in academia for the development of new educational approaches to engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

. Each year, the Gordon Prize awards $500,000 to the grantee, of which the recipient may personally use $250,000, and his or her institution receives $250,000 for the ongoing support of academic development.
  • 2009 Thomas H. Byers and Tina Seelig for pioneering, continually developing, and tirelessly disseminating technology entrepreneurship education resources for engineering students and educators around the world. (STVP Program at Stanford University)
  • 2008 Jacquelyn F. Sullivan and Lawrence E. Carlson for the Integrated Teaching and Learning Program that infuses hands-on learning throughout K-16 engineering education to motivate and prepare tomorrow's engineering leaders.
  • 2007 Arthur W. Winston, Harold S. Goldberg, and Jerome E. Levy for innovation in engineering and technology education. They were founders and lecturers at the Gordon Institute during its early years at Tufts University
    Tufts University
    Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, Massachusetts. It is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and on the eastern border of France...

  • 2006 Jens E. Jorgensen, John S. Lamancusa, Lueny Morell, Allen L. Soyster, and Jose Zayas-Castro, for creating the Learning Factory, where multidisciplinary student teams develop engineering leadership skills by working with industry to solve real-world problems.
  • 2005 Edward J. Coyle, Leah H. Jamieson
    Leah Jamieson
    Leah H. Jamieson is an American engineering educator serving at present as the John A. Edwardson Dean of Engineering and Ransburg Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University...

     and William C. Oakes for innovations in the education of tomorrow's engineering leaders by developing and disseminating the Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) program.
  • 2004 Frank S. Barnes for pioneering an Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Program (ITP) that produces leaders who bridge engineering, social sciences, and public policy.
  • 2002: Eli Fromm
    Eli Fromm
    Eli Fromm is the Roy A. Brothers University Research Professor and Director of the Center for Educational Research at Drexel University. He is a member of the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering. Professor Fromm received a B.S...

     for innovation that combines technical, societal, and experiential learning into an integrated undergraduate engineering curriculum.

Russ Prize

The Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize is an American national and international award established by the NAE in October 1999 in Athens
Athens, Ohio
Athens is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Athens County, Ohio, United States. It is located along the Hocking River in the southeastern part of Ohio. A historic college town, Athens is home to Ohio University and is the principal city of the Athens, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area. ...

, Ohio. Named after Fritz Russ, the founder of Systems Research Laboratories, and his wife Dolores Russ, it recognizes engineering achievement that "has had a significant impact on society and has contributed to the advancement of the human condition through widespread use." The award was instigated at the request of Ohio University
Ohio University
Ohio University is a public university located in the Midwestern United States in Athens, Ohio, situated on an campus...

 to honor Fritz Russ, one of its alumni.

The first Russ Prize was awarded to two people, Earl E. Bakken and Wilson Greatbatch
Wilson Greatbatch
Wilson Greatbatch was an American engineer and inventor whois most widely known as the inventor of the implantable cardiac pacemaker...

, in 2001. Since then, the prize has been awarded to one person every two years. The most recent recipient, in January 2011, was Leroy E. Hood, who received the award for his research on fundamental biology. Only living persons may receive the prize and recipients of the Charles Stark Draper Prize
Charles Stark Draper Prize
The National Academy of Engineering annually awards the Charles Stark Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering. It is one of three prizes that constitute the "Nobel Prizes of Engineering" - the others being the Academy's Russ...

 are not eligible for the Russ Prize. Members of the NAE, as well as non-members worldwide are able to receive the award.

The winners are presented during the National Engineers Week in February and receive US$500,000, a gold medallion and a hand-scribed certificate.
Year Recipient(s) Nationality Reason Reference
2001 and USA "for their independent development of the implantable cardiac pacemaker
Cardiac pacemaker
right|thumb|350px|Image showing the cardiac pacemaker which is the SA nodeThe contraction of heart muscle in all animals with hearts is initiated by chemical impulses. The rate at which these impulses fire controls the heart rate...

2003 USA "for his pioneering work on artificial organs, beginning with the kidney
The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and...

