President of the Philippines
Overview
 
The President of the Philippines is the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 and head of government
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief
Commander-in-Chief
A commander-in-chief is the commander of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military...

 of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The Armed Forces of the Philippines is composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force...

. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo (or informally, "Presidente").
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office.
Encyclopedia
The President of the Philippines is the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 and head of government
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief
Commander-in-Chief
A commander-in-chief is the commander of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military...

 of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The Armed Forces of the Philippines is composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force...

. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo (or informally, "Presidente").

History

Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andres Bonifacio
Andres Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino nationalist and revolutionary. He was a founder and later Supremo of the Katipunan movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution...

  is considered by some historians to be the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan
Katipunan
The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night...

secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: República Tagala). Although the word Tagalog
Tagalog people
The Tagalog people are an ethnic group in the Philippines. The name Tagalog comes from either the native term tagá-ilog, meaning 'people living along the river', or another native term, tagá-alog, meaning 'people living along the ford', a ford being a shallow part of a river or stream where people,...

refers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

which had colonial origins. In place of the Spanish Filipinas
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

he coined a Tagalog name, Haring Bayang Katagalugan (Sovereign Tagalog Nation). Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay
Macario Sacay
Macario Sakay y de León was a Filipino general in the Philippine Revolution against Spain and in the Philippine-American War. According to some historians, He may have been a president of the Philippines but is currently not recognized as such by the Philippine government.He continued resistance...

 and Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar y Carpio was a Filipino commander who served during the Philippine Revolution and subsequently during the Philippine–American War. He assumed command of the Philippine revolutionary forces during the latter conflict following the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901...

 should also be included.

In March 1897 Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 was elected President of a revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention
Tejeros Convention
The Tejeros Convention was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite on March 22, 1897...

. The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan as a government, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Biak-na-Bato Republic
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
The Republic of Biak-na-Bato , officially referred to in its constitution as the Philippine Republic , was the first republic ever declared in the Philippines by the revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo and his fellow members of the Katipunan. Despite its successes, including the establishment of the...

. Exiled in Hong Kong after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Pact of Biak-na-Bato
The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 14, 1897, created a truce between Spanish Colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera and Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution...

, with the advent of the Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War
The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence...

 he returned to the Philippines to renew revolutionary activities and formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898. Revolutionary forces under his command declared independence
Philippine Declaration of Independence
The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo , Cavite, Philippines. With the public reading of the Act of the Declaration of Independence, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the...

 on June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was then elected President of the Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
The Philippine Republic , more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic was a short-lived insurgent revolutionary government in the Philippines...

 (Spanish: República Filipina), a government constituted by the Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
-Further reading:*Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library...

. Thus, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. Sovereignty over the Philippines passed from Spain to the United States with the Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1898)
The Treaty of Paris of 1898 was signed on December 10, 1898, at the end of the Spanish-American War, and came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the ratifications were exchanged....

, which ended the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo's government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, when he pledged allegiance to the United States after being captured by U.S. forces in March. The current Philippine government, formally called the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines and the Malolos Republic as the "First" Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
The Philippine Republic , more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic was a short-lived insurgent revolutionary government in the Philippines...

.

Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar y Carpio was a Filipino commander who served during the Philippine Revolution and subsequently during the Philippine–American War. He assumed command of the Philippine revolutionary forces during the latter conflict following the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901...

 continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as Presidents by the Philippine government.

American colonial period

Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of 16 American Governors General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezón
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

 was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had been established, still under U.S. sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on May 14 of that year. When President Manuel L. Quezon left for the United States via Australia, he appointed Chief Justice José Abad Santos Acting President. President Santos was subsequently executed by the Japanese occupation fay 2, 1942.

The Japanese Sponsored Second Philippine Republic

José P. Laurel
Jose P. Laurel
José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

 became president of the Philippines in 1942 under a constitution imposed under Japanese occupation
Japanese occupation of the Philippines
The Japanese occupation of the Philippines was the period in the history of the Philippines between 1942 and 1945, when the Empire of Japan occupied the previously American-controlled Philippines during World War II....

. Laurel, an Associate Justice
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines. The Chief Justice presides over the High Court, but carries only 1 of the 15 votes in the court...

 of the Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the Philippines
The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

, had been instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

, who fled to Corregidor and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile.

