Municipalities of the Philippines
A municipality is a local government unit in the Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. Municipalities are also called town
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while...

(which is actually a better translation of "bayan"). They are distinct from cities, which are a different category of local government unit (LGU). A municipal district is a now-defunct local government unit; previously certain areas were created first as municipal districts before they are created into municipalities.

Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 are composed of cities
Cities of the Philippines
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure...

 and municipalities. Municipalities, in turn, are composed of barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

s or barrio
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood.-Usage:In its formal usage in English, barrios are generally considered cohesive places, sharing, for example, a church and traditions such as feast days...


Municipalities have some autonomy from the National Government of the Republic of the Philippines under the Local Government Code of 1991. They have been granted corporate personality enabling them to enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern their jurisdictions. They can enter into contracts and other transactions through their elected and appointed officials and can tax. They are tasked with enforcing all laws, whether local or national. The National Government assists and supervises the local government to make sure that they do not violate national law. Local Governments have their own executive and legislative branches and the checks and balances between these two major branches, along with their separation, are more pronounced than that of the national government. The Judicial Branch of the Republic of the Philippines also caters to the needs of local government units. Local governments, such as a municipalities, do not to have their own judicial branch: their judiciary is the same as that of the national government.

A municipality is headed by a municipal mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 who is the executive officer
Executive officer
An executive officer is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.-Administrative law:...

. The legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 is composed of the vice-mayor (bise-mayor) and eight councilors (kagawad or konsehal). The eight councilors, along with the Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
The Sangguniang Kabataan is the governing body in every chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan . Each barangay in the Philippines is mandated by law to have its own chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan, aging from 15 to 18 years old who resides in their respective barangays for at least 6months...

 (SK) (Youth Council) President and the Liga ng mga Barangay President
Liga ng mga Barangay
The Liga ng mga Barangay sa Pilipinas is a formal organization of all the barangays in the Philippines...

, form the Sangguniang Bayan
Sangguniang Bayan
The Sangguniang Bayan is the legislature of municipal governments in the Philippines. It passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the municipality...

 (Municipal Council). All are elected and serve 3-year terms. They cannot serve more than three consecutive terms (9 years).

The Vice-Mayor presides over the legislature, but cannot vote except to break a tie. Laws or ordinances proposed by the legislature (Sangguniang Bayan) may be approved or vetoed by the Mayor. If approved they become law. If the Mayor neither vetoes nor approves the proposal of the Sangguniang Bayan for ten (10) days from the time of receipt, the said proposal becomes law as if it had been signed. If vetoed, the draft is sent back to the Sangguniang Bayan. The latter may 'override' the Mayor by a vote of at least 2/3 of all its members, in which case, the proposal becomes Law.

A municipality, upon reaching a certain requirements-minimum population size, and minimum annual revenue-may opt to become a city
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

. First, a bill must be passed in Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

, then signed into law by the President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 and then the residents would vote in the succeeding plebiscite to accept or reject cityhood. One benefit in being a city is that the city government gets more budget, but taxes are much higher than in municipalities. As of September 30, 2009 there are 1,514 municipalities.

Income classification

Municipalities are divided into income classes according to their average annual income during the last three calendar years:
1st class P50,000,000 or more.
2nd class P40,000,000 or more but less than P50,000,000.
3rd class P30,000,000 or more but less than P40,000,000.
4th class P20,000,000 or more but less than P30,000,000.
5th class P10,000,000 or more but less than P20,000,000.
6th class Below P10,000,000

External links

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