Monte Rosa
Overview
 
The Monte Rosa Massif is a mountain massif
Massif
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole...

 located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps
Pennine Alps
The Pennine Alps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy...

. It is located between Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 (Valais
Valais
The Valais is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps. The canton is one of the drier parts of Switzerland in its central Rhône valley...

) and Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 (Piedmont
Piedmont
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.4 million. The capital of Piedmont is Turin. The main local language is Piedmontese. Occitan is also spoken by a minority in the Occitan Valleys situated in the Provinces of...

 and Aosta Valley). Monte Rosa
Monte Rosa
The Monte Rosa Massif is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland and Italy...

 is the second highest mountain in the Alps and western Europe.

Its name is said to derive not from the Italian "rosa" ("pink") colour, as many think, but from a Franco-Provençal
Franco-Provençal language
Franco-Provençal , Arpitan, or Romand is a Romance language with several distinct dialects that form a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue d'Oïl and Langue d'Oc. The name Franco-Provençal was given to the language by G.I...

 term meaning "glacier", variously spelled as rouese, rouja or roisa.
The central range of Monte Rosa, which appears to originate in the intersection of two axes of great elevation, throws out a number of ridges that radiate afar and gradually subside into the plain of northern Italy, covering a relatively large area.
Encyclopedia
The Monte Rosa Massif is a mountain massif
Massif
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole...

 located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps
Pennine Alps
The Pennine Alps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy...

. It is located between Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 (Valais
Valais
The Valais is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps. The canton is one of the drier parts of Switzerland in its central Rhône valley...

) and Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 (Piedmont
Piedmont
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.4 million. The capital of Piedmont is Turin. The main local language is Piedmontese. Occitan is also spoken by a minority in the Occitan Valleys situated in the Provinces of...

 and Aosta Valley). Monte Rosa
Monte Rosa
The Monte Rosa Massif is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland and Italy...

 is the second highest mountain in the Alps and western Europe.

Its name is said to derive not from the Italian "rosa" ("pink") colour, as many think, but from a Franco-Provençal
Franco-Provençal language
Franco-Provençal , Arpitan, or Romand is a Romance language with several distinct dialects that form a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue d'Oïl and Langue d'Oc. The name Franco-Provençal was given to the language by G.I...

 term meaning "glacier", variously spelled as rouese, rouja or roisa.

Geography

The central range of Monte Rosa, which appears to originate in the intersection of two axes of great elevation, throws out a number of ridges that radiate afar and gradually subside into the plain of northern Italy, covering a relatively large area. There are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the north side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Following the west branch through the Mattertal
Mattertal
The Matter Valley is located in southwestern Switzerland, south of the Rhone valley in the canton of Valais. The village of Zermatt is the most important settlement of the valley, which is surrounded by many four-thousanders, including the Matterhorn.-Geography:Located in the Pennine Alps, the...

, crossing the Theodul Pass
Theodul Pass
The Theodul Pass is a high mountain pass across the eastern Pennine Alps, connecting Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais and Breuil-Cervinia in the Italian region of Aosta Valley.The pass lies between the Matterhorn on the west and the Breithorn on...

, descending by the Valtournanche to Châtillon
Châtillon
Châtillon may refer to:*Châtillon ** Hugh I of Châtillon*First Battle of Châtillon during the war in the Vendée .*Battle of Châtillon during the Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War It is the name of several places:...

 and to Ivrea
Ivrea
Ivrea is a town and comune of the province of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy. Situated on the road leading to the Aosta Valley , it straddles the Dora Baltea and is regarded as the centre of the Canavese area. Ivrea lies in a basin that, in prehistoric times, formed a great lake...

, and passing round the base of the mountains by Arona, along Lake Maggiore
Lake Maggiore
Lake Maggiore is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps. It is the second largest of Italy and largest of southern Switzerland. Lake Maggiore is the most westerly of the three great prealpine lakes of Italy, it extends for about 70 km between Locarno and Arona.The climate is mild...

, and up the valley of the Toce
Toce
The Toce is a river in Piedmont, Italy, which stretches the length of the Val d'Ossola from the Swiss border to Lake Maggiore into which it debouches near Fondotoce in the Commune of Verbania. The river is c. 76 kilometres in length and is formed in the upper Val Formazza by the confluence of a...

, to Vogogna
Vogogna
Vogogna is a comune at the heart of the Val d’Ossola in the Province of Verbano Cusio Ossola, Piedmont, Italy, about 20 km north-west of Verbania...