Presidency after World War II

The 1935 constitution was reinstated after the Japanese surrender ended World War II, with Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

 as President. That constitution remained in effect after the United States recognized the independence of the Republic of the Philippines as a separate self-governing nation on July 4, 1946.

Presidency under the 1973 constitution

A new constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 the presidency of Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

, introduced a parliamentary-style government. This constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution of 1986 swept Corazon C. Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 into power as President. On March 25, 1986, Presidential Proclamation No. 3 promulgated a provisional constitution, supplanted on February 2, 1987 when the now-current constitution was ratified.

Other issues with the Philippine presidency

Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government. Quezón was the inaugural president of a predecessor-government to the current one, and Aquino was the inaugural president of the currently-constituted government.

The Government of the Philippines considers Emilio Aguinaldo to have been the inaugural President of the Philippines, followed by Manuel Quezón and by subsequent Presidents. Despite the differences in constitutions
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Benigno S. Aquino III, is considered to be the 15th president.

While the Philippine government considers Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 to be the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States following the Philippine-American War
Philippine-American War
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection , was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following...

, and the United States does not consider his presidency to have been legitimate. Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

 is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win an election.
The Philippines had two presidents at one point during World War II heading two governments. One was Quezón heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure
De jure
De jure is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact".De jure = 'Legally', De facto = 'In fact'....

) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

). Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezón. Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. However, it must be borne in mind that in the roster of presidents, it is inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmeña or vice versa; Laurel's republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions were considered legal or binding. The inclusion of Laurel causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. Quezón, Osmeña, and Roxas, for example, were three of a continuous constitutional line; Laurel was the only President of the Second Republic. Thus, Laurel has no predecessor and successor, while Osmeña was Quezón's successor and Roxas was Osmeña's successor.

Chief executive

Under Article 7, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the president heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet
Cabinet of the Philippines
The Cabinet of the Philippines consists of the heads of the largest part of the executive branch of the national government of the Philippines...

 and all executive departments
Executive Departments of the Philippines
The Executive departments of the Philippines is the largest component of the national executive branch of the government of the Philippines. There are a total of nineteen executive departments. The departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy...

. The executive power
Executive Power
Executive Power is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for the CIA as an operative for a covert counter terrorism unit called the "Orion Team."-Plot summary:...

, as such, is vested on the President alone.

Section 19 gives the president power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.

Section 20 provides the president to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

The president exercises general supervision over local government units.

Commander-in-chief

Section 18 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The Armed Forces of the Philippines is composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force...

. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

.

Power of appointment

The president appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments
Commission on Appointments
The Commission on Appointments is a body of the Congress of the Philippines as provided by the Constitution. It confirms certain appointments made by the President of the Philippines...

, members of the Constitutional Commissions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in the 1987 Constitution. The members of the Supreme Court
Supreme court
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, instance court, judgment court, high court, or apex court...

 are appointed by the president, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council
Judicial and Bar Council
The Judicial and Bar Council of the Philippines is a constitutionally-created body that recommends appointees for vacancies that may arise in the composition of the Supreme Court and other lower courts.-Composition:...

. These appointments do not need the consent of the Commission on Appointments.

Eligibility

Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, in order to serve as President, one must be:
  • at least 40 years old and above;
  • a registered voter, single or married;
  • able to read and write;
  • male or female a Filipino citizen by birth; and
  • a resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years immediately preceding election.

A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:
  • Under Article 7, Section 4 of the Constitution of the Philippines
    Constitution of the Philippines
    The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

    , a person who has already been elected to the Office of President can no longer be eligible to the same office. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.

Election

Under Article 6, Section 8 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the election of the President is done by direct vote. The regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May, unless otherwise provided by law.

The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes.

The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately.

Inauguration

The President of the Philippines usually takes his/her oath on the noon of June 30 following the Presidential election

Traditionally, the Vice-President takes his/her oath first, a little before noon. This is for two reasons: first, according to protocol, no one follows the President, and second, to establish a constitutionally authorized successor even before the President takes oath. During the Quezon inauguration, however, the Vice-President and the legislature were sworn in after the President had taken oath first, to symbolize a new start
As soon as the President takes the oath of office, a 21-gun salute
21-gun salute
Gun salutes are the firing of cannons or firearms as a military or naval honor.The custom stems from naval tradition, where a warship would fire its cannons harmlessly out to sea, until all ammunition was spent, to show that it was disarmed, signifying the lack of hostile intent...

 is fired to honor the new head of state, and the presidential anthem "We Say Mabuhay" is played. Then the President delivers the inaugural address. Afterwards, the president then takes formal possession of the official residence
Official residence
An official residence is the residence at which heads of state, heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially reside...

