Nagasaki
Overview
 
is the capital and the largest city
Municipalities of Japan
Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards...

 of Nagasaki Prefecture
Nagasaki Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. The capital is the city of Nagasaki.- History :Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging of the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki...

 on the island of Kyushu
Kyushu
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternate ancient names include , , and . The historical regional name is referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands....

 in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District
Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki
is a district located in Nagasaki, Japan.As of January 1, 2009, the district has an estimated population of 72,238 and a density of 1460 persons per km²...

. It became a center of Portuguese and other European peoples' influence in the 16th
Nanban trade
The or the in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.- Etymology :...

 through 19th centuries, and the Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki
Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki
Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki is a group of twenty-six sites in Nagasaki Prefecture relating to the history of Christianity in Japan. The Nagasaki churches are unique in the sense that each tells a story about the revival of Christianity after long period of official suppression.Proposed...

 have been proposed for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List
World Heritage Sites in Japan
Japan accepted the UNESCO World Heritage Convention on 30 June 1992. As of 27 June 2011, Sixteen properties have been inscribed on the World Heritage List: twelve cultural sites and four natural sites...

. Part of Nagasaki was home to a major Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

 base during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

 and Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

 made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack.
A small fishing village secluded by harbours, Nagasaki enjoyed little historical significance until contact with European explorers in 1543 — among them, possibly, Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto was a Portuguese explorer and writer. His exploits are known through the posthumous publication of his memoir Pilgrimage in 1614, an autobiographical work whose truthfulness is nearly impossible to assess...

 — when a Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 ship landed nearby in Tanegashima
Tanegashima
is an island lying to the south of Kyushu, in southern Japan, and is part of Kagoshima Prefecture. The island is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands....

.
Encyclopedia
is the capital and the largest city
Municipalities of Japan
Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards...

 of Nagasaki Prefecture
Nagasaki Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. The capital is the city of Nagasaki.- History :Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging of the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki...

 on the island of Kyushu
Kyushu
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternate ancient names include , , and . The historical regional name is referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands....

 in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District
Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki
is a district located in Nagasaki, Japan.As of January 1, 2009, the district has an estimated population of 72,238 and a density of 1460 persons per km²...

. It became a center of Portuguese and other European peoples' influence in the 16th
Nanban trade
The or the in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.- Etymology :...

 through 19th centuries, and the Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki
Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki
Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki is a group of twenty-six sites in Nagasaki Prefecture relating to the history of Christianity in Japan. The Nagasaki churches are unique in the sense that each tells a story about the revival of Christianity after long period of official suppression.Proposed...

 have been proposed for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List
World Heritage Sites in Japan
Japan accepted the UNESCO World Heritage Convention on 30 June 1992. As of 27 June 2011, Sixteen properties have been inscribed on the World Heritage List: twelve cultural sites and four natural sites...

. Part of Nagasaki was home to a major Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

 base during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

 and Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

 made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack.

Medieval and early modern eras

A small fishing village secluded by harbours, Nagasaki enjoyed little historical significance until contact with European explorers in 1543 — among them, possibly, Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto was a Portuguese explorer and writer. His exploits are known through the posthumous publication of his memoir Pilgrimage in 1614, an autobiographical work whose truthfulness is nearly impossible to assess...

 — when a Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 ship landed nearby in Tanegashima
Tanegashima
is an island lying to the south of Kyushu, in southern Japan, and is part of Kagoshima Prefecture. The island is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands....

. Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters
Nanban trade
The or the in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.- Etymology :...

, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with mainland China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, with whom Japan had previously severed its commercial and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving Wokou
Wokou
Wokou , which literally translates as "Japanese pirates" in English, were pirates of varying origins who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 13th century onwards...

 piracy in the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries. Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts, which would soon be acknowledged by all parts involved, the lack of a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu daimyo
Daimyo
is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings...

 (feudal lords) who expected to collect great advantages from these trade intercourse with the Portuguese. In the meantime, Navarrese
Kingdom of Navarre
The Kingdom of Navarre , originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a European kingdom which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean....

 Jesuit
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 missionary
Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

 St. Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier, born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta was a pioneering Roman Catholic missionary born in the Kingdom of Navarre and co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a student of Saint Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits, dedicated at Montmartre in 1534...

 arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549, and soon initiated a thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, but left for China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in 1551 and died soon afterwards. His followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyo
Daimyo
is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings...

