Cities of the Philippines
Overview
 
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters
Municipal charter
A city charter or town charter is a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the middle ages....

 in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure and political powers of subnational government entities.

Cities are entitled to one congressional district
Legislative districts of the Philippines
The Legislative districts of the Philippines are the division are the representations of the Philippines' provinces and cities in the House of Representatives. The first composition of legislative districts were enshrined in the Ordinance appended to the Constitution...

 and representative per 250,000 population count, and are legally provided their own police force and allowed to use a common seal.
Encyclopedia
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters
Municipal charter
A city charter or town charter is a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the middle ages....

 in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure and political powers of subnational government entities.

Cities are entitled to one congressional district
Legislative districts of the Philippines
The Legislative districts of the Philippines are the division are the representations of the Philippines' provinces and cities in the House of Representatives. The first composition of legislative districts were enshrined in the Ordinance appended to the Constitution...

 and representative per 250,000 population count, and are legally provided their own police force and allowed to use a common seal. As corporate entities, cities have the power to take, purchase, receive, hold, lease, convey, and dispose of real and personal property for its general interests, condemn private property for public use (eminent domain
Eminent domain
Eminent domain , compulsory purchase , resumption/compulsory acquisition , or expropriation is an action of the state to seize a citizen's private property, expropriate property, or seize a citizen's rights in property with due monetary compensation, but without the owner's consent...

), contract and be contracted with, sue and exercise all the powers conferred to it by Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

. Only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and with this city charter Congress confers to a city certain powers that regular municipalities
Municipalities of the Philippines
A municipality is a local government unit in the Philippines. Municipalities are also called towns . They are distinct from cities, which are a different category of local government unit...

 or even other cities may not have. Despite the differences in the powers accorded to each city, all cities regardless of status are given special treatment in terms of being given a bigger share of the internal revenue allotment (IRA) compared to regular municipalities, as well as being generally more autonomous than regular municipalities.

There are twelve metropolitan areas in the Philippines as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

 is the largest conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 or urban agglomeration
Agglomeration
In the study of human settlements, an urban agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area. In France, INSEE the French Statistical Institute, translate it as "Unité urbaine" which means continuous...

 in the country, and its official metropolitan area is composed of the city of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 plus 15 neighboring cities and a municipality. Other metropolitan areas are centered around the cities of Baguio, Dagupan
Dagupan
The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, Dagupan City has a population of 149,554 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the...

, Angeles
Angeles City
The City of Angeles , located within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class, highly-urbanized city. Its name is derived from El Pueblo de los Ángeles in honor of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles de los Custodios , and the name of its founder, Don...

, Olongapo, Batangas
Batangas City
- Foreign Rule :The first Spanish missionaries arrived in Batangas City since 1572. Finally on 1581 Spanish authorities governing the Philippines created a pueblo in the area which included the hill where the present Provincial Capitol of Batangas stands after the formal end of the Coumintang...

, Naga
Naga City
The City of Naga is a first class independent component city in the Philippines...

, Cebu
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

, Iloilo
Iloilo City
The City of Iloilo is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo province. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas, as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area...

, Bacolod
Bacolod
Bacolod may refer to the following:*Bacolod City, the capital city of Negros Occidental, Philippines*Metro Bacolod*Bacolod, Lanao del Norte, a municipality in Lanao del Norte, Philippines*BRP Bacolod City , a transport ship of the Philippine Navy...

, Cagayan de Oro, Davao
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

 and Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
The City of Zamboanga : is a highly urbanized, independent and a chartered city located in Mindanao, Philippines....

.

Government

A city's local government is headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. The vice-mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod
Sangguniang Panlungsod
The Sangguniang Panlungsod is the local legislative branch of city governments in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Tagalog words "sanggunian" and "lungsod" which means "city council". It passes ordinances and resolutions for the administration of the city. Its powers are defined by the...

 (city council), which serves as the city's legislative body. Upon receiving their charters, cities also receive a full complement of executive departments to better serve their constituents. Some departments are established on a case-by-case basis, depending on the needs of the city.

Offices and officials common to all cities

Office Head Mandatory / Optional
City Government Mayor Mandatory
Sangguniang Panlungsod
Sangguniang Panlungsod
The Sangguniang Panlungsod is the local legislative branch of city governments in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Tagalog words "sanggunian" and "lungsod" which means "city council". It passes ordinances and resolutions for the administration of the city. Its powers are defined by the...

Vice-mayor as presiding officer Mandatory
Office of the Secretary to the Sanggunian Secretary to the Sanggunian Mandatory
Treasury Office Treasurer Mandatory
Assessor's Office Assessor Mandatory
Accounting and Internal Audit Services Accountant Mandatory
Budget Office Budget Officer Mandatory
Planning and Development Office Planning and Development Coordinator Mandatory
Engineer Office Engineer Mandatory
Health Office Health Officer Mandatory
Office of Civil Registry Civil Registrar Mandatory
Office of the Administrator Administrator Mandatory
Office of Legal Services Legal Officer Mandatory
Office of Agricultural Services Agriculturist Optional
Office on Social Welfare and Development Services Social Welfare and Development Officer Mandatory
Office on Environment and Natural Resources Environment and Natural Resources Officer Optional
Office on Architectural Planning and Design Architect Optional
Office on Public Information Information Officer Optional
Office for the Development of Cooperatives Cooperative Officer Optional
Office on Population Development Population Officer Optional
Office for Veterinary Services Veterinarian Mandatory
Office on General Services General Services Officer Mandatory

Source: Local Government Code of 1991.

Subdivision

Cities, like municipalities
Municipalities of the Philippines
A municipality is a local government unit in the Philippines. Municipalities are also called towns . They are distinct from cities, which are a different category of local government unit...

, are composed of barangay
Barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

s, which can range from urban neighborhoods (such as Brgy. 9 in Laoag), to rural communities (such as Brgy. Iwahig in Puerto Princesa). Barangays are sometimes grouped into officially defined administrative (geographical) districts. Examples of such are the cities of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 (16 districts), Davao
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

 (11 districts
Districts of Davao City
The following is the list of the 182 barangays of Davao City, Philippines, arranged according to the 3 legislative districts and 11 administrative districts Davao City is divided into:- Legislative Districts of Davao City :...

), Iloilo
Iloilo City
The City of Iloilo is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo province. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas, as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area...

 (7 districts), and Samal (3 districts: Babak, Kaputian and Peñaplata). Some cities such as Caloocan, Manila and Pasay even have an intermediate level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units; there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels. Rather they only serve to make city planning and other administrative tasks easier and more convenient.

Classification

City classification

The Local Government Code of 1991 (Republic Act No. 7160) classifies all cities into one of three categories:

Highly Urbanized Cities - Cities with a minimum population of two hundred thousand (200,000) inhabitants, as certified by the National Statistics Office, and with the latest annual income of at least Fifty Million Pesos (P50,000,000.00) based on 1991 constant prices, as certified by the city treasurer. There are currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines, 16 of them located in Metro Manila.

Independent Component Cities - Cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials. Independent component cities are independent of the province. There are five such cities: Dagupan
Dagupan
The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, Dagupan City has a population of 149,554 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the...

, Cotabato
Cotabato City
The City of Cotabato is one of the cities of the Philippines located in Mindanao. Cotabato City is an exclave of the SOCCSKSARGEN region found within the boundaries of Maguindanao province, but is independent of that province...

, Naga
Naga City
The City of Naga is a first class independent component city in the Philippines...

, Ormoc and Santiago
Santiago City
The City of Santiago is a city in the province of Isabela, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 126,244 people in 22,401 households. Santiago is situated 79 kilometers south of Ilagan, the provincial capital, and about 326 kilometers North of Metro Manila...

.

Component Cities - Cities which do not meet the above requirements are considered component cities of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located within the boundaries of two (2) or more provinces, such city shall be considered a component of the province of which it used to be a municipality.

.

Income classification

Cities are classified according to average annual income based on the previous 3 calendar years. Effective July 28, 2008 the thresholds for the income classes for cities are:
Class Average annual income
First PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 400 million or more
Second PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 320 million or more but less than PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 400 million
Third PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 240 million or more but less than PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 320 million
Fourth PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 160 million or more but less than PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 240 million
Fifth PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 80 million or more but less than PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 160 million
Sixth below PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 80 million

Independent cities

There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as either "highly urbanized" or "independent component" cities. From a legal and fiscal standpoint, once a city is classified as such:
  • its Sangguniang Panlungsod
    Sangguniang Panlungsod
    The Sangguniang Panlungsod is the local legislative branch of city governments in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Tagalog words "sanggunian" and "lungsod" which means "city council". It passes ordinances and resolutions for the administration of the city. Its powers are defined by the...

     legislation becomes no longer subject to review by any province's Sangguniang Panlalawigan
    Sangguniang Panlalawigan
    The Sangguniang Panlalawigan is the legislature of all provinces in the Philippines. It passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the province...

  • it stops sharing its tax revenue with any province

Consequently, the governor and the provincial government do not have administrative supervision over an independent city and its elected officials, as stated in Section 29 of the Local Government Code, although they and the government of the independent city can always cooperatively work together on matters of common interest.

Before the enactment of Batas Pambansa Bilang 51 on December 22, 1979, all chartered cities were considered autonomous from the provinces from which they were created, although the eligibility of residents in chartered cities to vote for provincial officials was determined by their respective charters. With the enactment of Batas Pambansa Bilang 51 on December 22, 1979, all cities that were classified as belonging to the newly introduced "highly urbanized city" distinction lost their eligibility to participate in provincial elections regardless of what their charters indicated. As a result, the cities of Angeles
Angeles City
The City of Angeles , located within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class, highly-urbanized city. Its name is derived from El Pueblo de los Ángeles in honor of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles de los Custodios , and the name of its founder, Don...