, and inducts the cabinet into office.

According to tradition, the President of the Philippines is inaugurated into office in one of three places: at Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church is a Roman Catholic church built in 1630 in Malolos City, Bulacan. Having earned the title as the Cradle of Democracy in the East, the most important religious building in the Philippines, and the site of the First Philippine Republic, the Church is proverbial for its historical...

 in Malolos City
Malolos City
City of Malolos is a 3rd class urban component city in the Republic of the Philippines. Malolos is considered as the 115th city in the country. It is the capital city of the province of Bulacan as the seat of the provincial government...

, Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

; in front of Congress; or at Quirino Grandstand. On June 30, 2004, however, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

 delivered her pre-inaugural address at Quirino Grandstand in Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, took her oath of office at Cebu City
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

 before then Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr., then the next day held the first Cabinet meeting at Butuan City
Butuan City
The City of Butuan is the regional center of Caraga, serving as an administrative region of the Philippines; it is a highly urbanized city. It is located at the northeastern part of Agusan Valley, Mindanao, sprawling across the Agusan River. It is bounded to the north, west and south by Agusan del...

 in Mindanao, with the intention of celebrating her inauguration at three places symbolizing the three main island groups in the country, Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

, Visayas
Visayas
The Visayas or Visayan Islands and locally known as Kabisay-an gid, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast...

, and Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

.

In the past, elections were held in November and the President's inauguration was held on December 30, or Rizal Day
Rizal Day
Rizal Day is a Philippine national holiday commemorating the life and works of José Rizal, one of the Philippines' national heroes. It is celebrated every December 30, the day of Rizal's execution at Bagumbayan, now known as Rizal Park, in 1896.-History:...

. Thus, when the inauguration was usually held at Quirino Grandstand, the new President could see the monument to the national hero whose death anniversary was being celebrated that day. However, Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 transferred the dates of the elections and the inauguration to May and June, and that is what is now being followed.
The proper attire to wear to an inaugural is traditional formal Filipino clothing, such as the terno
Terno
Terno , founded in 1953, is a Polish Romani music collective. Originally known as Kcham , Terno was founded by the Romani musician Edward Dębicki. It has performed in Poland and around Europe....

, baro't saya
Baro't saya
Baro't saya is the unofficial national dress of the Philippines and is worn by women. The name is a contraction of the Tagalog words baro at saya, meaning "dress and skirt".-History:...

, or what is more commonly called "Filipiniana attire", and the Barong Tagalog
Barong Tagalog
The barong Tagalog is an embroidered formal garment of the Philippines. It is very lightweight and worn untucked , over an undershirt. In Filipino culture it is a common wedding and formal attire, mostly for men but also for women...

.

Oath

Under Article 7, Section 5 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, before the president enters on the execution of his/her office, the President shall take the following oath or affirmation :
[In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted]

Impeachment

Impeachment in the Philippines follows procedures similar to the United States. Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the House of Representatives of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the President, Vice President
Vice President of the Philippines
-Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

, members of the Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the Philippines
The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections
Commission on Elections (Philippines)
The Commission on Elections, or COMELEC, is one of the three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of elections, initiatives, referendums, and recalls....

,Civil Service Commission Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman
Philippine Ombudsman
The Ombudsman of the Philippines is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting Philippine government officials accused of crimes....

. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

 which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case. A main difference from US proceedings however is that only 1/3 of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the President (as opposed to 50%+1 members in their US counterpart). In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the Senators act as judges with the Senate President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court jointly presiding over the proceedings. Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of 2/3 (i.e., 16 of 24 members) of the senate vote in favour of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year.

Impeachable offenses and officials

The 1987 Philippine Constitution says the grounds for impeachment include culpable violation of the Constitution, bribery, graft and corruption, and betrayal of public trust. These offenses are considered "high crimes and misdemeanors" under the Philippine Constitution.

The President, Vice President, Supreme Court justices, and members of the Constitutional Commission and Ombudsman are all considered impeachable officials under the Constitution.