. The most notable among them was Ōmura Sumitada
Omura Sumitada
Ōmura Sumitada Japanese daimyo lord of the Sengoku period. He achieved fame throughout the country for being the first of the daimyo to convert to Christianity following the arrival of the Jesuit missionaries in the mid-16th century. Following his baptism, he became known as "Dom Bartolomeu"...

, who derived great profit from his conversion to the "Kirishitan
Kirishitan
, from Portuguese cristão, referred to Roman Catholic Christians in Japanese and is used as a historiographic term for Roman Catholics in Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries. Christian missionaries were known as bateren or iruman...

" religion through an accompanying deal to receive a portion of the trade from Portuguese ships. In 1569, Ōmura gave permit for the establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships in Nagasaki, which was finally set in 1571, under the supervision of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 Captain-Major Tristão Vaz de Veiga
Governor of Macau
The Governor of Macau was a Portuguese colonial official who headed the colony of Macau, before 1623 called Captain-major . The post was replaced on December 20, 1999 upon the transfer of administration to the People's Republic of China by the office of the Chief Executive of the Macau Special...

, with Ōmura's personal assistance.

The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city, and Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki (such as tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

, bread
Bread
Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed , fried , or baked on an unoiled frying pan . It may be leavened or unleavened...

, textiles and a Portuguese sponge-cake called castellas) were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. Tempura
Tempura
], is a Japanese dish of seafood or vegetables that have been battered and deep fried.-Batter:A light batter is made of cold water and soft wheat flour . Eggs, baking soda or baking powder, starch, oil, and/or spices may also be added...

 derived from a popular Portuguese recipe originally known as peixinho-da-horta, and takes its name from the Portuguese word, 'tempero' another example of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange. The Portuguese also brought with them many goods from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

.

Due to the instability during the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
The or Warring States period in Japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. The name "Sengoku" was adopted by Japanese historians in reference...

, Sumitada and Jesuit leader Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass administrative control over to the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 rather than see the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic daimyo. Thus, for a brief period after 1580, the city of Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony, under their administrative and military control. It became a refuge for Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan. In 1587, however, Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle...

's campaign to unify the country arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 influence in southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries, and placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order went largely unenforced, and the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's population remained openly practicing Catholic
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

.

In 1596, the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked off the coast of Shikoku
Shikoku
is the smallest and least populous of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshū and east of the island of Kyūshū. Its ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima , Iyo-shima , and Futana-shima...

, and Hideyoshi learned from its pilot that the Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian
Iberian Union
The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchies of Portugal and Spain after the War of the Portuguese Succession...

 invasion of Japan. In response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixion
Crucifixion
Crucifixion is an ancient method of painful execution in which the condemned person is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead...

s of twenty-six Catholics in Nagasaki on February 5 of that year (i.e. the "Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan"). Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so the city continued to thrive.
In 1602, Augustinian missionaries also arrived in Japan, and when Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
 was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan , which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara  in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but...

 took power in 1603, Catholicism was still tolerated. Many Catholic daimyo
Daimyo
is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings...

 had been critical allies at the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
The , popularly known as the , was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 which cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu...

, and the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move against them. Once Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
is a Japanese castle in Chūō-ku, Osaka, Japan.Originally called Ozakajō, it is one of Japan's most famous castles, and played a major role in the unification of Japan during the sixteenth century of the Azuchi-Momoyama period.-Description:...

 had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle...

's offspring killed, though, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In addition, the Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and English
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 presence allowed trade without religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614, Catholicism
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

 was officially banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo apostatized, and forced their subjects to do so, although a few would not renounce the religion and left the country for Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

, Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

 and Japantown
Japantown
is a common name for official Japanese communities in big cities outside Japan. Alternatively, a Japantown may be called J-town, Little Tokyo, or Nihonmachi , the first two being common names for the Japanese communities in San Francisco and Los Angeles, respectively.-North America:Japantowns were...

s in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts of Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion.

Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion, and the last major military action in Japan until the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

, was the Shimabara Rebellion
Shimabara Rebellion
The was an uprising largely involving Japanese peasants, most of them Catholic Christians, in 1637–1638 during the Edo period.It was one of only a handful of instances of serious unrest during the relatively peaceful period of the Tokugawa shogunate's rule...

 of 1637. While there is no evidence that Europeans directly incited the rebellion, Shimabara Domain
Shimabara Domain
The ' was a feudal domain of Edo period Japan, located in Hizen Province, Kyūshū, occupying most of Shimabara Peninsula.-History:The Arima clan, who were Kirishitan daimyō, ruled over Shimabara Domain in the late Muromachi period from Hinoe Castle and Hara Castle...

 had been a Christian han for several decades, and the rebels adopted many Portuguese motifs and Christian icon
Icon
An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and in certain Eastern Catholic churches...

s. Consequently, in Tokugawa society the word "Shimabara" solidified the connection between Christianity and disloyalty, constantly used again and again in Tokugawa propaganda.

The Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the national isolation policy
Sakoku
was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which no foreigner could enter nor could any Japanese leave the country on penalty of death. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39 and remained in effect until...

. The Portuguese, who had been previously living on a specially-constructed island-prison in Nagasaki harbour called Dejima
Dejima
was a small fan-shaped artificial island built in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634. This island, which was formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula, remained as the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. Dejima was built to...

, were expelled from the archipelago altogether, and the Dutch were moved from their base at Hirado into the trading island. In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of scholars to flood into Nagasaki to study European science and art. Consequently, Nagasaki became a major center of rangaku
Rangaku
Rangaku is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate’s policy of national...

, or "Dutch Learning". During the Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

, the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

 governed the city, appointing a hatamoto
Hatamoto
A was a samurai in the direct service of the Tokugawa shogunate of feudal Japan. While all three of the shogunates in Japanese history had official retainers, in the two preceding ones, they were referred to as gokenin. However, in the Edo period, hatamoto were the upper vassals of the Tokugawa...

, the Nagasaki bugyō
Nagasaki bugyo
were officials of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo period Japan. Appointments to this prominent office were usually fudai daimyō, but this was amongst the senior administrative posts open to those who were not daimyō...

, as its chief administrator.

Consensus among historians was once that Nagasaki was Japan's only window on the world during its time as a closed country in the Tokugawa era. However, nowadays it is generally accepted that this was not the case, since Japan interacted and traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
The Ryūkyū Kingdom was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th century to the 19th century. The Kings of Ryūkyū unified Okinawa Island and extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture, and the Sakishima Islands near Taiwan...

, Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 through Satsuma, Tsushima and Matsumae respectively. Nevertheless, Nagasaki was depicted in contemporary art and literature as a cosmopolitan port brimming with exotic curiosities from the Western World.

In 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

 the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 frigate HMS Phaeton entered Nagasaki Harbor in search of Dutch trading ships. The local magistrate was unable to resist the British demand for food, fuel, and water, later committing seppuku
Seppuku
is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was either used voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies , or as a form of capital punishment...

as a result. Laws were passed in the wake of this incident strengthening coastal defenses, threatening death to intruding foreigners, and prompting the training of English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

 translators.

The Tōjinyashiki (唐人屋敷) or Chinese Factory in Nagasaki was also an important conduit for Chinese goods and information for the Japanese market. Various colourful Chinese merchants and artists sailed between the Chinese mainland and Nagasaki. Some actually combined the roles of merchant and artist such as 18th century Yi Hai
Yi Hai
Yi Hai was a Chinese painter and merchant who at least frequented the Japanese trading port of Nagasaki. His sobriquet was Fujiu. He is said to have been a captain of a junk trading ship that plied between Ningpo and Nagasaki from 1726–1746....

. It is believed that as much as one-third of the population of Nagasaki at this time may have been Chinese.

Modern era

With the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

, Japan opened its doors once again to foreign trade and diplomatic relations. Nagasaki became a free port
Free port
A free port or free zone , sometimes also called a bonded area is a port, port area or other area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location...

 in 1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868. Nagasaki was officially proclaimed a city on April 1, 1889. With Christianity legalized and the Kakure Kirishitan
Kakure Kirishitan
is a modern term for a member of the Japanese Catholic Church that went underground after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s.-History:Kakure Kirishitans are called the "hidden" Christians because they continued to practice Christianity in secret. They worshipped in secret rooms in private homes...

 coming out of hiding, Nagasaki regained its earlier role as a center for Roman Catholicism in Japan.

During the Meiji period
Meiji period
The , also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan.- Meiji Restoration and the emperor :...