, Cebu
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

 and Iloilo
Iloilo City
The City of Iloilo is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo province. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas, as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area...

 became ineligible to vote for provincial officials. The only independent cities that can still participate in the election of provincial officials (governor, vice governor, Sangguniang Panlalawigan members) are the following:
  • Cities declared as highly urbanized between 1987 and 1992, whose charters allow their residents to vote and run for elective positions in the provincial government, and therefore allowed by Section 452-c of the Local Government Code to maintain these rights: Lucena
    Lucena City
    Metro Lucena has an estimated population of 700,000 which is mostly concentrated in the flat south-central portion of Quezon, which includes the cities of Lucena and Tayabas, Sariaya, Candelaria, Lucban & Pagbilao . The people are often characterized as friendly and hardworking...

    , Mandaue
  • Independent component cities whose charters only allow residents to only run for provincial offices: Dagupan
    Dagupan
    The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, Dagupan City has a population of 149,554 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the...

    , Naga
    Naga City
    The City of Naga is a first class independent component city in the Philippines...



Registered voters of the cities of Cotabato
Cotabato City
The City of Cotabato is one of the cities of the Philippines located in Mindanao. Cotabato City is an exclave of the SOCCSKSARGEN region found within the boundaries of Maguindanao province, but is independent of that province...

, Ormoc, Santiago
Santiago City
The City of Santiago is a city in the province of Isabela, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 126,244 people in 22,401 households. Santiago is situated 79 kilometers south of Ilagan, the provincial capital, and about 326 kilometers North of Metro Manila...

, as well as all other highly urbanized cities, including those to be converted or created in the future, are not eligible to participate in provincial elections.

In addition to the eligibility of some independent cities to vote in provincial elections, a few other factors become sources of confusion regarding their autonomy from provinces. Some independent cities still serve as the seat of government of the respective provinces in which they are geographically located: Bacolod (Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Bacolod City and it occupies the northwestern half of Negros Island; Negros Oriental is at the southeastern half...

), Butuan (Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Caraga, a region in Mindanao. Its capital is Cabadbaran City and it borders Surigao del Norte to the north, Surigao del Sur to the east, Agusan del Sur to the south, and Misamis Oriental to the west...

), Cagayan de Oro (Misamis Oriental
Misamis Oriental
Misamis Oriental is a province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital and provincial center is Cagayan de Oro City...

), Cebu City
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

 (Cebu
Cebu
Cebu is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands...

), Iloilo City
Iloilo City
The City of Iloilo is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo province. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas, as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area...

 (Iloilo
Iloilo
Iloilo is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Iloilo occupies the southeast portion of Panay Island and is bordered by Antique Province to the west and Capiz Province and the Jintotolo Channel to the north. Just off Iloilo's southeast coast is Guimaras Province,...

), Lucena City
Lucena City
Metro Lucena has an estimated population of 700,000 which is mostly concentrated in the flat south-central portion of Quezon, which includes the cities of Lucena and Tayabas, Sariaya, Candelaria, Lucban & Pagbilao . The people are often characterized as friendly and hardworking...

 (Quezon
Quezon
-History:Originally, what now forms Quezon was divided among the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, and Nueva Ecija. The area was first explored by Juan de Salcedo in 1571-1572, during his expedition from Laguna to Camarines provinces....

), Puerto Princesa (Palawan
Palawan
Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region or Region 4. Its capital is Puerto Princesa City, and it is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. The islands of Palawan stretch from Mindoro in the northeast to Borneo in the...

), and Tacloban (Leyte
Leyte
Leyte is a province of the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. Its capital is Tacloban City and occupies the northern three-quarters of the Leyte Island. Leyte is located west of Samar Island, north of Southern Leyte and south of Biliran...

). In such cases, the provincial government takes care of the expenses of maintaining its properties such as provincial government buildings and offices outside its jurisdiction by paying for the actual cost of running these facilities as well as providing the host city government with an annual amount (which the province determines at its discretion) to aid in relieving incidental costs incurred to the city.

The representation of a city in the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 (or lack thereof) is not a criterion for its independence from a province, as Congress is for national legislation and is part of national (central) government. Despite Antipolo
Antipolo
Antipolo is a city in the Philippines located in the province of Rizal; about 25 kilometers east of Manila. It is the largest city in the Calabarzon Region in terms of population...

, Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas may refer to:* Dasmariñas City, a city in the province of Cavite, Philippines* Dasmariñas Resettlement Area, a resettlement area located in Dasmariñas City* Dasmariñas Village in Makati City, Philippines...

 and San Jose del Monte having their own representatives in Congress, they are still component cities of Rizal, Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

 and Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

 respectively, as their respective charters specifically converted them into component cities and do not contain any provision that severs their relations with their respective provincial governments. Conversely, the city of Cotabato
Cotabato City
The City of Cotabato is one of the cities of the Philippines located in Mindanao. Cotabato City is an exclave of the SOCCSKSARGEN region found within the boundaries of Maguindanao province, but is independent of that province...

 has, since its incorporation in 1959, been autonomously governed from the provinces which surrounded it. Although for the purposes of representation in the various national legislatures the city has been grouped with the province of Cotabato
Cotabato
Cotabato , is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region in Mindanao...

 (until 1972), Region XII (1978 to 1984), Maguindanao
Maguindanao
Maguindanao is a province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao . Its capital is Shariff Aguak. It borders Lanao del Sur to the north, Cotabato to the east, and Sultan Kudarat to the south....

 (1984 to 2007; 2008 to present), and Shariff Kabunsuan
Shariff Kabunsuan
Shariff Kabunsuan was a province of the Philippines within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao that existed from 2006 to 2008. The law establishing the province was nullified by the Philippine Supreme Court in 2008.-History:...

 (2007 to present).

And while 24 independent cities have their own representative(s) in Congress, some still remain as part of the partial representation of the province to which they previously belonged. In this case, independent cities that do not vote for provincial officials are excluded in Sangguniang Panlalawigan districts, and the allotment of SP members is adjusted accordingly by COMELEC
Commission on Elections (Philippines)
The Commission on Elections, or COMELEC, is one of the three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of elections, initiatives, referendums, and recalls....

 with proper consideration of population. For example, Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Caraga, a region in Mindanao. Its capital is Cabadbaran City and it borders Surigao del Norte to the north, Surigao del Sur to the east, Agusan del Sur to the south, and Misamis Oriental to the west...

 is entitled to have eight members in its Sangguniang Panlalawigan (being a third income class province), and belongs to 2 congressional districts. The seats of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan are not evenly distributed (4-4) between the province's first and second congressional districts because its 1st Congressional district contains Butuan, an independent city which does not vote for provincial officials. The seats are distributed 1-7 to account for the small population of the province's 1st Sangguniang Panlalawigan district (consisting only of Las Nieves
Las Nieves, Agusan del Norte
Las Nieves is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it had a population of 21,530 people in 3,811 households.-Barangays:Las Nieves is politically subdivided into 20 barangays.* Ambacon...

) and the bulk of the province's population being in the second district. On the other hand, the city of Lucena
Lucena City
Metro Lucena has an estimated population of 700,000 which is mostly concentrated in the flat south-central portion of Quezon, which includes the cities of Lucena and Tayabas, Sariaya, Candelaria, Lucban & Pagbilao . The people are often characterized as friendly and hardworking...

, which is eligible to vote for provincial officials, still forms part of the province of Quezon's 2nd Sangguniang Panlalawigan district, which is coterminous with the 2nd congressional district of Quezon.

Being part of an administrative region different from the province's own does not make a city independent. The city of Isabela
Isabela City
Isabela City is a 5th class city and the capital of the province of Basilan, Philippines. The city is located on the northern shore of Basilan. Across the Basilan Strait to the north is Zamboanga City...

 functions as a component city of Basilan
Basilan
The Province of Basilan is an island province of the Philippines within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao . Basilan is the largest and northernmost of the major islands of the Sulu Archipelago and is located just off the southern coast of Zamboanga Peninsula...

: its tax revenues are shared with the provincial government, its residents are eligible to vote and run for provincial offices, and it is served by the provincial government and the Sangguniang Panlalawigan with regard to provincially devolved services. However, by opting to remain within Region IX
Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula / Western Mindanao is a peninsula and an administrative region in the Philippines. Designated as Region IX, the region consists of three provinces, namely, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, its component cities of Dipolog, Dapitan, Pagadian, and...

, Isabela City's residents are not eligible to elect and be elected to regional offices of the expanded Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao is the region, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that is composed of predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan , Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. It is the only region that has its own government...

 (ARMM) which now includes the rest of Basilan. Services that are administered regionally are provided to Isabela City through the offices of Region IX based in Pagadian; the rest of Basilan is served by the ARMM and the regional government based in Cotabato City. Isabela City is not independent from its province, rather it is simply outside the jurisdiction of the ARMM, the region to which the other component units of Basilan belongs. Regions are not the primary subnational administrative divisions of the Philippines, but rather the provinces
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

.

Many government agencies, as well as Philippine society in general, still continue to classify many independent cities outside Metro Manila as part of provinces due to historical and cultural ties, especially if these cities were, and are still, important economic, cultural and social activity centers within the geographic bounds of the provinces to which they previously belonged. Furthermore, most maps of the Philippines showing provincial boundaries almost always never separate independent cities from the provinces in which they are geographically located for cartographic
Cartography
Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:*Set the map's...

 convenience. Despite being first-level administrative divisions (on the same level as provinces, as stated in Section 25 of the LGC), independent cities are still treated by many to be on the same level as municipalities and component cities (second-level administrative divisions) for educational convenience and reduced complexity.