Impeachment proceedings and attempts

Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in...

 was the first Philippine president impeached by the House in 2000, but the trial ended prematurely due to outrage over a vote to open an envelope where that motion was narrowly defeated by his allies.

In 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, impeachment complaints were filed against President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

, but none of the cases reached the required endorsement of 1/3 of the members for transmittal to, and trial by, the Senate.

Official title

The official title of the president is "President of the Philippines." The title in Filipino is "Pangulo" The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General
Governor-General
A Governor-General, is a vice-regal person of a monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription. Depending on the political arrangement of the territory, a Governor General can be a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors.- Current uses...

 of the Philippines during Spanish and American occupation. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines", used under Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Japanese occupation of the Philippines
The Japanese occupation of the Philippines was the period in the history of the Philippines between 1942 and 1945, when the Empire of Japan occupied the previously American-controlled Philippines during World War II....

 distinguished the government of then-President José P. Laurel
Jose P. Laurel
José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

 from the Commonwealth government in exile
Government in exile
A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their...

 under President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines title "President of the Philippines" sanctioned in the 1935 constitution. The 1973 constitution, though generally referring to the president as "President of the Philippines" did, in Article XVII, Section 12, once used the term, "President of the Republic." President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 in his Proclamation No. 1081
Proclamation No. 1081
Proclamation No. 1081 was the declaration of martial law in the Philippines by President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Once in effect, it covered the entire republic on September 21, 1972...

 and consistently used the term "President of the Philippines."

State of the nation address

The State of the Nation Address (abbreviated SONA) is an annual event in the Philippines, in which the President of the Philippines reports on the status of the nation
Nation
A nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, and/or history. In this definition, a nation has no physical borders. However, it can also refer to people who share a common territory and government irrespective of their ethnic make-up...

, normally to the resumption of a joint session of the Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

 (the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 and the Senate
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

). This is a duty of the President as stated in Article VII, Section 23 of the 1987 Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 :

Tenure and term limits

The 1935 Constitution originally provided for a single six-year term for a president without re-election. In 1940, however, the 1935 Constitution was amended and the term of the President (and Vice-President) was shortened to four years but allowed one re-election. Since the amendment was done, only Presidents Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

 (1941) and Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 (1969) were re-elected. Presidents Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

 (1946), Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

 (1953), Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader...

 (1961) and Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

 (1965) all failed in seeking a new term.

However, in 1973, a new Constitution was promulgated and allowed then-incumbent President Ferdinand Marcos to seek a new term. In 1981, Marcos was again elected as President against Alejo Santos
Alejo Santos
Alejo S. Santos was a Filipino soldier and World War II hero who parlayed his fame into a political career. His prestige was somewhat marred in later life when he agreed to run as the only candidate against Ferdinand Marcos in the widely-suspect 1981 Philippine presidential election.-Early life...

 – making him the only President to be elected to a third term.

Today, under Article 7, Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the term of the President shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date, six years thereafter. The President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.

At the start of the term

Under Article 7, Section 7 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, In case the president-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.

If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.

Where no President and Vice President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice President shall have been chosen and qualified.

During the term

Article 7, Sections 8 and 11 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 provide rules of succession to the presidency. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President will become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice President; the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified.

The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President.

The line of presidential succession as specified by Article 7, Section 10 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 are the Vice President, Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

The current Presidential line of succession is:
# Name Position
1 Jejomar C. Binay
Jejomar Binay
Jejomar "Jojo" Cabauatan Binay, Sr. , also known as Jojo Binay or VPNay, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th Vice President of the Philippines since 2010. Previously, he was Mayor of Makati City from 1986 to 1998 and again from 2001 to 2010...

Vice President
Vice President of the Philippines
-Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

2 Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

Senate President
President of the Senate of the Philippines
The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader...

3 Feliciano R. Belmonte, Jr.
Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.
Feliciano "Sonny" Racimo Belmonte, Jr. is a member of the Philippine House of Representatives representing the Fourth District of Quezon City. He is also the house speaker of the Congress from 2010 to present. He was the mayor of Quezon City from 2001-2010.-Early Life and Career:Belmonte was born...

Speaker of the House
Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives
The Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines is the presiding officer of the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives....

Notes:

  • Contrary to popular belief, the Constitution does not name the Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court in the line of succession.