, Nagasaki became a center of heavy industry. Its main industry was ship-building, with the dockyards under control of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
, or MHI, is a Japanese company. It is one of the core companies of Mitsubishi Group.-History:In 1870 Yataro Iwasaki, the founder of Mitsubishi took a lease of Government-owned Nagasaki Shipyard. He named it Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works, and started the shipbuilding business on a full scale...

 becoming one of the prime contractors for the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

, and with Nagasaki harbor used as an anchorage under the control of nearby Sasebo Naval District
Sasebo Naval District
was the third of five main administrative districts of the pre-war Imperial Japanese Navy. Its territory included the western and southern coastline of Kyūshū, the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan and Korea, as well as patrols in the East China Sea and the Pacific...

. These connections with the military made Nagasaki a major target for bombing
Strategic bombing
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating an enemy nation-state by destroying its economic ability and public will to wage war rather than destroying its land or naval forces...

 by the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

World War II and atomic bombing

On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki was the target of the United States' second atomic bomb attack
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

 (and second detonation of a plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation...

 bomb; the first was tested in central New Mexico, USA) at 11:02 a.m., when the north of the city was destroyed and an estimated 70,000 people were killed by the bomb codenamed "Fat Man
Fat Man
"Fat Man" is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare to date , and its detonation caused the third man-made nuclear explosion. The name also refers more...

." According to statistics found within Nagasaki Peace Park
Nagasaki Peace Park
Nagasaki Peace Park is a park located in Nagasaki, Japan, commemorating the atomic bombing of the city on August 9, 1945 during World War II.-History:...

, the death toll from the atomic bombing totalled 73,884, including 2,000 Korean forced workers and eight POWs
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

, as well as another 74,909 injured, and another several hundred thousand diseased and dying due to fallout and other illness caused by radiation. This bomb was supposed to be more destructive than "Little Boy
Little Boy
"Little Boy" was the codename of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets of the 393rd Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, of the United States Army Air Forces. It was the first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon...

" but was dropped in a valley, and therefore did roughly the same amount of damage as Little Boy.

After the war

The city was rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed. New temples were built, as well as new churches due to an increase in the presence of Christianity. Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, such as a one-legged torii
Torii
A is a traditional Japanese gate most commonly found at the entrance of or within a Shinto shrine, where it symbolically marks the transition from the profane to the sacred...

 gate and an arch near ground zero
Ground zero
The term ground zero describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation...

. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum
Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum
The is in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The museum remembers the explosion of the atomic bomb that devastated Nagasaki at 11:02:35am on 9 August 1945.The first atomic bomb museum was built in 1945...

. Nagasaki remains first and foremost a port city, supporting a rich shipping industry and setting a strong example of perseverance and peace.
On January 4, 2005 the towns of Iōjima, Kōyagi
Koyagi, Nagasaki
was a town, currently part of Nagasaki City, Japan. Situated approximately 13 km south of the centre of Nagasaki City, the town is notable for the Mistubishi shipyard which occupies 60% of urban areas....

, Nomozaki
Nomozaki, Nagasaki
was a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 7,528 and a density of 359.68 persons per km²...

, Sanwa
Sanwa, Nagasaki
was a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 11,883 and a population density of 546.60 persons per km²...

, Sotome
Sotome, Nagasaki
was a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 5,412 and a density of 116.09 persons per km²...

 and Takashima
Takashima, Nagasaki (Nishisonogi)
was a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 791 and a density of 590.30 people per km²...

, all from Nishisonogi District
Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki
is a district located in Nagasaki, Japan.As of January 1, 2009, the district has an estimated population of 72,238 and a density of 1460 persons per km²...

, were merged into Nagasaki.

Geography and climate

Nagasaki and Nishisonogi Peninsula
Nishisonogi Peninsula
thumb|right|250px|Nishisonogi Peninsula and Nagasaki Peninsula The Nishisonogi Peninsula is a peninsula in northwest Kyūshū, Japan. It is the north-northwesterly fork of a larger peninsula which also includes Nagasaki Peninsula...

s are located within the city limits. The city is surrounded by the cities of Isahaya
Isahaya, Nagasaki
is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.The city was founded on September 1, 1940. On March 1, 2005, the city expanded through a merger with the surrounding towns of Tarami, Moriyama, Iimori, Takaki and Konagai merged to form the new city of Isahaya...

 and Saikai
Saikai, Nagasaki
is a city located in Nagasaki, Japan.Saikai City was formed through the merger of five towns on the northern tip of Nishisonogi Peninsula on April 1, 2005: the former town of Saikai, Ōseto, Ōshima, Sakito and Seihi, all from Nishisonogi District...