, then ascending by the Val Anzasca to the Monte Moro
Monte Moro
Monte Moro is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the Swiss-Italian border.-External links:*...

 Pass, the circuit is completed by the descent through the Saastal
Saastal
The Saastal or the Saas Valley is an alpine valley in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is separated from the Mattertal valley by the Dom....

 to Stalden. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, all the ranges properly belonging to this group are included.
The direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a small part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. Monte Rosa
Monte Rosa
The Monte Rosa Massif is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland and Italy...

 itself lies near the intersection of a great north and south ridge, extending from the Balfrin
Balfrin
The Balfrin is a mountain in the Pennine Alps. It lies in the Mischabelhörner, north of Dom.-External links:*...

 through the Mischabelhörner
Mischabelhörner
The Mischabelhörner, or just Mischabel, is a massif in the Pennine Alps of Valais, Switzerland, which forms the divide between the Saastal and Mattertal. Of all its summits, the highest is the Dom; at 4545 m the highest peak completely inside Switzerland. The other two chief summits are the...

, and the highest peaks of the mountain itself, to the Vincent Pyramide, and thence through the range that bounds the Val de Lys, nearly to Ivrea, with the transverse range lying between the Dent d'Herens
Dent d'Hérens
The Dent d'Hérens is a mountain in the Pennine Alps, lying on the border between Italy and Switzerland. The mountain lies a few kilometres west of the Matterhorn.The Aosta hut is used for the normal route.-Naming:...

 and the Pizzo Bianco near Macugnaga
Macugnaga
Macugnaga is a mountain village at 1327 m altitude, in the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, in the north of Piedmont region .It is placed at the base of Dufourspitze 4638 m, the second tallest peak in Europe, in the Monte Rosa Massif, along Anzasca valley, one of the seven valleys around the...

. The minor ridges on the north side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner and Findelen
Findel Glacier
The Findel Glacier is a valley glacier in the Monte Rosa massif east of Zermatt in the Pennine Alps. It has a length of and covers an area of ....

.

On clear days - which are quite a common occurrence, given the not-so-rainy climate - the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a striking view from the Padan plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy
Lombardy
Lombardy is one of the 20 regions of Italy. The capital is Milan. One-sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy and about one fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in this region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest in the whole of Europe...

 and eastern Piedmont
Piedmont
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.4 million. The capital of Piedmont is Turin. The main local language is Piedmontese. Occitan is also spoken by a minority in the Occitan Valleys situated in the Provinces of...

. It dominates the horizon
Horizon
The horizon is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not. At many locations, the true horizon is obscured by trees, buildings, mountains, etc., and the resulting...

, towering between other lesser Alpine
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

 peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun.
"It is the opinion of many of the most competent judges, that for grandeur, beauty, and variety, the valleys descending from Monte Rosa are entitled to preeminence over every other portion of the Alps, and perhaps, if we regard the union of those three elements, over every other mountain region in the world." - John Ball
John Ball (naturalist)
John Ball was an Irish politician, naturalist and Alpine traveller.-Background and education:Ball was born in Dublin, the eldest son of Nicholas Ball and his wife Jane Sherlock...

 (first president of the Alpine Club
Alpine Club (UK)
The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and was probably the world's first mountaineering club. It is UK mountaineering's acknowledged 'senior club'.-History:...

)


The Massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues.

Tourism

The Monte Rosa Massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking, skiing and snowboarding. It hosts several appreciated ski resorts with long piste
Piste
A piste is a marked ski run or path down a mountain for snow skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports. The term is European, from the French for trail or track, synonymous with trail, slope, or groomed run in North America....

s. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 meters high above sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort, with permanent snow all year round due to the altitude. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway
Aerial tramway
An aerial tramway , cable car , ropeway or aerial tram is a type of aerial lift which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion...

 to Cervinia
Cervinia
Breuil-Cervinia is an alpine resort in the Valle d'Aosta region of northwest Italy...

 and to Zermatt
Zermatt
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants....

 via the Klein Matterhorn
Klein Matterhorn
The Klein Matterhorn is the highest point in the Zermatt-Cervinia ski area in Switzerland, and the end point of the highest cable car in Europe...

. The western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt
Zermatt
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants....

 ski domain. Gressoney
Gressoney
Gressonney may refer to two villages and communes in the Aosta Valley region of Italy:*Gressoney-La-Trinité*Gressoney-Saint-Jeanand to:*Gressoney , the single commune into which they were united during the years 1928–46....