  • If the offices of both the President and the Vice President become vacant at the same time, Congress shall enact a law calling for special election. However, if the presidential election is 18 months away, no special election shall be called.


Official residence

Malacañang Palace is the official residence of the President of the Philippines. The president is entitled to have an official residence as stipulated under Article 7, Section 6 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

. The Palace is located along the north bank of the Pasig River
Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...

 in San Miguel, Manila
San Miguel, Manila
San Miguel district is a primarily middle-class residential area of Manila. Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of Republic of the Philippines, is located in San Miguel district. Just outside Malacañang Palace's gates lies Mendiola Street, the avenue where most mass protest...

. The Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

 name is derived from the Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

 phrase "may lakan diyan", meaning "there is a noble there"; this was eventually shortened to Malakanyáng. The two terms in use, "Malacañan" and "Malacañang", are distinct in that the first refers to the official residence of the President itself, while the latter identifies the office of the President, as well as for both as a whole collocquially and in the media. Malacañang Palace is depicted on the verso (back) side of the present-day 20-Peso bill.Malacañang Palace is the sister palace Coconut Palace
Coconut Palace
The Coconut Palace, also known as Tahanang Pilipino , is the official residence and principal workplace of the Vice President of the Philippines. Located at the CCP Complex, in Pasay, south of the centre of Manila, it was commissioned by former First Lady Imelda Marcos for Pope John Paul II's visit...

,Office of the Vice President.

Presidential residence

The presidential residence of President Benigno S. Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

 is Bahay Pangarap (English: House of Dreams), located inside of Malacañang Park, at the headquarters of the Presidential Security Group
Presidential Security Group
- External links :*...

 across the Pasig River
Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...

 from Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

. Aquino is the first president to make Bahay Pangarap his official residence. Malacañang Park was intended as a recreational retreat by former President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

. The house was built and designed by architect Juan Arellano in the 1930s, and underwent a number of renovations. In 2008, the house was demolished and rebuilt in contemporary style by architect Conrad Onglao, a new swimming pool was built, replacing the Commonwealth-era swimming pool. The house originally had one bedroom, however, the house was renovated for Aquino to have four bedrooms, a guest room, a room for Aquino's household staff, and a room for Aquino's close-in security. The house was originally intended as a rest house, the venue for informal activities and social functions for the First Family by former President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

. Malacañang Park was refurbished through the efforts of First Lady Eva Macapagal
Eva Macapagal
Dr. Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal was the second wife of Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal, the ninth First Lady of the Philippines, and the mother of former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.She is notable for combining simplicity with graceful elegance during her term as the...

, wife of former President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

, in the early 1960s. First Lady Macapagal renamed the rest house as Bahay Pangarap. During the presidency of Fidel V. Ramos
Presidency of Fidel V. Ramos
The Presidency of Fidel V. Ramos spanned for six years from June 30, 1992 to June 30, 1998. At the time of his assumption into power, Fidel Ramos was the second oldest person - following Sergio Osmeña - to become President of the Philippines at the age of 64...

, the house was restored and became the club house of the Malacañang Golf Club. The house was used by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

 to welcome special guests. Aquino refused to live in Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

, the official residence
Official residence
An official residence is the residence at which heads of state, heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially reside...

 of the President of the Philippines, or in Arlegui Mansion, the residence of former presidents Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 and Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos , popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.Prior to his election as...

, stating that the two residences are too big, and also stated that his small family residence at Times Street in Quezon City would be impractical, since it would be a security concern for his neighbors.

Salary

Article XVIII Section 17 of the 1987 constitution provides that until the Congress provides otherwise the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos. On August 21, 1989, Republic Act No. 6758 directed the Department of Budget and Managements (DBM) to establish and administer a unified Compensation and Position Classification System along lines specified in that Act. On March 14, 2007, President Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 611 Department of Budget and Management (DBM) is hereby directed to implement a ten percent (10%) increase over the basic monthly salaries of civilian government personnel whose positions are covered by the Compensation and Position Classification System as of June 30, 2007, including the salaries of the President, Vice-President, Senators and members of the House of Representatives, but to take effect only after the expiration of the respective terms of office of the incumbent officials pursuant to Section 10 of Article VI and Section 6 of Article VII of the 1987 Constitution. In August 2010, after President Benigno Aquino received his first paychecks, Philippine newspapers reported that his salary was PhP95,000 per month and by 2011, the president's salary will reach P107,000 a month, and P120,000 by 2012.

