Barangay
Overview
 
A barangay is the smallest administrative division
Administrative division
An administrative division, subnational entity, or country subdivision is a portion of a country or other political division, established for the purpose of government. Administrative divisions are each granted a certain degree of autonomy, and are required to manage themselves through their own...

 in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 and is the native Filipino term for a village
Village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

, district
District
Districts are a type of administrative division, in some countries managed by a local government. They vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, or subdivisions of municipalities.-Austria:...

 or ward. Municipalities and cities
Cities of the Philippines
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure...

 are composed of barangays, and they may be further subdivided into smaller areas called purók
Purok
Purok is a political subdivision of the barangay in the Philippines, especially in rural areas. Both barangay and SK councilors are in charge of leading their own respective puroks....

 (English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

: zone
), and sitio
Sitio
A sitio in the Philippines is a territorial enclave that forms part of a barangay, the location of which may be distant from the center of the barangay itself....

, which is a territorial enclave inside a barangay, especially in rural
Rural
Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture...

 areas. In writing, barangay is sometimes abbreviated to "Brgy." or "Bgy.".
Encyclopedia
A barangay is the smallest administrative division
Administrative division
An administrative division, subnational entity, or country subdivision is a portion of a country or other political division, established for the purpose of government. Administrative divisions are each granted a certain degree of autonomy, and are required to manage themselves through their own...

 in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 and is the native Filipino term for a village
Village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

, district
District
Districts are a type of administrative division, in some countries managed by a local government. They vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, or subdivisions of municipalities.-Austria:...

 or ward. Municipalities and cities
Cities of the Philippines
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure...

 are composed of barangays, and they may be further subdivided into smaller areas called purók
Purok
Purok is a political subdivision of the barangay in the Philippines, especially in rural areas. Both barangay and SK councilors are in charge of leading their own respective puroks....

 (English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

: zone
), and sitio
Sitio
A sitio in the Philippines is a territorial enclave that forms part of a barangay, the location of which may be distant from the center of the barangay itself....

, which is a territorial enclave inside a barangay, especially in rural
Rural
Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture...

 areas. In writing, barangay is sometimes abbreviated to "Brgy." or "Bgy.". As of June 28, 2011 there are a total of 42,026 barangays throughout the Philippines.

History

When the first Spaniards arrived in the 16th century, they found the Filipinos having a civilization of their own and some living in well-organized independent villages called barangays. The name barangay originated from balangay
Balangay
The Balangay or Balanghai is the first wooden watercraft ever excavated in Southeast Asia. Also known as the Butuan boat, this artifact is evidence of early Filipino craftsmanship and their seamanship skills during pre-colonial times...

, a Malay word meaning "sailboat".

The term barangay was adopted and barangay structure defined in the modern context during the administration of President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

, replacing the old barrios and municipal councils. The barangays were eventually codified under the 1991 Local Government Code. The word "barangay" was derived from an ancient Malayo-Polynesian boat called a balangay
Balangay
The Balangay or Balanghai is the first wooden watercraft ever excavated in Southeast Asia. Also known as the Butuan boat, this artifact is evidence of early Filipino craftsmanship and their seamanship skills during pre-colonial times...

.

Historically, the first barangays started as relatively small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communties. The encomienda of 1604 shows that many affluent and powerful coastal barangays in Sulu, Butuan, Panay, Leyte and Cebu, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasig, Laguna, and Cagayan River were flourishing trading centers. Some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants; in Leyte (Baybay), 15,000 inhabitants; in Cebu, 3,500 residents; in Vitis (Pampanga), 7,000 inhabitants; Pangsinan, 4,000 residents. There were smaller barangays with less number of people. But these were generally inland communities; or if they were coastal, they were not located in areas which were good for business pursuits. These smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons. According to Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi , also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo , was a Spanish conquistador who established one of the first European settlements in the East Indies and the Pacific Islands in 1565. He is the first Governor-General in the Philippines...

, he found communities with twenty to thirty people only.