Creation of cities

Congress is the lone legislative entity that can incorporate cities. Provincial
Sangguniang Panlalawigan
The Sangguniang Panlalawigan is the legislature of all provinces in the Philippines. It passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the province...

 and municipal councils
Sangguniang Bayan
The Sangguniang Bayan is the legislature of municipal governments in the Philippines. It passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the municipality...

 can pass resolutions indicating a desire to have a certain area (usually an already-existing municipality or a cluster of barangays) declared a city after the requirements for becoming a city are met. As per Republic Act No. 9009, these requirements include:
  • locally generated income of at least PHP
    Philippine peso
    The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

     100 million (based on constant prices in the year 2000) for the last two consecutive years, as certified by the Department of Finance, AND
  • a population of 150,000 or more, as certified by the National Statistics Office (NSO); OR a contiguous territory of 100 square kilometers, as certified by the Land Management Bureau
    Bureau of Lands Management (Philippines)
    The Philippines' Land Management Bureau , abbreviated as LMB, is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources responsible for administering, surveying, managing, and disposing Alienable and Disposable lands and other government lands not placed...

    , with contiguity not being a requisite for areas that are on two or more island
    Island
    An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot , or holm...

    s.

Members of Congress (usually the representatives of the district to which the proposed city belongs) then draft the legislation that will convert or create the city. After the bill passes through both the House of Representatives and the Senate
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

 and becomes an Act of Congress, the President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 signs the Act into law. If the Act goes unsigned after 30 days it still becomes law despite the absence of the President's signature.

Before 1987 many cities were created without any plebiscites conducted for the residents to ratify the city charter, most notable of which were cities that were incorporated during the early American colonial period (Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and Baguio), and during the Commonwealth Era (1935-1946)
Commonwealth of the Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was a designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States. The Commonwealth was created by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1934. When Manuel L...

 such as Cavite City
Cavite City
The City of Cavite is a fourth class city in the province of Cavite, Philippines. The city occupies a hook shaped peninsula jutting out into Manila Bay. Cavite City used to be the capital of the province...

, Dansalan (now Marawi), Iloilo City
Iloilo City
The City of Iloilo is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo province. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas, as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area...

, Bacolod City
Bacolod City
The City of Bacolod , is a highly urbanized midsize Philippine city. It is the capital of the Negros Occidental province. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region. It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in...

, San Pablo
San Pablo City
The City of San Pablo , a first class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines, is one of the country's oldest cities. The City of San Pablo lies in the southern portion of Laguna province...

 and Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
The City of Zamboanga : is a highly urbanized, independent and a chartered city located in Mindanao, Philippines....

. In addition, the creation of cities before the enactment of the Local Government Code was solely at the discretion of Congress; no requirements had to be met in order to incorporate cities before the LGC became law. But since 1987 it has been constitutionally mandated that any change to the legal status of any local government unit requires the ratification by the residents that would be affected by such changes, thus all cities created after 1987, after meeting the requirements for cityhood as laid out in the Local Government Code of 1991 and Republic Act No. 9009 of 2001, acquired their corporate status only after the majority of its voting residents approved the charter.

It is also important to note that before 1983, there were no requirements for achieving 'city' status other than an approved city charter. This is what made it possible for several current cities such as Tangub or Canlaon to be conferred such a status despite their small population and locally generated income, which do not meet current standards. The relatively low income standard between 1992 and 2001 (which was PHP 20 million) also allowed several municipalities, such as Sipalay and Muñoz, to become cities despite not being able to meet the current PHP 100 million local income standard.

Motivations for cityhood

Although some early cities were given charters because of their advantageous or strategic locations (Angeles, Baguio, Cotabato, Olongapo, Tagaytay, Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
The City of Zamboanga : is a highly urbanized, independent and a chartered city located in Mindanao, Philippines....

) or in order to especially establish new government centers in otherwise sparsely populated areas (Palayan, Trece Martires
Trece Mártires
Trece Mártires may refer to:*the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite, Philippine nationalists executed by the Spanish; or*the city of Trece Martires, named after them....

, Quezon City), most Philippine cities were originally incorporated to provide a form of localized civil government to an area that is primarily urban, which, due to its compact nature and different demography and local economy, cannot be necessarily handled more efficiently by more rural-oriented provincial and municipal governments. However, not all cities are purely areas of dense urban settlement. To date there are still cities with huge expanses of rural or wilderness areas and considerable non-urban populations, such as Calbayog, Davao
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga
Zamboanga City
The City of Zamboanga : is a highly urbanized, independent and a chartered city located in Mindanao, Philippines....

 as they were deliberately incorporated with increased future resource needs and urban expansion, as well as strategic considerations, in mind.

With the enactment of the 1991 Local Government Code, municipalities and cities have both become more empowered to deal with local issues. Regular municipalities now share many of the same powers and responsibilities as chartered cities, but its citizens and/or leaders may feel that it might be to their best interest to get a larger share of internal revenue allotment (IRA) and acquire additional powers by becoming a city, especially if the population and local economy has grown enough. On the other hand, due to the higher property taxes that would be imposed after cityhood, many citizens have become wary of their town's conversion into a city, even if the municipality had already achieved a high degree of urbanization and has an annual income that already exceeds that of many lower-income cities. This has been among the cases made against the cityhood bids of many high-income and populous municipalities surrounding Metro Manila, most notably Bacoor and Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas may refer to:* Dasmariñas City, a city in the province of Cavite, Philippines* Dasmariñas Resettlement Area, a resettlement area located in Dasmariñas City* Dasmariñas Village in Makati City, Philippines...

 (which finally became a city in November 2009), which for many years have been more qualified to become cities than others.

In response to the rapid increase in the number of municipalities being converted into cities since the enactment of the Local Government Code in 1991, Senator Aquilino Pimentel authored what became Republic Act No. 9009 in June 2001 which sought to establish a more appropriate benchmark by which municipalities that wished to become cities were to be measured. The income requirement was increased sharply from PHP 20 million to PHP 100 million in a bid to curb the spate of conversions into cities of municipalities that were perceived to have not become urbanized or economically developed enough to be able to properly function as a city.

Despite the passage of RA 9009, 16 municipalities not meeting the required locally generated income were converted into cities in 2007 by seeking exemption from the income requirement. This led to vocal opposition from the League of Cities of the Philippines
League of Cities of the Philippines
The League of Cities of the Philippines - or more simply the League of Cities or LCP - is a formal organization of all the cities in the Philippines...

 against the cityhood of these municipalities, with the League arguing that by letting these municipalities become cities, Congress will set "a dangerous precedent" that would not prevent others from seeking the same "special treatment." More importantly, the LCP argued that with the recent surge in the conversion of towns that did not meet the requirements set by RA 9009 for becoming cities, the allocation received by existing cities would only drastically decrease because more cities will have to share the amount allotted by the national government, which is equal to 23% of the IRA, which in turn is 40% of all the revenues collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue
Bureau of Internal Revenue (Philippines)
The Bureau of Internal Revenue is an attached agency of Department of Finance. BIR collects more than one-half of the total revenues of the government.-Functions:...

. The resulting legal battles resulted in the nullification of the city charters of the 16 municipalities by the Supreme Court as of August 2010.

Changing city status

Most cities in the Philippines have essentially remained in their status since their charters were first given to them. However, a city's classification can be upgraded or downgraded depending on enacted laws, or the wishes of the residents and/or leaders of the city.

Upgrading

  • Component city to independent component city: All that is needed is a congressional amendment to the city charter prohibiting city residents to vote for provincial officials. So far no city has been upgraded this way.
  • Component/independent component city to highly urbanized city:
    • Since 1992, once a city has a population of 200,000 persons as certified by the NSO and an income of PHP 50 million (based on 1991 constant prices) as certified by the city treasurer, the city government can submit a request to the President
      President of the Philippines
      The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

       to have their city declared as highly urbanized within 30 days. Upon the President's declaration, a plebiscite will be held within a specific timeframe to ratify this conversion. Lapu-Lapu City (2007), Puerto Princesa (2007) and Tacloban (2008) became HUCs in this manner. However, the cities of Tarlac (2005) and Cabanatuan (1998) failed to become HUCs after majority of the votes cast in the plebiscites were against the conversion.
    • There are also several instances involving a direct conversion from municipality to highly urbanized city, as in the case of twelve cities in Metro Manila, starting with Mandaluyong in 1995 up to 2007 with San Juan and Navotas.

Downgrading

  • Highly urbanized city to component city: Reclassifying an HUC as a component city likely involves not only amending the concerned city's charter, but also the Local Government Code, as currently there is no provision in the LGC that allows this, nor are there any precedents. Some Cebu City politicians have indicated that they wish to bring back the city under the province's control, in order to bring in more votes against the Sugbuak
    Sugbuak
    The term Sugbuak refers to the failed controversial splitting of the island province of Cebu in the Philippines into four independent provinces before the 2007 general election...

    , the proposed division of the province of Cebu.
  • Independent component city to component city: A congressional amendment to the city charter enabling city residents to vote for provincial officials is required, followed by a plebiscite. Santiago City
    Santiago City
    The City of Santiago is a city in the province of Isabela, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 126,244 people in 22,401 households. Santiago is situated 79 kilometers south of Ilagan, the provincial capital, and about 326 kilometers North of Metro Manila...

    's status as an independent component city was briefly altered after the enactment of Republic Act No. 8528 on February 14, 1998 which made it a regular component city. The Supreme Court on September 16, 1999 however ruled in favor of the city's mayor who contended that such a change in the status of the city required a plebiscite just like any other merger, division, abolition or alteration in boundaries of any political unit. And due to the lack of a plebiscite to affirm such a change, RA 8528 was therefore unconstitutional.