Air transport

The 250th (Presidential) Airlift Wing of the Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
The Philippine Air Force is the air force of the Republic of the Philippines, and one of the three main services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Its official name in Filipino is Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas....

 has the mandate of providing safe and efficient air transport for the President of the Philippines and the First Family. On occasion, the wing has also been tasked to provide transportation for other members of government, visiting heads of state, and other state guests.

The fleet includes: 1 Fokker F28
Fokker F28
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by defunct Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.-Design and development:...

, which is primarily used for the President's domestic trips and it is also called "Kalayaan One" when the President is onboard, 4 Bell 412
Bell 412
The Bell 412 is a utility helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It is a development of the Bell 212 model, the major difference being the composite four-blade main rotor.-Design and development:...

 helicopters, 3 Sikorsky S-76
Sikorsky S-76
The Sikorsky S-76 is an American medium-size commercial utility helicopter. The S-76 is powered by two turboshaft engines, which drive both the main and tail rotors, each with four blades...

 helicopters, 1 Sikorsky S-70
Sikorsky S-70
The Sikorsky S-70 is a medium transport/utility helicopter family manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. It was developed for the U.S. Army in the 1970s, winning a competition to be designated the UH-60 Blackhawk and spawning a large family in U.S. military service...

-5 Black Hawk, a number of Bell UH-1N Twin Hueys, as well as Fokker F-27 Friendships. For trips outside of the Philippines, the Air Force employs a Bombardier
Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace is a division of Bombardier Inc. and is the third-largest airplane manufacturer in the world. It is headquartered in Dorval, Quebec, Canada.- History :...

 Global Express or charters appropriate aircraft from Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

. Prior to 1962, the Air Force chartered aircraft from Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

 as the international services of Philippine Airlines were suspended. For short-haul flights, Boeing 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

s were initially used and have since been replaced by the Airbus A320
Airbus A320
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

. For medium- to long-haul flights, Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

s were initially used; their roles are now being fulfilled by the Airbus A340-300. The aircraft with the callsign PR 001 is a special plane operated by Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

 to transport the President of the Philippines.

A Presidential Helicopter Bell 412 crashed on April 7, 2009 at Ifugao Province North of Manila. On board were 8 people including two cabinet undersecretaries and other military men. The flight is en route to Ifugao from Baguio City as an advanced party of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo when Loakan Airport Tower lost communication with the aircraft several minutes after take off.

The Arroyo administration planned to buy another aircraft for a worth of about 1.2 Billion pesos before her term ends in June 2010 but cancelled the planned order due to other issues.

Water transport

R.P.S. Lapu-Lapu was built in Japan as part of that country’s war reparations to the Philippines. At the initiative of President Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader...

, the vessel was designed specifically for use as a presidential yacht by Filipino naval engineers, and was christened with its original name of R.P.S. Lapu-Lapu and commissioned into the Navy on March 7, 1959 as its flagship, a status it held until December 1961.

President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

 in the following year ordered its conversion to a naval troop transport, renaming it R.P.S. Roxas after the fifth President of the Philippines in rites led by Mrs. Trinidad Roxas.This was the first time a navy ship had been named in honor of a president.

Later the vessel was renamed R.P.S. The President and then B.R.P. Ang Pangulo by President Ferdinand E. Marcos, who restored its use as the presidential yacht, a status it has retained in all succeeding presidencies to the present day.

President Macapagal himself used another, older, presidential yacht, the R.P.S. Santa Maria, which he renamed R.P.S. Pag-Asa, the name by which it had also been called a decade earlier under President Ramon Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.-Early life:Ramon F...

. This ship was later decommissioned by the Navy in 1993.

It is in honor of these earlier periods under Presidents Magsaysay and Macapagal, and to emphasize its service to the people throughout the archipelago, that the B.R.P. Ang Pangulo has been renamed B.R.P. Pag-Asa by President Arroyo.

As it has throughout the Arroyo administration and over its 50 year life, the vessel, operated by Naval Taskforce Sealion, continues at the President’s instruction to carry out relief and medical missions all over the islands, aid in emergency search and rescue efforts, perform naval functions, promote tourism, culture and local products, as well as serve the presidency and the government.

One of 15 ocean-going vessels provided by the Government of Japan as part of war reparations to the Republic of the Philippines during the administration of President Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader...