, and the towns of Togitsu
Togitsu, Nagasaki
is a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of January 1, 2009, the town has an estimated population of 30,023 and a density of 1,450 persons per km². The total area is 20.73 km².-External links:*...

 and Nagayo
Nagayo, Nagasaki
is a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of January 1, 2009, the town has an estimated population of 42,215 and a density of 1,470 persons per km². The total area is 28.81 km².-External links:*...

 in Nishisonogi District
Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki
is a district located in Nagasaki, Japan.As of January 1, 2009, the district has an estimated population of 72,238 and a density of 1460 persons per km²...

.

Nagasaki lies at the head of a long bay which forms the best natural harbor on the island of Kyūshū. The main commercial and residential area of the city lies on a small plain near the end of the bay. Two rivers divided by a mountain spur form the two main valleys in which the city lies. The heavily built-up area of the city is confined by the terrain to less than 4 square miles (10.4 km²).

Nagasaki has the typical humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 of Kyūshū and Honshū. Apart from Kanazawa
Kanazawa, Ishikawa
is the capital city of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.-Geography, climate, and population:Kanazawa sits on the Sea of Japan, bordered by the Japan Alps, Hakusan National Park and Noto Peninsula National Park. The city sits between the Sai and Asano rivers. Its total area is 467.77 km².Kanazawa's...

 it is the wettest sizeable city in Japan and indeed all of temperate Eurasia, and in the summer the heat and humidity can be very unpleasant, with wet bulb temperatures sometimes reaching 26 °C (78.8 °F). In the winter, however, it is drier and sunnier than Gotō
Goto, Nagasaki
is a city in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It comprises the south-west half of the Gotō Islands in the East China Sea, some 100 kilometers from Nagasaki. The city consists of 11 inhabited and 52 uninhabited islands...

 to the west.

Nagasaki in Western music and song

"Nagasaki
Nagasaki (song)
"Nagasaki" is a jazz song from 1928 by Harry Warren and Mort Dixon that became a popular Tin Pan Alley hit. The silly, bawdy lyrics have only the vaguest relation to the Japanese port city of Nagasaki...

" is the title and subject of a 1928 song with music by Harry Warren
Harry Warren
Harry Warren was an American composer and lyricist. Warren was the first major American songwriter to write primarily for film. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Song eleven times and won three Oscars for composing "Lullaby of Broadway", "You'll Never Know" and "On the Atchison,...

 and lyrics by Mort Dixon
Mort Dixon
-Biography:Born in New York, Dixon began writing songs in the early 1920s, and was active into the 1930s. He achieved success with his first published effort, 1923's "That Old Gang of Mine". His chief composer collaborators were Ray Henderson, Harry Warren, Harry M...

. Nagasaki is also the setting for Puccini
Giacomo Puccini
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, and Turandot, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire...

's opera Madama Butterfly
Madama Butterfly
Madama Butterfly is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. Puccini based his opera in part on the short story "Madame Butterfly" by John Luther Long, which was dramatized by David Belasco...

.
Nagasaki is also the name of a 1987 guitar solo track by the Christian glam metal band Whitecross
Whitecross
Whitecross is a Christian metal band that formed in 1985 in Waukegan, IL releasing their first recording in the year 1987. Their early albums, which often invite comparisons to Ratt, are laced with fast, technical guitar work. In 1994, bandleader, primary songwriter and producer Rex Carroll split...

 from their self-titled first album.
"Nagasaki Nightmare" is the title of a 1981 song by Crass
Crass
Crass are an English punk rock band that was formed in 1977, which promoted anarchism as a political ideology, way of living, and as a resistance movement. Crass popularised the seminal anarcho-punk movement of the punk subculture, and advocated direct action, animal rights, and environmentalism...

.

Transportation

The nearest airport is Nagasaki Airport
Nagasaki Airport
is an international airport located west of the railway station in the city of Ōmura and north northeast of the Nagasaki railway station in the city of Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan...

 in the nearby city of Ōmura
Omura, Nagasaki
is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. As of January 1, 2009, the city has an estimated population of 89,891. The total area is 126.33 km², and includes Nagasaki Airport.-History:...

. The Kyushu Railway Company
Kyushu Railway Company
The , also referred to as , is one of the constituent companies of Japan Railways Group . It operates intercity rail services in Kyushu, Japan and the JR Kyushu Jet Ferry Beetle hydrofoil service across the Tsushima Strait between Fukuoka and Busan, South Korea.When Japan Railways was divided in...