, thus launching a new field that is benefiting the lives of millions."
2005 USA "for bioengineering membrane-based sensors in medical, food, and environmental applications."
2007 USA "for the characterization and modeling of human tissue mechanics and function leading to prevention and mitigation of trauma
Trauma (medicine)
Trauma refers to "a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident." It can also be described as "a physical wound or injury, such as a fracture or blow." Major trauma can result in secondary complications such as circulatory shock, respiratory failure and death...

2009 USA "for pioneering the engineering and commercialization of biological systems for large-scale manufacturing of antibiotics and other drugs."
2011 USA "for automating DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 sequencing that revolutionized description for Hood Leroy photobiomedicine
Photomedicine is an interdisciplinary branch of medicine that involves the study and application of light with respect to health and disease. Photomedicine may be related to the practice of various fields of medicine including dermatology, surgery, interventional radiology, optical diagnostics,...

 and forensic science."

Charles Stark Draper Prize

The NAE annually awards the Charles Stark Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering. The winner of this prize receives $500,000. The Draper prize is named for Charles S. Draper
Charles Stark Draper
Charles Stark Draper was an American scientist and engineer, often referred to as "the father of inertial navigation." He was the founder and director of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, later renamed the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, which under his direction designed and built the Apollo...

, the "father of inertial navigation", an MIT professor and founder of the Draper Laboratory
Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
Draper Laboratory is an American not-for-profit research and development organization in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Draper focuses on the design, development, and deployment of advanced technology solutions to problems in national security, space exploration, health care and energy.Originally...

  • 1989: Jack S. Kilby
    Jack Kilby
    Jack St. Clair Kilby was an American physicist who took part in the invention of the integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments in 1958. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 2000. He is credited with the invention of the integrated circuit or microchip...

     and Robert N. Noyce
    Robert Noyce
    Robert Norton Noyce , nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968...

     for their independent development of the monolithic integrated circuit
    Integrated circuit
    An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

  • 1991: Sir Frank Whittle
    Frank Whittle
    Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS was a British Royal Air Force engineer officer. He is credited with independently inventing the turbojet engine Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was a British Royal Air...

     and Hans von Ohain
    Hans von Ohain
    Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain was a German engineer, one of the inventors of jet propulsion.Frank Whittle, who patented in 1930 in the United Kingdom, and Hans von Ohain, who patented in 1936 in Germany, developed the concept independently during the late 1930s...

     for their independent development of the turbojet engine
    Jet engine
    A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet to generate thrust by jet propulsion and in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jets...

  • 1993: John Backus
    John Backus
    John Warner Backus was an American computer scientist. He directed the team that invented the first widely used high-level programming language and was the inventor of the Backus-Naur form , the almost universally used notation to define formal language syntax.He also did research in...

     for his development of FORTRAN
    Fortran is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing...

    , the first widely used, general purpose, high-level computer language.
  • 1995: John R. Pierce and Harold A. Rosen for their development of communication satellite technology.
  • 1997: Vladimir Haensel
    Vladimir Haensel
    Vladimir Haensel was an American chemical engineer who invented the platforming process - a platinum catalytic process for reforming petroleum hydrocarbons into gasoline...

     for his invention of "platforming".
  • 1999: Charles K. Kao
    Charles K. Kao
    The Honorable Sir Charles Kuen Kao, GBM, KBE, FRS, FREng is a pioneer in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications...

    , Robert D. Maurer
    Robert D. Maurer
    Dr. Robert D. Maurer is an American industrial physicist noted for his leadership in the invention of optical fiber.-Early life:...

    , and John B. MacChesney
    John B. MacChesney
    Dr. John B. MacChesney is a Bell Labs pioneer in optical communication, best known for his 1974 invention of the modified chemical vapor deposition process with colleague P.B. O'Connor, and for co-inventing high-purity "sol-gel" overcladding for optical fiber in the early 1980s...

     for the development of fiber optics.
  • 2001: Vinton G. Cerf, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock
    Leonard Kleinrock
    Leonard Kleinrock is an American engineer and computer scientist. A computer science professor at UCLA's Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, he made several important contributions to the field of computer networking, in particular to the theoretical side of computer networking...