, what was first called Bow No. 77 was designed as the Presidential Yacht by Filipino naval engineers and built at the Ishikawajima Dry-Docks in Tokyo.

Its keel was laid at the Harume Yard on July 16, 1958 and the vessel was launched on October 16 of that year. Sea trials were conducted under Lt. Cmdr. Manuel Mandapat PN, its first commanding officer, on February 9 and 10, 1959. It was designated the flagship of the Philippine Navy by President Garcia through Executive Order on February 13, 1959, and delivered to the Philippine Government on February 28. It was christened R.P.S. Lapu-Lapu (PY-77) and commissioned into the Philippine Navy on March 7. On April 2, the vessel arrived in Manila.

The first presidential engagement held aboard took place on April 7, 1959, and the ship’s first mission, a trade and cultural floating exposition with ports of call in Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

, was carried out from April 19 to June 4, 1959. The vessel has since been extensively used for relief, emergency search and rescue, patrol, auxiliary transport and command vessel purposes in addition to performing its duties to the presidency and the government. Many distinguished persons, including General Douglas Macarthur on his sentimental journey in 1961, and numerous heads of state and government, have been aboard as official guests.

Flagship status was revoked by President Diosdado Macapagal on December 31, 1961, and the vessel was renamed R.P.S. Roxas (TP-71) on October 9, 1962, the first instance of a naval ship being named in honor of a Philippine president. It was renamed R.P.S. The President (TP-777) by President Ferdinand E. Marcos on January 11, 1967 and renamed anew as B.R.P. Ang Pangulo (TP-777) on July 1, 1971. Its hull number was altered to AT-25 by President Corazon C. Aquino on September 24, 1986. From 1998 to 2000, extensive refurbishment took place under President Joseph Ejercito Estrada.

On March 6, 2009, the eve of its 50th commissioning anniversary, the ship was renamed B.R.P. Pag-Asa (AT-25) by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in fitting ceremonies celebrating an outstanding legacy of service to the Republic.

Land transport

The President of the Philippines uses a two black, bullet-proof, armored Mercedes-Benz W221
Mercedes-Benz W221
The Mercedes-Benz W221 is a chassis code of S-Class, the successor of Mercedes-Benz W220.The vehicle was unveiled in 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show.-Styling:The W221 S-Class' exterior styling is distinctly different to the W220...

 S600 Guard, whereas one is a decoy vehicle. In convoys, the President is escorted by the Presidential Security Group
Presidential Security Group
- External links :*...

 using the combination of the following patrol vehicles: Toyota Land Cruiser
Toyota Land Cruiser
The is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. It is not related to the Studebaker Land Cruiser car produced in the US from 1934-1954....

, Nissan Patrol
Nissan Patrol
The Nissan Patrol is a four-wheel drive vehicle manufactured by Nissan in Japan since 1951. In Japan since 1980, it has been known as the Nissan Safari. The Patrol is available in Australasia, Central and South America, South Africa, parts of Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well as Iran and...

, Toyota Camry
Toyota Camry
The Toyota Camry is a series of mid-size automobiles manufactured by Toyota since 1982, and sold in the majority of automotive markets throughout the world...

, Chevrolet Suburban
Chevrolet Suburban
Chevrolet offered a station wagon body, built on the 1/2 ton truck frame. This model was specifically built for National Guard units and Civilian Conservation Corps units. Much of the body was constructed from wood, and could seat up to eight occupants....

, Hyundai Equus
Hyundai Equus
The Hyundai Equus , known as the Hyundai Centennial in the Middle East, is an upscale full-size luxury car that serves as the flagship model of Hyundai Motor Company worldwide, named after the Latin word for "horse". The Hyundai Equus is the largest and most expensive sedan in the company's lineup...

 and police 400cc motorcycles. Motorcades of high-security involve as much as 20 vehicles, depending on the president's destination. The presidential cars are designated and registered a plate number of 1 or the word PANGULO (President). The limousine bears the Flag of the Philippines and the Flag of the President of the Philippines Occasionally, the President boards a Toyota Coaster
Toyota Coaster
The Toyota Coaster is a minibus produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. It was introduced in 1969, with the second generation introduced in 1982, followed by the third generation in 1993...

 during provincial trips.