, Champoluc
Champoluc
Champoluc is a village in the Aosta Valley in northern Italy.The area is known for the local ski resorts on Monte Rosa Massif and is popular among British tourists.-References:* * * * -External links:*...

, Alagna Valsesia
Alagna Valsesia
Alagna Valsesia is a comune and small village high in the Valsesia alpine valley in the province of Vercelli, Piedmont, Italy. It was originally settled by Walser...

 and Macugnaga
Macugnaga
Macugnaga is a mountain village at 1327 m altitude, in the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, in the north of Piedmont region .It is placed at the base of Dufourspitze 4638 m, the second tallest peak in Europe, in the Monte Rosa Massif, along Anzasca valley, one of the seven valleys around the...

 (under the impressive east face, intensely glaciated and some 2,500 meters high) are the main mountain and ski resorts that surround Monte Rosa along its southern side. Hence most mountaineering
Mountaineering
Mountaineering or mountain climbing is the sport, hobby or profession of hiking, skiing, and climbing mountains. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains it has branched into specialisations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists...

 fans can try their luck with the mountain. Monte Rosa
Monte Rosa
The Monte Rosa Massif is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland and Italy...

 is not very difficult to climb in itself, despite hosting some quite impressive ridges, but can be quite dangerous for rookies and veterans alike, due to sudden weather changes and crevasses in its extensive glaciers, one of the major glaciated areas in the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

.

Peaks

Peak |Elevation (m/ft)
Dufourspitze
Dufourspitze
Monte Rosa is the highest mountain of Switzerland, the second highest both of the Alps and western Europe. Distinguished by the name Dufourspitze, its summit is the culminating point of the Pennine Alps...

4634 metres (15,203 ft)
Ostspitze
Ostspitze
The Ostspitze is a peak of the Monte Rosa Massif in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. It is the second highest peak of the massif, after the Dufourspitze , and the second highest summit in Switzerland....

4632 metres (15,197 ft)
Grenzgipfel
Grenzgipfel
The Grenzgipfel is a subpeak of Monte Rosa, in Italy and Switzerland. In the German language the peak's name means 'frontier summit'....

4618 metres (15,151 ft)
Nordend
Nordend
Nordend is the northernmost peak of the Monte Rosa Massif. Nordend is the fourth highest peak of the massif, after the Dufourspitze , the Ostspitze and the Grenzgipfel .-External links:*...

4618 metres (15,151 ft)
Zumsteinspitze
Zumsteinspitze
The Zumsteinspitze is a peak in the Pennine Alps on the border between Italy and Switzerland. It is a subpeak of Monte Rosa....

4563 metres (14,970 ft)
Signalkuppe
Signalkuppe
The Signalkuppe is a peak in the Pennine Alps on the border between Italy and Switzerland. It is a subpeak of Monte Rosa. The mountain is named after 'the Signal', a prominent gendarme atop the east ridge.The first ascent was made by Giovanni Gnifetti, a parish priest from Alagna Valsesia,...

4554 metres (14,941 ft)
Silbersattel 4515 metres (14,813 ft)
Grenzsattel 4453 metres (14,610 ft)
Parrotspitze
Parrotspitze
The Parrotspitze is a peak in the Pennine Alps of Italy and Switzerland. It is located south of Dufourspitze in the Monte Rosa Massif. The mountain is named after Johann Jakob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot, a German doctor, who made an attempt on the Piramide Vincent with Joseph Zumstein in 1816.The...

4432 metres (14,541 ft)
Ludwigshöhe
Ludwigshöhe (Monte Rosa)
The Ludwigshöhe is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the Swiss-Italian border. It is situated near the Dufourspitze in the Monte Rosa Massif. The summit is the tripoint between Valais, Aosta Valley and Piedmont.-External links:*...

4341 metres (14,242 ft)
Corno Nero 4322 metres (14,180 ft)
Vincent-Pyramide 4215 metres (13,829 ft)
Balmenhorn 4167 metres (13,671 ft)
Punta Giordani 4046 metres (13,274 ft)
Jägerhorn
Jägerhorn
Jägerhorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the Swiss-Italian border.-External links:*...

3970 metres (13,025 ft)
Cima di Jazzi
Cima di Jazzi
Cima di Jazzi is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the Swiss-Italian border.-External links:*...

3803 metres (12,477 ft)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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