Changing city status before 1992

  • Chartered city to highly urbanized city: When Batas Pambansa Bilang 51 came into effect in 1980, all cities whose incomes at the time were PHP 40 million or higher became highly urbanized cities, whose political relations with their respective provinces were severed. The cities of Angeles, Bacolod, Cebu, and Iloilo became HUCs in this manner, and their residents effectively lost their eligibility to vote for provincial officials because of this new status. Also classified to this new city status were the cities of Caloocan, Davao, Manila, Pasay, Quezon City, and Zamboanga. In addition, Section 3 of BP 51 also made Baguio a highly urbanized city irrespective of its income, due to its importance as host to the official summer residences of the President and the Supreme Court.
  • Component city to highly urbanized city: When Batas Pambansa Bilang 337 (Local Government Code of 1983) was in force from 1983 to 1991, a city that had at least 150,000 inhabitants and an income of at least PHP 30 million was declared highly urbanized by the Minister of Local Government within thirty days of the city having met the requirement. The cities of Butuan (1985), Cagayan de Oro (1983), General Santos (1988), Iligan (1983), Lucena (1991), Mandaue (1991), Olongapo (1983), and Zamboanga (1983) became HUCs in this manner.
  • Non-voting component city to voting component city: From 1980 to 1991, cities that were not considered as highly urbanized were considered component cities of their provinces, regardless of whether their city charters allowed them to vote for provincial officials or not. The cities of Oroquieta (Misamis Occidental
    Misamis Occidental
    Misamis Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Oroquieta City...

    ) and San Carlos
    San Carlos City, Pangasinan
    San Carlos City is a 2nd class city in the Province of Pangasinan, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 161,884 people in 28,025 households. This figure shows the city is the most populated land area in Pangasinan except for its density.-History:The place now called...

     (Pangasinan
    Pangasinan
    Pangasinan is a province of the Republic of the Philippines. The provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the west central and peripheral area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf, with the total land area being 5,368.82 square kilometers . According to the latest census,...

    ) are special cases, in that because the Local Government Code was not yet in force at the time when Republic Acts No. 6726 and 6843 respectively enabled both cities to once again become eligible to participate in provincial elections, their conversion into voting component cities were not considered technically as a downgrading, but rather a simple change that did not require a plebiscite, since under BP 51 they were not considered highly urbanized cities, but component cities, as the independent component city classification was only introduced through the LGC in 1991.
  • Non-voting chartered city to voting chartered city: Prior to 1980, all cities were just considered chartered cities, without any official category differentiating them aside from income levels. The city of Cabanatuan originally was excluded from electing and being elected into positions in the provincial government of Nueva Ecija
    Nueva Ecija
    Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is Palayan City...

     until its city charter (Republic Act No. 526) was amended by Republic Act No. 1445 in 1956, enabling it to once more vote for provincial officials. In 1964, when Cebu City
    Cebu City
    The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

    's old charter (Commonwealth Act No. 58) was repealed and replaced with Republic Act No. 3857, its residents once more became eligible to vote for provincial officials. However, when the city was among the first few to be classified as highly urbanized in 1980, it effectively became independent from the province of Cebu
    Cebu
    Cebu is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands...

     and its inhabitants have since remained ineligible to participate in the election of provincial officials.

League of Cities of the Philippines (LCP)

The League of Cities of the Philippines
League of Cities of the Philippines
The League of Cities of the Philippines - or more simply the League of Cities or LCP - is a formal organization of all the cities in the Philippines...

 (LCP) is a non-profit organization and is not a government agency. It has a membership of 122 cities and was founded in 1988. The organization was formed to help coordinate efforts to improve governance and local autonomy and to tackle issues such as preserving the environment and improving public works.

List of cities

For a full detailed sortable list, including population, area and density figures, please see List of cities in the Philippines.


There are 138 cities in the Philippines as of February 15, 2011. Biñan is the newest city, after its charter was ratified on February 2, 2010.

Largest cities

Ten most populous cities in the Philippines
Rank City Population
(2007)
Image Description
1. Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

2,679,450 Former capital of the country (1948–1976). Largest city in Metro Manila in population and land area. Hosts the House of Representatives of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 at the Batasang Pambansa Complex
Batasang Pambansa Complex
The Batasang Pambansa Complex is the headquarters of the House of Representatives of the Philippines. It is located at Batasan Road, Batasan Hills, Quezon City....

 and the metropolis' largest source of water, the Novaliches Reservoir.
2. Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

1,660,714 Capital of the country (from 1571-1948 and 1976–present). Historically centered around the walled city of Intramuros, by the mouth of the Pasig River. Host to the seat of the chief executive, the Malacañang Palace. By far the most densely populated city in the country.
3. Caloocan 1,378,856 Historic city where Andres Bonifacio
Andres Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino nationalist and revolutionary. He was a founder and later Supremo of the Katipunan movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution...

 and the Katipunan
Katipunan
The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night...

 held many of its meetings in secrecy. It is also the only divided city here in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. Much of its territory was ceded to form Quezon City, resulting in the formation of two non-contiguous sections under the city's jurisdiction. The third most densely populated city in the country, lying immediately north of the city of Manila. It serves as an industrial and residential area inside Metro Manila.
4. Davao City
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

1,363,337 Touted as country's largest city based on land area, a distinction that Puerto Princesa also claims. Regional center of Region XI
Davao Region
Davao Region / Southern Mindanao, designated as Region XI, is one of the regions of the Philippines, located on the southeastern portion of Mindanao. Davao Region consists of four provinces, namely: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, and Davao del Sur. The region encloses the Davao...

 and former capital of the undivided province of Davao. Most populous city in Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

 and outside Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

.
5. Cebu City
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

798,809 Popularly nicknamed as "The Queen City of the South." First capital of the country. Capital of the province of Cebu
Cebu
Cebu is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands...

 and regional center of Region VII
Central Visayas
Central Visayas, designated as Region VII, is a region of the Philippines located in the central part of the Visayas island group. It consists of four provinces—Bohol, Cebu, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor— and the highly urbanized cities of Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu City, and Mandaue City....

. Most populous city in the Visayas
Visayas
The Visayas or Visayan Islands and locally known as Kabisay-an gid, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast...

. Core of Metro Cebu
Metro Cebu
Metro Cebu is the main urban center of the province of Cebu in the Philippines. Metro Cebu is located along the central eastern portion of the island including the nearby island of Mactan...

.
6. Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
The City of Zamboanga : is a highly urbanized, independent and a chartered city located in Mindanao, Philippines....

774,407 Nicknamed "City of Flowers" and marketed by its city government as "Asia's Latin City" for its substantial Spanish-derived creole-speaking population, the largest in the world. Former capital of the Moro Province
Moro Province
Moro Province is the name of the province of the Philippines consisting of the current provinces/regions of Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato, Davao, and Sulu...

 and of the undivided province of Zamboanga. The capital of the Regional Centre of Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula / Western Mindanao is a peninsula and an administrative region in the Philippines. Designated as Region IX, the region consists of three provinces, namely, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, its component cities of Dipolog, Dapitan, Pagadian, and...

.
7. Antipolo
Antipolo
Antipolo is a city in the Philippines located in the province of Rizal; about 25 kilometers east of Manila. It is the largest city in the Calabarzon Region in terms of population...

633,971 Nicknamed "City in the Sky" for its location on the hills immediately east of Metro Manila. Well-known pilgrimage and tourist center, being host to a Marian shrine and the Hinulugang Taktak National Park
Hinulugang Taktak
Hinulugan Taktak is a waterfall in the Philippines found in the province of Rizal on Luzon island. The waterfall area has been designated as a National Park by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and is one of the two most popular tourist spots in Antipolo City, Rizal's capital, the...

. Most populous city in Luzon outside of Metro Manila.
8. Pasig 617,301 Hosts most of the Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center is Metro Manila's second most important Philippine financial district-cum-central business district after the Makati Financial and Central Business District in Makati City. With an area of at least 100 hectares, the district is located at the boundaries of Pasig City, Mandaluyong...

, one of the top business districts in the country. Was part of the province of Rizal until 1975, when it was incorporated into Metro Manila. Formerly hosted the capitol and other government buildings of that province.
9. Taguig 613,343 Currently exercises fiscal jurisdiction over Fort Bonifacio
Fort Bonifacio
Fort Bonifacio is a highly urbanized district in Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines. The district is named after the main Philippine Army camp in Metro Manila, Fort Andres Bonifacio, which in turn was named after the famous Philippine revolutionary hero Andres Bonifacio...

 (whose two barangay governments still answer to Makati City
Makati City
The City of Makati is one of the 17 cities that make up Metro Manila, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. Makati is the financial center of the Philippines and one of the major financial, commercial and economic hubs in Asia...

), home to the Bonifacio Global City which is being developed as the country's new premier business district. Was part of Rizal Province until 1975, when it was incorporated into Metro Manila. Lies on the western shores of Laguna de Bay
Laguna de Bay
Laguna de Bay is the largest lake in the Philippines and the third largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia after Tonle Sap in Cambodia and Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is on the island of Luzon between the provinces of Laguna to the south and Rizal to the north...

.
10. Valenzuela
Valenzuela City
Valenzuela ,In rare occasion it is pronunced as , with a glottal stop after /ɐ/ in Filipino/Tagalog languages. officially known as the City of Valenzuela is a highly urbanized, first-class city and one of cities in the Philippines that constitutes Metro Manila...

568,928 Originally called Polo, renamed after a local son
Pio Valenzuela
Pío Valenzuela was a Filipino physician and patriot who was among the leaders of the Katipunan that started the Philippine Revolution against Spain...

 who was a figure in the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

. Was part of the province of Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

 until 1975. Formerly a primarily agricultural town, it now hosts many of the industrial enterprises of northern Metro Manila.