 (JR Kyushu) provides rail transportation on the Nagasaki Main Line, whose terminal is at Nagasaki Station
Nagasaki Station (Nagasaki)
is a railway station in Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, operated by Kyushu Railway Company . It forms the terminus of the Nagasaki Main Line....

. In addition, the Nagasaki Electric Tramway
Nagasaki Electric Tramway
The is a private tram system in Nagasaki, Japan. Beginning on March 20, 2008, its lines accept Nagasaki Smart Card, a smart card ticketing system....

 operates five routes in the city. The Nagasaki Expressway
Nagasaki Expressway
' is one of the Expressways of Japan from Tosu to Nagasaki. It runs through the prefecture of Saga, and the southern half of the Nagasaki prefecture...

 serves vehicular traffic with interchanges at Nagasaki and Susukizuka. In addition, six national highways
National highways of Japan
Japan has a nationwide system of distinct from the expressways. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and other government agencies administer the national highways. Beginning in 1952, Japan classified these as Class 1 or Class 2. Class 1 highways had one- or two-digit numbers, while...

 crisscross the city: Routes 34, 202
Route 202 (Japan)
National Route 202 is a national highway of Japan connecting Hakata-ku, Fukuoka and Nagasaki, Nagasaki in Japan, with a total length of 199.6 km ....

, 251
Route 251 (Japan)
National Route 251 is a national highway of Japan connecting Nagasaki, Nagasaki and Isahaya, Nagasaki in Japan, with a total length of 148.2 km ....

, 324
Route 324 (Japan)
National Route 324 is a national highway of Japan connecting Nagasaki, Nagasaki and Uki, Kumamoto in Japan, with a total length of 84.4 km ....

, and 499.

Sights

  • Confucius Shrine
    Confucius Shrine
    Confucius Shrine in Nagasaki, Japan is said to be the world's only Confucian shrine built outside China by Chinese hands. Even today the land on which it stands is Chinese territory and the land rights controlled by the Chinese Embassy in Tokyo.First built in 1893 by Chinese residents of Nagasaki...

  • Dejima Museum of History
  • Former residence of Shuhan Takashima
  • Former site of Latin Seminario
  • Former site of the British Consulate in Nagasaki
  • Former site of Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Nagasaki Branch
  • Glover Garden
    Glover Garden
    thumb|right|250px|Glover House known as Ipponmatsu from a drawing of 1863. The tree was chopped down in the early 1900s is a park in Nagasaki, Japan built for Thomas Blake Glover, a Scottish entrepreneur who contributed to the modernization of Japan in shipbuilding, coal mining, and many other...

    • Former Glover Residence
    • Former Alt Residence
    • Former Ringer Residence
    • Former Walker Residence
  • Gunkanjima
    Hashima Island
    For the island in Connecticut, see Thimble Islands., commonly called Gunkanjima or Gunkanshima , is one among 505 uninhabited islands in the Nagasaki Prefecture about 15 kilometers from Nagasaki itself....

  • Higashi-Yamate Juniban Mansion
  • Kazagashira Park
  • Kōfuku-ji
    Kofuku-ji (Nagasaki)
    is an Ōbaku Zen Buddhist temple established in 1624 in Nagasaki, Japan. It is an important cultural asset designated by the government.-External references:* *...

  • Megane Bridge
    Megane Bridge
    or Spectacles Bridge, over the Nakashima River was built in Nagasaki in 1634 by the Chinese monk Mozi of Kofukuji Temple. It is said to be the oldest stone arch bridge in Japan and has been designated as an Important Cultural Property...

  • Mount Inasa
    Mount Inasa
    is a hill to the West of Nagasaki that is 333 metres high. There is a cable car up to the top of Mt. Inasa from Nagasaki. A short walk from the cable car station are several buildings that house transmitters for TV and radio stations that serve Nagasaki and the surrounding area...

  • Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum
    Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum
    The is in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The museum remembers the explosion of the atomic bomb that devastated Nagasaki at 11:02:35am on 9 August 1945.The first atomic bomb museum was built in 1945...

     (Located next to the Peace Park)
  • Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture
    Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture
    The in Nagasaki, Japan is one of the few museums in Japan devoted to the theme of "overseas exchange".The museum holds 48,000 items in its collection, including historical documents and arts and crafts, that tell the story of Nagasaki as the sole window opened to foreign countries during the...

  • Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
    Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
    The Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims is one of the National Memorial Halls in Nagasaki, Japan. Like its counterpart in Hiroshima, the hall was constructed as a place to remember and pray for those killed by the 1945 atomic bombing of Nagasaki.-Overview:Designed by...