The current president, Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

, prefers to use his own personal vehicle, a Toyota Land Cruiser 200
Toyota Land Cruiser
The is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. It is not related to the Studebaker Land Cruiser car produced in the US from 1934-1954....

 over the black Mercedes Benz S-Guard
Mercedes-Benz S-Class
The Mercedes-Benz S-Class is a series of luxury sedans produced by Mercedes-Benz, a division of Daimler AG. The classification was officially introduced in 1972 with the W116 S-Class, which succeeded previous Mercedes-Benz models dating to the mid-1950s...

 limousine.

The Office of the President has also owned various cars over the decades including a 1937 Chrysler Airflow
Chrysler Airflow
The Chrysler Airflow is an automobile produced by the Chrysler Corporation from 1934-1937. The Airflow was the first full-size American production car to use streamlining as a basis for building a sleeker automobile, one less susceptible to air resistance...

, which served as the country's very first Presidential limousine for Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

.

Presidential security

The Presidential Security Group, known officially as the PSG, is the lead agency tasked in providing security for the President of the Philippines, Vice President of the Philippines
Vice President of the Philippines
-Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

, and their immediate families. They also provide protective service for visiting heads of states and diplomats.

Unlike the other groups around the world who protect political figures, the PSG is not required by command to protect presidential candidates. However, former president's and their immediate families received VIP Protection service from the PSG.

After the presidency

Many presidents held significant positions after leaving the presidency. José P. Laurel
Jose P. Laurel
José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

, who was president during the Japanese occupation, served as Senator from 1951–1957. Laurel was elected to the Senate in 1951, under the Nacionalista Party. He was urged upon to run for President in 1953, but he declined, working instead for the successful election of Ramon Magsaysay. Magsaysay appointed Laurel head of a mission tasked with negotiating trade and other issues with United States officials, the result being known as the Laurel-Langley Agreement. Laurel was also the chairman of the Economic Mission to the United States (1954) and the founder of the Lyceum of the Philippines.

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

 became member of the council of state under the administrations of Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay and García. He was also a member of the National Security Council in the García administration.

Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

 became member of the council of state under President Ramón Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.-Early life:Ramon F...

.

Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader...

 was a delegate, later elected, president of the Constitutional Convention on July 11, 1971.

Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

 was also a delegate and then succeeded Carlos P. García as president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. He also lectured in universities and member of the council of state under Presidents Aquino and Ramos.

Corazon C. Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 was a member of the National Security Council under the Ramos, Estrada and Arroyo administrations. She was also a member of the council of state under President Arroyo.

Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos , popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.Prior to his election as...

 founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation. He was a senior advisor and member of the National Security Council under President Estrada. Ramos was a member of the Council of State and an ambassador–at–large under President Arroyo.

Joseph Ejercito Estrada
Joseph Estrada
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in...

 made a movie career comeback in November 2009 in a film entitled Ang Tanging Pamilya: A Marry Go Round
Ang Tanging Pamilya: A Marry Go Round
Ang Tanging Pamilya: A Marry Go Round is a 2009 Philippine comedy film produced by Star Cinema, starring the Philippine's Comedy Queen, Ai-Ai de las Alas, and Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada. It also features the popular loveteam of Sam Milby and Toni Gonzaga, and Dionisia Pacquiao's...

. He also announced his candidacy for the presidency amid controversy on its legality. Estrada eventually became a member of the National Security Council under his successor, President Arroyo.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

 is currently the Representative
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 of 2nd District of Pampanga.

As of June 30, 2010, there are three living former Presidents:



Among other honors, former Presidents and their immediate family are entitled to three soldiers as guard detail.

See also

  • First Spouse of the Philippines
  • List of Presidents of the Philippines
  • Philippine Presidential Inauguration
    Philippine presidential inauguration
    The inauguration of the President of the Philippines marks the beginning of a new term of the President of the Philippines.-Inaugural Ceremonies:...

  • Prime Minister of the Philippines
    Prime Minister of the Philippines
    The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

  • Seal of the President of the Philippines
    Seal of the President of the Philippines
    The Seal of the President of the Philippines is a symbol used to represent the history and dignity of the President of the Philippines. Its original form was designed by Captain Galo B. Ocampo, secretary of the Philippine Heraldry Committee, and patterned after the Seal of the President of the...

  • Unofficial Philippine Presidents
  • Vice President of the Philippines
    Vice President of the Philippines
    -Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...


External links

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