Metropolitan areas

The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) has defined twelve metropolitan areas in the Philippines. The official definition of each area does not necessarily follow the actual extent of continuous urbanization. For example, Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

's urban development has long spilled out of its officially defined borders into the adjacent provinces of Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

, Rizal, Laguna and Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

. Meanwhile the definition of Metro Cagayan de Oro
Metro Cagayan de Oro
About 44% of the household population of Cagayan de Oro classify themselves as Visayan , 22.15% as Cebuano, and 4.38% as Boholano; while 28.07% are from other ethnic groups including Maranao and Bukidnon .-Climate:...

 includes some large municipalities in Bukidnon
Bukidnon
Bukidnon is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Malaybalay City. The province borders, clockwise starting from the north, Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, and Lanao del Norte.Bukidnon is...

 whose populations and economies are largely rural and agricultural, and are not in contiguity to the built-up urban area of the core city
Cagayan de Oro City
Cagayan de Oro; , officially the City of Cagayan de Oro, is the provincial capital city of the province of Misamis Oriental in the Philippines...

. In addition, not all the identified metropolitan areas have policy and management structures in place. If they do have them, the capacities of the structures, funding support, and degree of cooperation among member local governments can differ vastly between each metropolitan arrangement.
Twelve metropolitan areas of the Philippines ranked by population
Rank Description Population Area Density Component cities/municipalities Website
1 Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

11,553,427 638.55 18,093 Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Pateros
Pateros, Metro Manila
The Municipality of Pateros is a First-class municipality in Metro Manila, Philippines. This small town is famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino delicacy that is boiled duck egg...

, Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

, San Juan
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

, Taguig, Valenzuela
Metro Manila Development Authority
2 Metro Cebu
Metro Cebu
Metro Cebu is the main urban center of the province of Cebu in the Philippines. Metro Cebu is located along the central eastern portion of the island including the nearby island of Mactan...

2,314,897 1,016.16 2,278 Cebu City
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

, Carcar, Compostela
Compostela, Cebu
During the Battle of Guila-Guila on March 5, 1943, guerillas and male civilians organized as the soldiers and officers of the 8th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and its subordinate units the several Infantry Regiments, Field Artillery Regiments and many others and supporting...

, Consolacion
Consolacion, Cebu
Consolacion is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 89,433 people.Consolacion is part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area.-Barangays:...

, Cordova
Cordova, Cebu
The Municipality of Cordova is located in the 6th district of the Cebu Province in the Philippines. The mainland of Cordova lays on a separate island, in front of the southside of Mactan Island. It is connected to the main island of Mactan over 3 bridges. The total population in Cordova is 45,066...

, Danao
Danao
Danao may refer to:* Danao City, in the province of Cebu, Philippines* Danao, Bohol, a municipality in the province of Bohol, Philippines* Danao, Danao, an inactive volcano in the barangay of Danao, Ormoc City, in the province of Leyte, Philippines...

, Lapu-Lapu, Liloan
Liloan, Cebu
Liloan is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 92,181 people with 42,202 registered voters and has 13,381 residents....

, Mandaue, Minglanilla
Minglanilla, Cebu
Minglanilla is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 101,585 people.Minglanilla is part of a metropolitan area known as Metro Cebu.-Geography:...

, Naga
Naga, Cebu
Naga is a city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 95,163 people.The town is home to a large power station, situated on a 30-hectare site, Cemex cement factory at Tinaan , recently a Small Medium Enterprise industrial park was opened in...

, San Fernando
San Fernando, Cebu
San Fernando is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 54,932 people....

, Talisay
-
3 Metro Davao
Metro Davao
Metro Davao is an agglomeration of Davao City and four surrounding cities: Digos City in Davao del Sur, Tagum City, Panabo City and the Island Garden City of Samal in Davao del Norte...

2,046,181 3,798.95 539 Davao City
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

, Digos
DIGOS
The General Investigations and Special Operations Division , mainly known with its acronym DIGOS, is an Italian law enforcement agency, charged with investigating sensitive cases relating to terrorism, organized crime and serious offences such as kidnapping and extortion.It is a special operative...

, Panabo, Island Garden City of Samal, Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur
Santa Cruz is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del Sur, Philippines. It has a population of 100,017 people in 21,856 households.The Municipality of Santa Cruz is now a part of Metropolitan Davao.Region XI : Davao del Sur- Geography :...

, Carmen
Carmen, Davao del Norte
Carmen is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 55,144 people in 11,073 households.Carmen has a total land area of 275.16 km²...

, Tagum
-
4 Metro Cagayan de Oro
Metro Cagayan de Oro
About 44% of the household population of Cagayan de Oro classify themselves as Visayan , 22.15% as Cebuano, and 4.38% as Boholano; while 28.07% are from other ethnic groups including Maranao and Bukidnon .-Climate:...

1,121,561 4,343.34 258 Cagayan de Oro City
Cagayan de Oro City
Cagayan de Oro; , officially the City of Cagayan de Oro, is the provincial capital city of the province of Misamis Oriental in the Philippines...

, Alubijid
Alubijid, Misamis Oriental
Alubijid is a 4th class municipality in the province of Misamis Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 25,060 people in 4,991 households.-Barangays:Alubijid is politically subdivided into 16 barangays....

, Claveria
Claveria, Misamis Oriental
The Town of Claveria is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Misamis Oriental, Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 43,514 people. In 2000 census it has a recorded 7,843 households...

, El Salvador City
El Salvador, Misamis Oriental
El Salvador is a city in the province of Misamis Oriental on the Mindanao island, southern part of the Philippines. According to the 2007 Philippine census, it has a population of about 41,905 people and records 7,290 households in the 2000 Philippine census...

, Gitagum
Gitagum, Misamis Oriental
Gitagum is a fourth-class Philippine municipality in the province of Misamis Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it had a population of 13,522 people in 2,774 households.Gitagum is politically subdivided into eleven barangays:* Burnay...

, Jasaan
Jasaan, Misamis Oriental
Jasaan is a town in the Province of Misamis Oriental in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. It is approximately 28 kilometers eastward from the capital city of Cagayan de Oro...

, Laguindingan
Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental
Laguindingan is a 4th class municipality in the Province of Misamis Oriental on the Mindanao island, southern part of the Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of about 19,952 people in 3,968 households. The town will be the site of the Laguindingan International Airport...

, Opol
Opol, Misamis Oriental
Opol is a 4th class municipality in the province of Misamis Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2007 Philippine census, it has a population of 47,187 people, as of 1 August 2007....

, Tagoloan
Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental
Tagoloan is a 1st class according in income class municipality in the province of Misamis Oriental Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 56,499 people in 11,773 households....

, Villanueva
Villanueva, Misamis Oriental
Villanueva is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Misamis Oriental, Philippines. It is approximately 30-40 minutes away from the city of Cagayan de Oro. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 24,867 people in 4,779 households....

, Baungon
Baungon, Bukidnon
Baungon is a 2nd class municipality in the northern part of the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. It is about 132 kilometers north of Malaybalay City passing through Cagayan de Oro, which is about 30 kilometers from Imbatug, the towns poblacion. It is bounded on the northeast by the Libona, at the...

, Libona
Libona, Bukidnon
Libona is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 35,670 people in 6,459 households.-History of Libona:...

, Malitbog
Malitbog, Bukidnon
Malitbog is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 21,948 people in 3,808 households.-History:...

, Manolo Fortich
Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon
Manolo Fortich is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 82,051 people...

, Sumilao
Sumilao, Bukidnon
Sumilao is a 4th class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 21,720 people based on 2000 census 3,268 households.-Origin of name:...

, Talakag
Talakag, Bukidnon
Talakag is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 53,316 people and 8,342 households based on 2000 census.-Origin of Name:...

-
5 Metro Angeles
Angeles City
The City of Angeles , located within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class, highly-urbanized city. Its name is derived from El Pueblo de los Ángeles in honor of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles de los Custodios , and the name of its founder, Don...

915,365 596.89 1,534 Angeles, Bacolor
Bacolor, Pampanga
Bacolor is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Pampanga, Philippines.-Demographics:According to the latest census, it has a population of 25,238 people in 3,029 households.-History:...

, Mabalacat
Mabalacat, Pampanga
Mabalacat is a 1st class municipality in the northern part of the province of Pampanga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 203,307 people in 35,134 households....

, Porac
Porac, Pampanga
Porac is a 1st class municipality in the province of Pampanga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 102,962 people in 15,686 households.Porac is the largest town in Pampanga...

, San Fernando
-
6 Metro Iloilo-Guimaras
Metro Iloilo-Guimaras
The Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area or Metro Iloilo-Guimaras is a metropolitan area encompassing the highly urbanized city of Iloilo City, the Regional Agro-Industrial Center of Pavia, Iloilo, the towns of Oton, Iloilo, Leganes, Iloilo, Santa Barbara, Iloilo and San Miguel, Iloilo and the...

789,080 972.83 811 Iloilo City
Iloilo City
The City of Iloilo is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo province. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas, as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area...

, Guimaras Province
Guimaras
Guimaras is an island province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Among the smallest provinces, its capital is Jordan. The island is located in the Panay Gulf, between the islands of Panay and Negros...

, Leganes
Leganes, Iloilo
For the Spanish city of the same name, see LeganésLeganes is a 4th class municipality in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. It is located 11 km north of the capital Iloilo City. Like most Philippine towns that sprawl outward from the capital, is made up of houses, farms and light agricultural...

, Oton
Oton, Iloilo
Oton is a first class municipality in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 65,374 people in 12,907 households.-Barangays:Oton is politically subdivided into 37 barangays.-Official Website:...

, Pavia
Pavia, Iloilo
--Pavia is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 44,32. Arcadio H. Gorriceta is its present mayor. The Catholic church, currently undergoing restoration, is similar to one in Pavia, Italy. Pavia covers only 3,804...

, San Miguel
San Miguel, Iloilo
San Miguel is a 5th class municipality in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 20,754 people in 4,117 households....

, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, Iloilo
Santa Barbara is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 46,076 in 8,821 households and is strategically located in the center of Iloilo, 15.7 kilometers away from the Iloilo City.The Iloilo International Airport is...

Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council
7 Metro Bacolod
Metro Bacolod
The Bacolod metropolitan area, also known as Metro Bacolod, is the 7th most populous out of the 12 metropolitan areas in the Philippines. This metropolitan area as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority has an estimated population of 716,306 as of 2007. Roughly 1 in 124...

716,306 578.65 1,238 Bacolod
Bacolod
Bacolod may refer to the following:*Bacolod City, the capital city of Negros Occidental, Philippines*Metro Bacolod*Bacolod, Lanao del Norte, a municipality in Lanao del Norte, Philippines*BRP Bacolod City , a transport ship of the Philippine Navy...

, Silay, Talisay
-
8 Metro Naga
Metro Naga
Metro Naga is a metropolitan area composed of 14 municipalities centered around Naga City, Camarines Sur, Philippines. The MNDC covers most of 2nd district of the province of Camarines Sur, and part of its 1st, 3rd and 4th districts.-History:...

685,005 1,242.20 551 Naga, Bombon
Bombon, Camarines Sur
Bombon is a 5th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 14,083 people.-History:...

, Bula
Bula, Camarines Sur
Bula is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 , it has a population of 62,024 people....

, Calabanga
Calabanga, Camarines Sur
Calabanga is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. It is one of the biggest municipalities in terms of population and land area with an approximate 163.84 km². , which constitutes 3.1% of the province’s land area...

, Camaligan
Camaligan, Camarines Sur
Camaligan is a 5th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 19,188 people in 3,432 households.-Barangays:Camaligan is politically subdivided into 13 barangays....

, Canaman
Canaman, Camarines Sur
Canaman is a landlocked 4th class municipality centrally located in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. It is bounded on the North by Magarao, on the South by Camaligan, on the East by Naga City, and on the Southwest by the broad Bicol River...

, Gainza
Gainza, Camarines Sur
Gainza is a 6th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 9,404 people.-Barangays:Gainza is politically subdivided into 8 barangays :* Cagbunga* Dahilig* Loob* Malbong* Namuat...

, Magarao
Magarao, Camarines Sur
Magarao is a 4th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 22,515 people.-History:...

, Milaor
Milaor, Camarines Sur
Milaor is a 4th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 26,452 people.-History:...

, Minalabac
Minalabac, Camarines Sur
Minalabac is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 43,957 people. Note: Given Data as of August 2010 may changed...

, Ocampo
Ocampo, Camarines Sur
Ocampo is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 39,759 people.-History:...

, Pamplona
Pamplona, Camarines Sur
Pamplona is a 4th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 31,895 people.-History:...

, Pasacao
Pasacao, Camarines Sur
Pasacao is the 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 41,533 people.-History:...

, Pili
Pili, Camarines Sur
Pili is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Camarines Sur. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 76,496 people.-History:...

, San Fernando
San Fernando, Camarines Sur
San Fernando is a 4th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it had a population of 30,697 people.-History:...

Metro Naga Development Council
9 Metro Baguio (BLIST)
Metro Baguio
Metro Baguio or BLIST is an agglomeration of Baguio City and four surrounding Municipalities of Benguet namely: La Trinidad, Itogon, Sablan, and Tuba. It is a major metropolitan area in Northern Luzon...

499,412 978.88 511 Baguio, La Trinidad
La Trinidad, Benguet
La Trinidad is a 1st class municipality in the province of Benguet, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Benguet. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 97,810 people in 13,658 households....

, Itogon
Itogon, Benguet
Itogon is a 1st class municipality in the province of Benguet, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 48,778 people in 8,588 households....

, Sablan
Sablan, Benguet
Sablan is a 5th class municipality in the province of Benguet, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 10,890 people in 1,873 households.-History:On 1942, The Japanese Imperial forces was occupied in the town of Sablan, Benguet....

, Tuba
Tuba, Benguet
Tuba is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Benguet, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 40,008 people in 7,210 households.-Location:...

-
10 Metro Batangas
Batangas City
- Foreign Rule :The first Spanish missionaries arrived in Batangas City since 1572. Finally on 1581 Spanish authorities governing the Philippines created a pueblo in the area which included the hill where the present Provincial Capitol of Batangas stands after the formal end of the Coumintang...

432,262 386.97 1,117 Batangas City
Batangas City
- Foreign Rule :The first Spanish missionaries arrived in Batangas City since 1572. Finally on 1581 Spanish authorities governing the Philippines created a pueblo in the area which included the hill where the present Provincial Capitol of Batangas stands after the formal end of the Coumintang...

, Bauan
Bauan, Batangas
The Municipality of Bauan is a first class municipality in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 79,831 people in 15,353 households.- Barangays :...

, San Pascual
San Pascual, Batangas
San Pascual is a 1st class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 57,200 people in 9,744 households....

-
11 Metro Dagupan (CAMADA)
Dagupan
The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, Dagupan City has a population of 149,554 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the...

325,364 134.13 2,425 Calasiao
Calasiao, Pangasinan
Calasiao is a 1st class municipality in the province of Pangasinan, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 85,419 people with 15,020 households. In the Pangasinan language, the town is called "Baley na Calasiao" which means "town of Calasiao" in English...

, Mangaldan
Mangaldan, Pangasinan
Mangaldan is a 1st class municipality in the province of Pangasinan, Philippines. It is near the cities of Dagupan and Baguio. It is in the 4th congressional district of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, it has a population of 90,391 people in 15,356 households.Mangaldan was founded by...

, Dagupan
Dagupan
The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, Dagupan City has a population of 149,554 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the...

 
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12 Metro Olongapo 304,388 472.16 645 Olongapo, Subic
Subic, Zambales
Subic is a 1st class municipality in the province of Zambales, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 77,118 people in 13,882 households....

-

City facts

  • By population (2007 census figures):
    • Smallest: Palayan City
      Palayan City
      The City of Palayan is a 5th class city in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. It is the capital city of Nueva Ecija...

       (32,790)
    • Largest: Quezon City
      Quezon City
      Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

       (2,679,450)
  • By population density (calculated using 2007 census figures):
    • Most densely populated: Manila
      Manila
      Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

      , with 43,079 people per square kilometer
    • Most sparsely populated: Puerto Princesa, with 81 people per square kilometer
  • By land area:
    • Smallest: San Juan City, with an area of 5.94 km2
    • Largest: Davao City
      Davao City
      The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

      , with an area of 2,433.61 km2. However, while some sources claim that Puerto Princesa covers an area of more than 2,500 km2, its officially recognized land area figure (according to IRA share calculation data) is 2,381.02 km2. Contrary to popular belief within the Philippines, Davao City does not hold the record of being the world's largest city in terms of land area.
  • By elevation:
    • Lowest: Most Philippine cities are located on sea level. However, some parts of Navotas, Caloocan and Malabon are below sea level, and continue to experience subsidence.
    • Highest: much of Baguio is situated more than 1,300 meters above sea level. However, part of Mount Apo
      Mount Apo
      Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially-active stratovolcano in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. With an altitude of , it is the highest mountain in the country and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province in Region XI and Cotabato province in Region XII...

      , the highest Philippine peak, is under Davao City's jurisdiction; the cities of Kidapawan and Digos
      DIGOS
      The General Investigations and Special Operations Division , mainly known with its acronym DIGOS, is an Italian law enforcement agency, charged with investigating sensitive cases relating to terrorism, organized crime and serious offences such as kidnapping and extortion.It is a special operative...

       both have claims on the territorial jurisdiction of the mountain too.
  • By number of (land-)bounding LGUs:
    • If only independent cities are considered
      • Most provinces: The independent cities of Iligan and Santiago
        Santiago City
        The City of Santiago is a city in the province of Isabela, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 126,244 people in 22,401 households. Santiago is situated 79 kilometers south of Ilagan, the provincial capital, and about 326 kilometers North of Metro Manila...

         are both bounded by four provinces. The former is bounded by Misamis Oriental
        Misamis Oriental
        Misamis Oriental is a province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital and provincial center is Cagayan de Oro City...

         to the north (and also sharing a boundary with the independent city of Cagayan de Oro), Lanao del Norte
        Lanao del Norte
        Lanao del Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Tubod. The province borders Lanao del Sur to the southeast, Zamboanga del Sur to the west, Illana Bay to the southwest, Iligan Bay to the north, Iligan City to the northeast, and is separated...

         and Lanao del Sur
        Lanao del Sur
        Lanao del Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao . Its capital is Marawi City and borders Lanao del Norte to the north, Bukidnon to the east, and Maguindanao and Cotabato to the south. To the southwest lies Illana Bay, an arm of the Moro Gulf...

         to the south, and Bukidnon
        Bukidnon
        Bukidnon is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Malaybalay City. The province borders, clockwise starting from the north, Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, and Lanao del Norte.Bukidnon is...

         to the east. The latter is bounded by Isabela to the north, south and east, Ifugao to the northwest, Nueva Vizcaya
        Nueva Vizcaya
        Nueva Vizcaya is a province of the Philippines located in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Bayombong. It is bordered by, clockwise from the north, Ifugao, Isabela, Quirino, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, and Benguet.-History, people and culture:The name was derived from the...

         to the southwest, and Quirino to the southeast. Some maps also show Davao City
        Davao City
        The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

         as bounding the province of Bukidnon
        Bukidnon
        Bukidnon is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Malaybalay City. The province borders, clockwise starting from the north, Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, and Lanao del Norte.Bukidnon is...

        , adding to its boundaries with Davao del Norte
        Davao del Norte
        Davao del Norte , and once known simply as Davao, is a province of the Philippines located in the Davao Region in Mindanao. Its capital is Tagum City. It borders the province of Agusan del Sur to the north, Bukidnon to the west, Compostela Valley to the east, and the city of Davao to the south...