    , and Lawrence G. Roberts for the development of the Internet
    The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

  • 2002: Robert Langer for the bioengineering of revolutionary medical drug delivery
    Drug delivery
    Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. Drug delivery technologies modify drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well...

  • 2003: Ivan A. Getting
    Ivan A. Getting
    Ivan Alexander Getting was an American physicist and electrical engineer, credited with the development of the Global Positioning System...

     and Bradford W. Parkinson
    Bradford Parkinson
    Bradford Parkinson is an American engineer and inventor, and United States Air Force colonel best known as the father of the Global Positioning System....

     for their work developing the Global Positioning System
    Global Positioning System
    The Global Positioning System is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites...

  • 2004: Alan C. Kay
    Alan Kay
    Alan Curtis Kay is an American computer scientist, known for his early pioneering work on object-oriented programming and windowing graphical user interface design, and for coining the phrase, "The best way to predict the future is to invent it."He is the president of the Viewpoints Research...

    , Butler W. Lampson, Robert W. Taylor
    Robert Taylor (computer scientist)
    Robert William Taylor , known as Bob Taylor, is an Internet pioneer, who led teams that made major contributions to the personal computer, and other related technologies....

    , and Charles P. Thacker
    Charles P. Thacker
    Charles P. Thacker is an American pioneer computer designer.-Biography:Thacker was born in Pasadena, California on February 26, 1943.He received his B.S...

     for their work on Alto, the first practical networked computer.
  • 2005: Minoru S. "Sam" Araki, Francis J. Madden, Edward A. Miller, James W. Plummer
    James W. Plummer
    James W. Plummer is a retired engineer who served as the fifth Director of the National Reconnaissance Office. Mr. Plummer was the first Director NRO to come from private industry. He previously served as the Lockheed Corporation program manager for the CORONA and LANYARD imaging systems. Mr....

     and Don H. Schoessler for the design, development, and operation of Corona
    Corona (satellite)
    The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force...

    , the first space-based Earth observation systems.
  • 2006: Willard S. Boyle
    Willard Boyle
    Willard Sterling Boyle, was a Canadian physicist and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device. On October 6, 2009, it was announced that he would share the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit—the CCD sensor".-Life:Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia, he...

     and George E. Smith
    George E. Smith
    George Elwood Smith is an American scientist, applied physicist, and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device. He was awarded a one-quarter share in the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit—the CCD sensor".Smith was born in White Plains, New York...

     for the invention of the Charge-Coupled Device
    Charge-coupled device
    A charge-coupled device is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time...

     (CCD), a light-sensitive component at the heart of digital camera
    Digital camera
    A digital camera is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. It is the main device used in the field of digital photography...

    s and other widely used imaging technologies
    Imaging technology
    Imaging technology is the application of materials and methods to create, preserve or duplicate images. This can mean several things:*Computer graphics*Microfilm and Micrographics*Visual arts**Etching**Drawing and Technical drawing**Cinema**Painting...

  • 2007: Tim Berners-Lee
    Tim Berners-Lee
    Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, , also known as "TimBL", is a British computer scientist, MIT professor and the inventor of the World Wide Web...

     for developing the World Wide Web.
  • 2008: Rudolf E. Kalman
    Rudolf Kalman
    Rudolf Emil Kálmán is a Hungarian-American electrical engineer, mathematical system theorist, and college professor, who was educated in the United States, and has done most of his work there. He is currently a retired professor from three different institutes of technology and universities...

     for developing the Kalman filter
    Kalman filter
    In statistics, the Kalman filter is a mathematical method named after Rudolf E. Kálmán. Its purpose is to use measurements observed over time, containing noise and other inaccuracies, and produce values that tend to be closer to the true values of the measurements and their associated calculated...

  • 2009: Robert H. Dennard for his invention and contributions to the development of Dynamic Random Access Memory
    Dynamic random access memory
    Dynamic random-access memory is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. The capacitor can be either charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1...