  • Nagasaki Peace Park
    Nagasaki Peace Park
    Nagasaki Peace Park is a park located in Nagasaki, Japan, commemorating the atomic bombing of the city on August 9, 1945 during World War II.-History:...

    • Atomic Bomb Hypocenter (Located near the Peace Park)
  • Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
  • Nagasaki Chinatown
    Nagasaki Chinatown
    Nagasaki Chinatown is located in Nagasaki, Japan. This area today is a big shopping strip that covers many blocks.-History:...

  • Nagasaki Science Museum
  • Nagasaki Subtropical Botanical Garden
    Nagasaki Subtropical Botanical Garden
    The is a botanical garden located at Wakimisakimachi 833, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan. It is open daily; an admission fee is charged.The garden contains about 2,000 species of subtropical plants drawn from Africa, South Asia, Australia, Central America, and South America...

  • Nyoko-do Hermitage
  • Ōura Church
    Ōura Church
    is a Roman Catholic church in Nagasaki, Japan, built soon after the end of the Japanese government's Seclusion Policy in 1853. It is also known as the Church of the 26 Japanese Martyrs...

  • Sanno Shrine
    Sanno Shrine
    The , located about 900 metres south-east of the atomic bomb hypocentre in Nagasaki, is noted for its one-legged stone torii at the shrine entrance.-Torii:The well-known was one of the unanticipated consequences of the atomic bomb blast on August 9, 1945....

     - One-Legged Arch
  • Sakamoto International Cemetery
    Sakamoto International Cemetery
    The is located in Sakamoto in the Urakami area of the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The cemetery for foreigners was established following the 1888 closure of an earlier burial ground near the international quarter of the city. It is administered by the city government....

  • Shōfuku-ji
    Shōfuku-ji (Nagasaki)
    is an Ōbaku Zen temple in Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan. Its honorary sangō prefix is . It was founded by Tetsushin Dōhan, the grandson of Ingen, with support from Nagasaki bugyō and Chinese merchants, and construction was completed in 1677....

  • Shusaku Endo Literary Museum
    Shusaku Endo Literary Museum
    The is located in the Sotome district in the northwestern part of the city of Nagasaki and is dedicated to the life and work of Japanese novelist Shusaku Endo. Sotome is famed as the home of the hidden Christians and served as the scene for Endo's novel Silence...

  • Siebold Memorial Museum
    Siebold Memorial Museum
    was opened in Nagasaki city in 1989 in honour of Philipp Franz von Siebold's great contributions to the development of modern science in Japan. The building is modeled on his former house in Leiden and is located next to the site of his original clinic and boarding school known as Narutaki Juku.The...

  • Sōfuku-ji
    Sofuku-ji (Nagasaki)
    is an Ōbaku Zen temple that was built by the Chinese monk Chaonian in 1629 as the family temple of the Chinese from Fujian Province who settled in Nagasaki.-Description:...

  • Suwa Shrine
    Suwa Shrine (Nagasaki)
    Suwa Shrine is the major Shinto shrine of Nagasaki, Japan, and home to the Nagasaki Kunchi...

  • Tateyama Park
  • Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum and Monument
    Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum and Monument
    The Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum and Monument were built on Nishizaka Hill in June 1962 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the canonization of the Christians executed on the site on February 5, 1597...

  • Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum
  • Urakami Cathedral
    Urakami Cathedral
    St. Mary's Cathedral, often known as Urakami Cathedral after its location Urakami, is a Roman Catholic church located in Motoomachi, Nagasaki, Japan.- History :...


Events

The Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyūshū Ekiden
Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyushu Ekiden
The Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyūshū Ekiden has been an annual race in Japan since 1951. Contestants from the prefectures on the island of Kyūshū, as well as from Yamaguchi and Okinawa Prefectures, gather each November...

, the world's longest relay race
Relay race
During a relay race, members of a team take turns running, orienteering, swimming, cross-country skiing, biathlon, or ice skating parts of a circuit or performing a certain action. Relay races take the form of professional races and amateur games...

, begins in Nagasaki each November.

Kunchi, the most famous festival in Nagasaki, is held from 7–9 October.

The Nagasaki Lantern Festival, celebrating the Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year – often called Chinese Lunar New Year although it actually is lunisolar – is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It is an all East and South-East-Asia celebration...

, is celebrated from February 18 to March 4.