        , Davao del Sur
        Davao del Sur
        Davao del Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Davao Region in Mindanao. Its capital is Digos City. The province is bordered by Davao City to the north, and Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, South Cotabato, and Sarangani to the west. To the east lies the Davao Gulf...

         and North Cotabato.
      • Most primary-level LGUs: If other independent cities are also considered in addition to the provinces, Quezon City
        Quezon City
        Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

         shares a boundary with the most (9) primary-level LGUs. From the north, clockwise, it borders the provinces of Bulacan
        Bulacan
        Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

         and Rizal, and the highly urbanized cities of Marikina, Pasig, Mandaluyong, San Juan
        San Juan, Metro Manila
        The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

        , Manila
        Manila
        Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

        , Caloocan and Valenzuela.
      • Most municipalities and cities: Quezon City
        Quezon City
        Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

         is bounded by 10 cities and municipalities. Aside from the 7 cities it borders within Metro Manila, Quezon City also shares a boundary with San Jose del Monte City
        San Jose del Monte City
        The City of San Jose del Monte is a first class suburban component city in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. It is bordered by Caloocan City and Quezon City, both in Metro Manila, in the south; by Rodriguez, Rizal in the east; Santa Maria and Marilao, both of Bulacan, in the west and...

         in Bulacan, and Rodriguez
        Rodriguez, Rizal
        Rodriguez, Rizal is a first-class, urban municipality in the province of Rizal, Philippines. It is the northernmost town in the province and comes after San Mateo, Rizal, and Quezon City coming from Metro Manila...

         and San Mateo
        San Mateo, Rizal
        San Mateo, Rizal is a first class urban municipality of Rizal Province. Located on the island of Luzon, San Mateo is one of 13 municipalities and a capital city that make up the Province of Rizal, Region 4-A of the Philippines. San Mateo is part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway...

         in Rizal. Depending on the map used, Davao City
        Davao City
        The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

         can be considered sharing borders with as many as 14 cities and municipalities. In addition to its recognized boundaries with Panabo City
        Panabo City
        -External links:*****...

        , Santo Tomas
        Santo Tomas, Davao del Norte
        Santo Tomas is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 84,367 people in 16,810 households.-Barangays:Santo Tomas is politically subdivided into 19 barangays....

        , Kapalong and Talaingod in Davao del Norte
        Davao del Norte
        Davao del Norte , and once known simply as Davao, is a province of the Philippines located in the Davao Region in Mindanao. Its capital is Tagum City. It borders the province of Agusan del Sur to the north, Bukidnon to the west, Compostela Valley to the east, and the city of Davao to the south...

        , with Arakan
        Arakan, Cotabato
        Arakan is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Cotabato, Philippines. According to LGPMS , it has a population of 46,410 people in 9,282 households.-Tourist Attraction:...

         and Magpet in North Cotabato, and with Digos City
        Digos City
        Digos City is an affluent suburban city in the province of Davao del Sur, Philippines. The city strategically lies on the eastern shores of Davao Gulf and southern foothills of Mt. Apo in the island of Mindanao and it is the center city between the two major cities in Mindanao, Davao City and...

         and Santa Cruz
        Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur
        Santa Cruz is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del Sur, Philippines. It has a population of 100,017 people in 21,856 households.The Municipality of Santa Cruz is now a part of Metropolitan Davao.Region XI : Davao del Sur- Geography :...

         in Davao del Sur
        Davao del Sur
        Davao del Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Davao Region in Mindanao. Its capital is Digos City. The province is bordered by Davao City to the north, and Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, South Cotabato, and Sarangani to the west. To the east lies the Davao Gulf...

        , several others have been depicted in maps as bordering the city: Carmen
        Carmen, Davao del Norte
        Carmen is a 1st class municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 55,144 people in 11,073 households.Carmen has a total land area of 275.16 km²...

         and Braulio E. Dujali
        Braulio E. Dujali, Davao del Norte
        Braulio E. Dujali is a municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 18,050 people in 3,397 households.-Barangays:Braulio E. Dujali is politically subdivided into 5 barangays:...

         in Davao del Norte, Quezon
        Quezon, Bukidnon
        Quezon is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 91,119 people and 15,882 households during 2000 census.-Creation of the Municipality:...

         or San Fernando
        San Fernando, Bukidnon
        San Fernando is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 44,959 people.-History:...

         in Bukidnon, Kidapawan City
        Kidapawan City
        Kidapawan City is a 1st class city in the province of Cotabato, Philippines per Department of Finance Order No. 20-2005. It is the capital city of Cotabato Province. It is a favorite tourist destination in the late October to December and in the summer, where thousands of tourist climb the majestic...

         and Makilala in North Cotabato, and Bansalan in Davao del Sur.
    • If only component cities are considered
      • Most provinces: There are several component cities that border two provinces, not counting the province of which they are a part: Calamba City
        Calamba City
        Calamba City is a first class component city located in the province of Laguna, Philippines. Situated only 54 kilometers south of Manila, about an hour by chartered bus, Calamba City is a popular tourist destination with its hot spring resorts, most of the resorts are located in Barangay Pansol...

        , Lipa City
        Lipa City
        The Lipa City /Li-pâ/ is a first class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. It is one of the three component cities of Batangas province...

        , San Pablo City
        San Pablo City
        The City of San Pablo , a first class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines, is one of the country's oldest cities. The City of San Pablo lies in the southern portion of Laguna province...

        , Tacurong, Tagaytay and Tanauan City
        Tanauan City
        The City of Tanauan is a second class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 142,537 inhabitants in 21,912 households. It was incorporated as a city under Republic Act No...

        .
      • Most primary-level LGUs: If independent cities are also considered in addition to the provinces, there are a few component cities sharing boundaries with 3 primary-level LGUs: Antipolo
        Antipolo
        Antipolo is a city in the Philippines located in the province of Rizal; about 25 kilometers east of Manila. It is the largest city in the Calabarzon Region in terms of population...

         (Marikina, Pasig, Quezon), and San Jose del Monte (Caloocan, Quezon City
        Quezon City
        Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

        , Rizal).
      • Most municipalities and cities: Lipa City
        Lipa City
        The Lipa City /Li-pâ/ is a first class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. It is one of the three component cities of Batangas province...

         is bounded by 13 other cities and municipalities. Clockwise, starting from the northeast, these are: Alaminos
        Alaminos, Laguna
        Alaminos is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 40,380 people in 7,466 households. It has a land area of and is situated southeast of Manila. Located at northeast of Sto...

         and San Pablo City
        San Pablo City
        The City of San Pablo , a first class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines, is one of the country's oldest cities. The City of San Pablo lies in the southern portion of Laguna province...

         in Laguna, Tiaong and San Antonio
        San Antonio, Quezon
        San Antonio is a 5th class municipality in the province of Quezon, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 30,023 people.-Barangays:San Antonio is politically subdivided into 20 barangays.* Arawan* Bagong Niing* Balat Atis...

         in Quezon, and Padre Garcia
        Padre Garcia, Batangas
        Padre Garcia is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 42,942 people in 6,334 households...

        , Rosario
        Rosario, Batangas
        Rosario is a 1st class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 95,785 people in 16,288 households....

        , Ibaan, San Jose
        San Jose, Batangas
        San Jose is a 1st class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 61,307 people in 10,123 households....

        , Cuenca
        Cuenca, Batangas
        Cuenca is a 4th class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 28,581 people in 5,222 households....

        , Mataas na Kahoy, Balete
        Balete, Batangas
        Balete is a 5th class municipality in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 19,252 people in 3,067 households.Balete is well known for its location, because of the panoramic view of the Taal Volcano....

        , Malvar
        Malvar, Batangas
        Malvar is a 2nd class municipality in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. As of 2009, the population of Malvar was 41,270 and the total number of households was 8,678...

         and Santo Tomas
        Santo Tomas, Batangas
        Santo Tomas is a 1st class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 113,105 people. The town is a gateway to the province from Laguna...

         in Batangas
        Batangas
        Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

        .
  • Most extreme points:
    • Northernmost: Laoag
    • Southernmost: General Santos
    • Westernmost: Puerto Princesa
    • Easternmost: Bislig

Defunct/dissolved cities

  • Dagu-cala City (1947) - President Roxas issued Executive Order No. 96 fixing the city limits of Dagupan to include the towns of San Fabian
    San Fabián
    San Fabián is one of 21 communes in the Ñuble Province of central Chile's Biobío Region. The capital is the town of San Fabián de Alico. The commune spans an area of .-Administration:...

     and Calasiao but the residents of Calasiao rejected inclusion into the new city, causing controversy over the election that was held on Nov. 10, 1947. The Dagu-cala dispute was brought before the Supreme Court of the Philippines which subsequently validated the election and ruled that Dagupan became a city on June 20, 1947, when Roxas signed the charter into law.
  • Legazpi City (1948–1954) - Legazpi's cityhood was approved on June 18, 1948. Under Republic Act No. 306, Legazpi became a city after the President of the Philippines proclaimed its cityhood. Comprising the present-day territories of Legazpi City
    Legazpi City
    The City of Legazpi is a first class city and capital of the province of Albay, Philippines. With 179,481 inhabitants according to the 2007 census, it is the largest city in the Bicol Region in terms of population, though not in land area...

     and Daraga
    Daraga, Albay
    Daraga is a 1st class municipality in the province of Albay, Philippines.According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 110,625 people in 20,082 households.-History:February 1, 1814 was Mayon's deadliest eruption....