Theories, as well as local oral traditions, say that the original “barangays” were coastal settlements formed as a result of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian people (who came to the archipelago) by boat from other places in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

 (see chiefdom
Chiefdom
A chiefdom is a political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief.In anthropological theory, one model of human social development rooted in ideas of cultural evolution describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band...

). Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine in nature. This is because most of the people were relying on fishing for supply of protein and for their livelihood. They also travelled mostly by water up and down rivers, and along the coasts. Trails always followed river systems, which were also a major source of water for bathing, washing, and drinking.
The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners. These were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other Countries also meant contact with other cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan
Japanese people
The are an ethnic group originating in the Japanese archipelago and are the predominant ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries...

, Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, Indian people
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, and Arab people. These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures (sovereign principalities), ruled by established royalties and nobilities.

During the Spanish rule in the Archipelga, smaller ancient barangays were combined to form towns. Every barangay within a town was headed by the cabeza de barangay
Cabeza de Barangay
The Cabeza de Barangay was the leader or chief of a barangay in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period. The post was inherited from the first datus who became cabezas de barangay when the many independent barangays fell under the rule of the Spanish Crown...

 (barangay chief), who formed part of the Principalía
Principalia
The Principalía or noble class was the ruling and, usually, the educated upper class in the towns of colonial Philippines, composed of the Gobernadorcillo , and the Cabezas de Barangay who governed the districts. The distinction or status of being part of the Principalía is a heriditary right...

 - the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines. This position was inherited from the first datu
Datu
Datu is the title for tribal chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs in the Visayas and Mindanao Regions of the Philippines. Together with Lakan , Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty, and are still currently used in the Philippines...

s, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who also collected taxes (called tribute) from the residents for the Spanish Crown.

When the American
History of the Philippines (1898-1946)
This article covers the history of the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. It spans the Spanish-American War which resulted in the United States acquiring sovereignty over the Philippines from Spain via the Treaty of Paris which ended that war, the Philippines as a U.S. territory and later as a U.S...

s arrived, the term barrio went into prominence, as the barangays were called by that name. The term was kept for much of the twentieth century until President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 ordered the renaming of barrios back to barangays. The name has stuck ever since, though some people still use the old term. The Municipal Council was abolished upon transfer of powers to the barangay system.
Marcos used to call the barangay part of Philippine participatory democracy. Most of his writings involving the New Society which he envisioned, praised the role of baranganic democracy in nation-building.

After the EDSA Revolution and the drafting of the 1987 Constitution, the Municipal Council was restored, making the barangay the smallest unit of government in Philippine politics.
When shane is arrived in 2000th century she called it barangay

Organization

The modern barangay is headed by an elected official, the Punong Barangay (barangay chairman/captain), who is aided by Sangguniang Barangay
Sangguniang Barangay
The Sangguniang Barangay is the legislative body of barangay governments in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Tagalog words "sanggunian" and "baranggay" which means "barangay advisory council". It passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the barangay...

 (Barangay Council) members (barangay 'kagawads' or councilors), also elected. Barangay elections, while non-partisan on paper, are typically hotly contested. The barangay captain is via simple plurality (no runoff voting
Runoff voting
Runoff voting can refer to:* Two-round system, a voting system used to elect a single winner, whereby only two candidates from the first round continue to the second round...

) while the councilors are elected via plurality-at-large voting
Plurality-at-large voting
Plurality-at-large voting is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election...

 with the entire barangay as a single at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

 district: each voter can vote up to seven candidates, with the seven candidates with the most number of votes being elected. Typically, a ticket
Ticket (election)
A ticket refers to a single election choice which fills more than one political office or seat. For example, in the U.S., the candidates for President and Vice President run on the same "ticket", because they are elected together on a single ballot question rather than separately.A ticket can also...

 usually consists of one candidate for barangay captain and seven candidates for the councilors. Elections for the post of Punong Barangay and barangay kagawads are usually held every three years starting from 2007, unless suspended or postponed by Congress.