     (DRAM), used universally in computers and other data processing and communication systems.

Program areas

  • Grand Challenges for Engineering

In February 2008 the NAE announced a list of 14 "grand" challenges for engineering in the next century. The NAE convened a committee of experts in engineering, science, and technology to form this list. The committee convened over the course of several months and took input from public comments made on the project website as well as opinions from experts external to the committee.

On October 6, 2008 at the NAE annual meeting, a public symposium was held where several members of the committee spoke publicly about the challenges. Following this event, a print version of the Grand Challenges website was made available online at the site.

Members of the public voted on the challenges in rank order of importance, and as of the close of voting on June 30, 2008, the results of the votes are as follows:
(poll rankings)
  1. Make solar energy economical
  2. Provide energy from fusion
  3. Provide access to clean water
  4. Reverse-engineer the brain
  5. Advance personalized learning

  • Frontiers of Engineering

The Frontiers of Engineering program assembles a group of emerging engineering leaders - usually aged 30–45 - to discuss cutting-edge research in various engineering fields and industry sectors. The goal of the meetings is to bring participants together to collaborate, network, and share ideas. There are three Frontiers of Engineering meetings every year: the U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, the German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, and the Japan-America Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. The Indo-U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium is held every other year.
  • Diversity in the Engineering Workplace

The goal of the diversity office is to participate in studies addressing the issue of increasing and broadening a domestic talent pool. Through this effort the NAE convenes workshops, coordinators with other organizations, and idenitifies program needs and opportunities for improvement.

As part of this effort the NAE has launched both the EngineerGirl! and Engineer Your Life webpages.
  • The Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education

The Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education. works to advance engineering education in the United States, aiming for curriculum changes that address the needs of new generations of engineering students and the unique problems they will face with the challenges of the 21st century.

The Center works closely with the Committee on Engineering Education, which works to improve the quality of engineering education by providing advice to policy makers, administrators, employers, and other stakeholders.
  • Engineering, Economics, and Society

This program area studies connections between engineering, technology, and the economic performance of the United States. Efforts aim to advance the understanding of engineering's contribution to the sectors of the domestic economy and to learn where engineering may enhance economic performance.
  • Technological Literacy/K-12 education

The goal of this project is to provide advice regarding the creation and implementation of engineering curricula at the school-age level. The project also hopes to inform instructional practices, particularly dealing with the connections among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education.

The project also aims to investigate the best ways to determine levels of technological literacy in the United States among three distinct populations in the United States: K-12 students, K-12 teachers, and out-of-school adults. A report (and associated website), Technically Speaking, explains what "technological literacy" is, why it’s important, and what is being done in the U.S. to improve it.
  • Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society

The Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society seeks to engage engineers and the engineering profession in identiftying and resolving ethical issues in associated with engineering research and practice. The Center works is closely linked with the Online Ethics Center.
  • Engineering and the Environment

This program, recognizing that the engineering profession has often been associated with causing environmental harm, looks to recognize and publicize that the profession is now at the forefront of mitigating negative environmental impacts. The program will provide policy guidance to government, the private sector, and the public on ways to create a more environmentally sustainable future.

Outreach efforts

To publicize the work of both the profession and the NAE, the institution puts considerable efforts into outreach activities.

A weekly radio spot produced by the NAE is broadcast on WTOP radio in the Washington, DC area and the file and text of the spot can be found on the NAE site. The NAE also distributes a biweekly newsletter focusing on engineering issues and advancements.

In addition, NAE has held a series of workshops titled News and Terrorism: Communicating in a Crisis, in which experts from the National Academies and elsewhere provide reporters, state and local public information officers, emergency managers, and representatives from the public sector with important information about weapons of mass destruction and their impact. This project is conducted in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security and the Radio and Television News Directors Foundation.

In addition to these efforts the NAE fosters good relationships with members of the media to ensure coverage of the work of the institution and to serve as a resource for the media to use when they have technical questions or would like to speak to an NAE member on a particular matter. The NAE is also active in "social media," both to reach new and younger audiences and to reach traditional audiences in new ways.

See also

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.