    , the city was dissolved on June 8, 1954 when Legazpi and Daraga were made into separate municipalities. Legazpi eventually became a city on its own on June 12, 1959.
  • Basilan City (1948–1973) - formerly part of the city of Zamboanga
    Zamboanga City
    The City of Zamboanga : is a highly urbanized, independent and a chartered city located in Mindanao, Philippines....

     until it was made a city on its own in 1948 through. Delimited to only the downtown area of what is now Isabela City
    Isabela City
    Isabela City is a 5th class city and the capital of the province of Basilan, Philippines. The city is located on the northern shore of Basilan. Across the Basilan Strait to the north is Zamboanga City...

     upon the creation of the province of Basilan
    Basilan
    The Province of Basilan is an island province of the Philippines within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao . Basilan is the largest and northernmost of the major islands of the Sulu Archipelago and is located just off the southern coast of Zamboanga Peninsula...

     in 1973 through Presidential Decree No. 356 by President Ferdinand Marcos
    Ferdinand Marcos
    Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

    . Finally abolished and annexed to the municipality of Isabela on November 7, 1975 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824.
  • Rajah Buayan City (1966) - under Republic Act No. 4413, the then-municipality of General Santos in what was then the unified province of Cotabato was to be formally converted into a city named after a historical ruler in Mindanao on January 1, 1966, provided that majority of qualified voters in the municipality vote in favor of cityhood in a plebiscite. In December 1965 the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) proclaimed the cityhood of Rajah Buayan, with 4,422 people voting for and 3,066 voting against. However, two residents of the new city challenged this by arguing in the courts that the number of people who voted in favor of cityhood did not form a majority in light of the fact that there were 15,727 voters in the city. The court issued an injunction on January 4, 1966 restraining city officers from performing any acts authorized by or pursuant to provisions in RA 4413. The Supreme Court
    Supreme Court of the Philippines
    The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

     unanimously upheld this decision on October 29, 1966 and declared that the city charter was not accepted by majority of voters, thus rendering RA4413 null and void. The municipality of General Santos would later be converted into a city under the same name in 1968.

"League of 16" and legal battles

  • The Supreme Court of the Philippines
    Supreme Court of the Philippines
    The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

    , by a highly divided vote of 6-5, on November 18, 2008, subsequently upheld with finality on May 6, 2009, declared unconstitutional cityhood laws converting 16 municipalities into cities. The 24-page judgment of Justice Antonio T. Carpio, adjudged that the following Cityhood Laws violate secs. 6 and 10, Article X of the Constitution of the Philippines:
    • RA # 9389 (Baybay City in Leyte)
    • RA # 9390 (Bogo City in Cebu)
    • RA # 9391 (Catbalogan City
      Catbalogan City
      Catbalogan City is the city capital of Samar Province, Philippines with a population of 92,454 . It is Samar's main commercial, trading, educational, political and financial center. It is also an important and major seaport serving inter-island vessels...

       in Samar)
    • RA # 9392 (Tandag City in Surigao del Sur)
    • RA # 9393 (Lamitan City in Basilan)
    • RA # 9394 (Borongan City in Eastern Samar)
    • RA # 9398 (Tayabas City in Quezon)
    • RA # 9404 (Tabuk City in Kalinga)
    • RA # 9405 (Bayugan City in Agusan del Sur)
    • RA # 9407 (Batac City in Ilocos Norte)
    • RA # 9408 (Mati City in Davao Oriental)
    • RA # 9409 (Guihulngan City in Negros Oriental)
    • RA # 9434 (Cabadbaran City in Agusan del Norte)
    • RA # 9435 (El Salvador City in Misamis Oriental)
    • RA # 9436 (Carcar City
      Carcar City
      Carcar is a city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 100,632 people.In 2005, Metro Cebu's definition was expanded to include Danao City in the north, and the municipality of San Fernando and the then town of Carcar down south.-Geography:Carcar...

       in Cebu)
    • RA # 9491 (Naga City
      Naga, Cebu
      Naga is a city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 95,163 people.The town is home to a large power station, situated on a 30-hectare site, Cemex cement factory at Tinaan , recently a Small Medium Enterprise industrial park was opened in...

       in Cebu)
The Court held that the foregoing Cityhood Laws, all enacted after RA 9009's effectivity, "explicitly exempt respondent municipalities from the increased income requirement from PHP 20 million to PHP 100 million in sec. 450 of the Local Government Code (LGC), as amended by RA 9009. Such exemption clearly violates Section 10, Article X of the Constitution and is thus patently unconstitutional. To be valid, such exemption must be written in the Local Government Code and not in any other law, including the Cityhood Laws."
  • However, more than a year later, on December 22, 2009, acting on the appeal of the so-called "League of 16 Cities" (an informal group consisting of the sixteen local government units whose cityhood status had been reversed), the Supreme Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators." As such, the cityhood status of the said 16 LGUs was effectively restored.
  • August 24, 2010. In a 16-page resolution, the Supreme Court
    Supreme Court of the Philippines
    The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

     reinstated its November 18, 2008 decision striking down the cityhood laws, reducing once more the sixteen LGUs to the status of regular municipalities.
  • The most recent development in the legal battles surrounding the "League of 16" came on February 15, 2011. Voting 7-6, the Supreme Court (SC) ruled this week that 16 towns that became cities in 2007 can stay as cities. It's the fourth time the SC has ruled on the case, and the third reversal. It said the conversion of the 16 towns into cities met all legal requirements.

Rejected cityhood

Note: This section only lists attempts that reached the stage where a Republic Act was enacted for the purpose of achieving cityhood.
  • Batangas
    Batangas City
    - Foreign Rule :The first Spanish missionaries arrived in Batangas City since 1572. Finally on 1581 Spanish authorities governing the Philippines created a pueblo in the area which included the hill where the present Provincial Capitol of Batangas stands after the formal end of the Coumintang...

     (1965) - A majority of the votes cast in the then-municipality of Batangas rejected cityhood in a plebiscite conducted on the same day as the 1965 Philippine general elections
    Philippine general election, 1965
    A senatorial election was held on November 19, 1965 in the Philippines. The Nacionalista Party wrestled back control of the Senate; originally a Liberal, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos defected to the Nacionalistas, became their presidential candidate and won this year's election...

    , as mandated by Republic Act No. 4586. The city would have been named Laurel City in honor of Jose P. Laurel
    Jose P. Laurel
    José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

    , the president
    President of the Philippines
    The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

     of the Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    ese-sponsored Second Republic
    Second Philippine Republic
    The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , was a state in the Philippines established on October 14, 1943 under Japanese occupation....

    . The municipality of Batangas would later be converted into a city under the same name
    Batangas City
    - Foreign Rule :The first Spanish missionaries arrived in Batangas City since 1572. Finally on 1581 Spanish authorities governing the Philippines created a pueblo in the area which included the hill where the present Provincial Capitol of Batangas stands after the formal end of the Coumintang...

     in 1969.
  • Tarlac
    Tarlac City
    The City of Tarlac is a 1st class city in the province of Tarlac, Philippines. Tarlac provincial capitol building is shown on the back of the Philippines 500 peso note that features former Senator Benigno Aquino Jr...

     (1969) - The city charter of Tarlac (Republic Act No. 5907) was approved on June 21, 1969. Cityhood was rejected in a plebiscite held on November 11, 1969 by a majority of the ballots cast. Tarlac became a city 29 years after, in 1998.
  • Ilagan
    Ilagan, Isabela
    Ilagan is a 1st-class municipality in the province of Isabela, Philippines. It is the capital municipality and the largest town of Isabela...

     (1999) - Republic Act No. 8474, which converted Ilagan to a component city of Isabela, was approved on February 2, 1998. However, majority of votes cast in the plebiscite held on March 14, 1999 rejected cityhood.
  • Novaliches (1999) - On February 23, 1998 the controversial City Charter of Novaliches (Republic Act No. 8535) was approved, which sought to create a new city out of the 15 northern barangays of Quezon City
    Quezon City
    Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

    . Historically a separate town, Novaliches was distributed between Quezon City and northern Caloocan in 1948. In a plebiscite held on October 23, 1999, the majority of ballots cast rejected the cityhood of Novaliches.
  • Meycauayan (2001) - Cityhood was rejected by majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite held on March 30, 2001 to ratify Republic Act No. 9021. Meycauayan became a city five years later with the enactment of Republic Act No. 9356 and its ratification through a plebiscite on December 10, 2006.

Former names

Note: This section only lists name changes made upon or since cityhood.
  • Cagayan de Oro - the municipality of Cagayan de Misamis was converted to the city of Cagayan de Oro in 1950 by virtue of Republic Act No. 521.
  • Lapu-Lapu - the municipality of Opon was converted to a city named after Lapu-Lapu
    Lapu-Lapu
    Lapu-Lapu was the ruler of Mactan, an island in the Visayas, Philippines, who is known as the first native of the archipelago to have resisted the Spanish colonization...

    , hero of the Battle of Mactan
    Battle of Mactan
    The Battle of Mactan was fought in the Philippines on April 27, 1521. The warriors of Lapu-Lapu, a native chieftain of Mactan Island, defeated Spanish forces under the command of Ferdinand Magellan, who was killed in the battle.- Background :...

     in 1961 by virtue of Republic Act No. 3134.
  • Marawi - inaugurated as the City of Dansalan in 1950, renamed to Marawi on June 16, 1956 by virtue of Republic Act No. 1552.
  • Ozamiz - the municipality of Misamis was converted to a city named after José Ozámiz
    José Ozámiz
    José Ozámiz y Fortich was a Filipino politician from Mindanao. His parents were Jenaro Ozámiz from Navarre, Spain and Basilisa Fortich, a Filipino mestizo of Spanish and Cebuano ancestry...

    , the first governor of Misamis Occidental
    Misamis Occidental
    Misamis Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Oroquieta City...

    , in 1948 by virtue of Republic Act No. 321.
  • Pasay - inaugurated as Rizal City in 1947, reverted to Pasay on June 7, 1950 by virtue of Republic Act No. 437.
  • Roxas - in 1951 the municipality of Capiz was converted to a city named after Manuel Roxas
    Manuel Roxas
    Manuel Acuña Roxas was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948...

    , the first president of the Third Philippine Republic and town native by virtue of Republic Act No. 603.

See also


External links

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