Foods and souvenirs

  • Champon
    Champon
    , also known as Chanpon, is a noodle dish that is a regional cuisine of Nagasaki, Japan. Due to the inspiration from Chinese cuisine, it is also a form of Japanese Chinese cuisine. Champon is made by frying pork, seafood and vegetables with lard; a soup made with chicken and pig bones is added. A...

  • Sara udon
    Sara udon
    ', literally "plate noodles" is a dish native to Nagasaki prefecture, Japan.Consisting of a base of noodles, and a topping of fried cabbage, bean sprouts and other vegetables, as well as squid, prawns, pork, kamaboko etc...

  • Mogi Biwa
  • Kasutera
  • Chinese Confections
  • Urakami Soboro
  • Shippoku Cuisine
  • Toruko rice (Turkish rice)
  • Karasumi
    Karasumi
    Karasumi , Romaji: karasumi; ) is a food product made by salting mullet roe and drying it by the sunlight. A theory suggests that it got its name from its resemblance to a block of sumi imported from China and used in shodo...

  • Nagasaki Kakuni Manju

  • Twin towns and sister cities

    The city of Nagasaki maintains sister-city
    Town twinning
    Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

     or friendship relations with other cities worldwide.

    Outside Japan

    Saint Paul, Minnesota
    Saint Paul, Minnesota
    Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota. The city lies mostly on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city...

    , United States - (1955) Oldest sister city in Japan Santos
    Santos (São Paulo)
    -Sister cities: Shimonoseki, Japan Nagasaki, Japan Funchal, Portugal Trieste, Italy Coimbra, Portugal Ansião, Portugal Arouca, Portugal Ushuaia, Argentina Havana, Cuba Taizhou. China Ningbo. China Constanţa, Romania Ulsan, South Korea Colón, Panama* Cadiz, Spain...

    , Brazil (1972) Porto
    Porto
    Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

    , Portugal (1978) Middelburg
    Middelburg
    Middelburg is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland. It is situated in the Midden-Zeeland region. It has a population of about 48,000.- History of Middelburg :...

    , Netherlands (1978) Fuzhou
    Fuzhou
    Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

    , China (1980) Vaux-sur-Aure
    Vaux-sur-Aure
    -Sister city: Nagasaki, Japan , was sister city of Sotome since 1978-References:*...

    , France (2005), sister city of Sotome
    Sotome, Nagasaki
    was a town located in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki, Japan.As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 5,412 and a density of 116.09 persons per km²...

     since 1978

    See also

    • Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
      Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
      During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

    • Ground Zero
      Ground zero
      The term ground zero describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation...

    • Foreign cemeteries in Japan
      Foreign cemeteries in Japan
      The foreign cemeteries in Japan are chiefly located in Tokyo and at the former treaty ports of Nagasaki, Kobe, Yokohama, and Hakodate. They contain the mortal remains of long-term Japan residents, and are separate from any of the military cemeteries.-Tokyo:The Tokyo foreign cemetery is a section...

    • Hashima Island
      Hashima Island
      For the island in Connecticut, see Thimble Islands., commonly called Gunkanjima or Gunkanshima , is one among 505 uninhabited islands in the Nagasaki Prefecture about 15 kilometers from Nagasaki itself....

       (Gunkanjima)
    • Hiroshima
      Hiroshima
      is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 A.M...

    • Hiroshima (film)
      Hiroshima (film)
      Hiroshima is a 1995 Japanese / Canadian film directed by Koreyoshi Kurahara and Roger Spottiswoode about the decision-making processes that led to the dropping of the atomic bombs by the United States on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki toward the end of World War II. Except as actors,...

       (about the decision process behind the dropping of the nuclear bombs)
    • Kokura
      Kokura
      is an ancient castle town and the center of Kitakyūshū, Japan, guarding, via its suburb Moji, the Straits of Shimonoseki between Honshū and Kyūshū. Kokura is also the name of the penultimate station on the southbound Sanyo Shinkansen line, which is owned by JR Kyūshū and an important part of the...

       (Kitakyushu)
    • Kazuo Ishiguro
      Kazuo Ishiguro
      Kazuo Ishiguro OBE or ; born 8 November 1954) is a Japanese–English novelist. He was born in Nagasaki, Japan, and his family moved to England in 1960. Ishiguro obtained his Bachelor's degree from University of Kent in 1978 and his Master's from the University of East Anglia's creative writing...

      , the novelist, was born in Nagasaki.

    External links

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