The barangay is governed from the barangay hall. A barangay tanod/barangay police (watchman
Watchman
Watchman or Watchmen may refer to:*Watchman , a member of a group who provided law enforcement**Security guard or watchman, a person who watches over and protects property, assets, or people...

) forms policing functions within the barangay. The number of barangay tanods differ from one barangay to another; they help maintain law and order in the neighborhoods throughout the Philippines.

Barangays are led and governed by its barangay officials. The "barangay officials" are considered to be Local Government Unit (LGU), similarly to the Provincial and the Municipal Government. Barangays are composed of a Punong Barangay, seven (7) Barangay Councilors or Barangay Kagawad
Barangay Kagawad
A Barangay Kagawad, abbreviated as "Kgwd.", is an elected government official who is a member of the Sangguniang Barangay of a particular barangay, the smallest political unit in the Philippines...

, and a Youth Council or Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
The Sangguniang Kabataan is the governing body in every chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan . Each barangay in the Philippines is mandated by law to have its own chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan, aging from 15 to 18 years old who resides in their respective barangays for at least 6months...

(SK) Chairman which is considered as a member of the Council. Thus, there are eight (8) members of the Legislative Council
Legislative Council
A Legislative Council is the name given to the legislatures, or one of the chambers of the legislature of many nations and colonies.A Member of the Legislative Council is commonly referred to as an MLC.- Unicameral legislatures :...

 in a barangay. Each member has its own respective committee where they are Chairmen of those committees. The Committees are the following: (1) Education Committee, (2) Peace and Order Committee, (3) Appropriations, Finance and Ways and Means Committee, (4) Health Committee, (5) Agriculture Committee, (6) Tourism Committee, (7) Infrastructure Committee, and (8) Youth and Sports Committee. There are three (3) appointed members of each committee. The Barangay Justice System is composed of members commonly known as "Lupon Tagapamayapa" (Justice of the peace
Justice of the Peace
A justice of the peace is a puisne judicial officer elected or appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. Depending on the jurisdiction, they might dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions...

) which function to conciliate and mediate disputes at the Barangay level so as to avoid legal action and relieve the courts of docket congestion.

Other uses

  • There exists a union of barangays in the Philippines: the Liga ng mga Barangay
    Liga ng mga Barangay
    The Liga ng mga Barangay sa Pilipinas is a formal organization of all the barangays in the Philippines...

    (English: League of Barangays), more commonly referred to by its previous name, Association of Barangay Captains (ABC). Representing all 41,995 barangays, it is the largest grassroots organization in the Philippines. Its current president is Rico Judge "RJ" Echiverri, son of current Caloocan City
    Caloocan City
    The City of Caloocan is one of the cities and municipalities that comprises the Metro Manila region in the Philippines. It is a major residential area inside Metro Manila...

     Mayor Enrico Echiverri.

  • The term "barangay" may also refer to a very large number or group of people. An example is the name given to the supporters of the Ginebra San Miguel
    Barangay Ginebra Kings
    The Barangay Ginebra Kings is a professional basketball team of the Philippine Basketball Association founded in 1979 and owned by the Ginebra San Miguel, Inc., a subsidiary of the San Miguel Corporation...

     basketball team, Barangay Ginebra. In 1999, the team was renamed Barangay Ginebra Kings in homage to its fans.

See also

  • Barangay Health Volunteers
    Barangay Health Volunteers, Philippines
    The Barangay Health Volunteer, also known as Barangay Health Worker, is a category of health care providers in the Philippines. They undergo a basic training program under an accredited government or non-government organization, and render primary care services in the community...

  • Balangay
    Balangay
    The Balangay or Balanghai is the first wooden watercraft ever excavated in Southeast Asia. Also known as the Butuan boat, this artifact is evidence of early Filipino craftsmanship and their seamanship skills during pre-colonial times...

  • Purok
    Purok
    Purok is a political subdivision of the barangay in the Philippines, especially in rural areas. Both barangay and SK councilors are in charge of leading their own respective puroks....

  • Sitio
    Sitio
    A sitio in the Philippines is a territorial enclave that forms part of a barangay, the location of which may be distant from the center of the barangay itself....


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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