Meuse River
Overview
 
The Maas or Meuse (ˈmjuːz; møz; Walloon
Walloon language
Walloon is a Romance language which was spoken as a primary language in large portions of the Walloon Region of Belgium and some villages of Northern France until the middle of the 20th century. It belongs to the langue d'oïl language family, whose most prominent member is the French language...

 Mouze /muːs/) is a major Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an river
River
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

, rising in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and flowing through Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 and the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 before draining into the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

. It has a total length of 925 km (574.8 mi).

From 1301 the upper Meuse roughly marked the western border of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 with the Kingdom of France
France in the Middle Ages
France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Louis the Pious in 840 to the middle of the 15th century...

, after Count Henry III of Bar
Henry III, Count of Bar
Henry III of Bar was Count of Bar from 1291 to 1302. He was son of Thibault II of Bar and Jeanne de Toucy.- Life :...

 had to receive the western part of the County of Bar
Counts and dukes of Bar
Bar was a historic duchy of both the Holy Roman Empire and the crown of France, though later totally incorporated with Lorraine into France in 1766. The duchy of Bar includes the "pays" of Barrois.- History :...

 (Barrois mouvant) as a French fief from the hands of King Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

.
Encyclopedia
The Maas or Meuse (ˈmjuːz; møz; Walloon
Walloon language
Walloon is a Romance language which was spoken as a primary language in large portions of the Walloon Region of Belgium and some villages of Northern France until the middle of the 20th century. It belongs to the langue d'oïl language family, whose most prominent member is the French language...

 Mouze /muːs/) is a major Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an river
River
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

, rising in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and flowing through Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 and the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 before draining into the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

. It has a total length of 925 km (574.8 mi).

From 1301 the upper Meuse roughly marked the western border of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 with the Kingdom of France
France in the Middle Ages
France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Louis the Pious in 840 to the middle of the 15th century...

, after Count Henry III of Bar
Henry III, Count of Bar
Henry III of Bar was Count of Bar from 1291 to 1302. He was son of Thibault II of Bar and Jeanne de Toucy.- Life :...

 had to receive the western part of the County of Bar
Counts and dukes of Bar
Bar was a historic duchy of both the Holy Roman Empire and the crown of France, though later totally incorporated with Lorraine into France in 1766. The duchy of Bar includes the "pays" of Barrois.- History :...

 (Barrois mouvant) as a French fief from the hands of King Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

. The border remained stable until the annexation of the Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
The Three Bishoprics constituted a province of pre-Revolutionary France consisting of the prince-bishoprics of Verdun, Metz, and Toul within the Lorraine region....

 Metz, Toul and Verdun by King Henry II
Henry II of France
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.-Early years:Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany .His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by his sworn enemy,...

 in 1552 and the occupation of the Duchy of Lorraine by the forces of King Louis XIII
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1610 to 1643.Louis was only eight years old when he succeeded his father. His mother, Marie de Medici, acted as regent during Louis' minority...

 in 1633. Its lower Belgian (Walloon) portion, part of the sillon industriel
Sillon industriel
The sillon industriel is the former industrial backbone of Wallonia and thus of Belgium. It runs across Wallonia, passing from Dour, in Borinage, in the west, to Verviers in the east, through Mons, La Louvière, Charleroi, Namur, Huy, and Liège, following the valleys of the rivers Haine, Sambre,...

, was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe
Continental Europe
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands....

.

Etymology

The name Meuse is derived from the French name of the river, which evolved from the Latin name Mosa. The Dutch name Maas descends from Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects which were spoken and written between 1150 and 1500...

 Mase, which comes from the presumed but unattested Old Dutch
Old Dutch
In linguistics, Old Dutch denotes the forms of West Franconian spoken and written in the Netherlands and present-day northern Belgium during the Early Middle Ages. It is regarded as the primary stage in the development of a separate Dutch language...

 form *Masa, from Proto-Germanic *Masō. Only modern Dutch preserves this Germanic form, however.

Despite its appearance, the Germanic name is not derived from the Latin name, judging from the change from earlier o into a, which is characteristic of the Germanic languages. Therefore, both the Latin and Germanic names were probably derived from a Celtic source, which would have been *Mosā.

Geography

The Meuse rises in Pouilly-en-Bassigny, commune of Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse
Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse
Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.-See also:*Communes of the Haute-Marne department...

 on the Langres
Langres
Langres is a commune in north-eastern France. It is a subprefecture of the Haute-Marne département in the Champagne-Ardenne region.-History:As the capital of the Romanized Gallic tribe the Lingones, it was called Andematunnum, then Lingones, and now Langres.The town is built on a limestone...

 plateau in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 from where it flows northwards past Sedan
Sedan, France
Sedan is a commune in France, a sub-prefecture of the Ardennes department in northern France.-Geography:The historic centre is built on a peninsula formed by an arc of the Meuse River. It is around from the Belgian border.-History:...

 (the head of navigation) and Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières is a commune in northern France, capital of the Ardennes department in the Champagne-Ardenne region. Charleville-Mézières is located on the banks of the Meuse River.-History:...

 into Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

. At Namur
Namur (city)
Namur is a city and municipality in Wallonia, in southern Belgium. It is both the capital of the province of Namur and of Wallonia....

 it is joined by the River Sambre
Sambre
The Sambre is a river in northern France and Wallonia, southern Belgium, left tributary of the Meuse River. The ancient Romans called the river Sabis.-Course:...

. Beyond Namur the Meuse winds eastwards, skirting the Ardennes
Ardennes
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rolling hills and ridges formed within the Givetian Ardennes mountain range, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France , and geologically into the Eifel...

, and passes Liège before turning north. The river then forms part of the Belgian-Dutch border, except that at Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

 the border lies further to the west. In the Netherlands it continues northwards through Venlo
Venlo
Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

 closely along the border to Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, then turns towards the west, where it joins the Waal river and forms part of the extensive Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, together with the Scheldt river in its south and the Rhine river in the north. The river has divided near Heusden
Heusden
Heusden is a municipality and a city in the South of the Netherlands. It is located between the cities Waalwijk and 's-Hertogenbosch.- Population centres :...

 into the Afgedamde Maas
Afgedamde Maas
The Afgedamde Maas is a former distributary of the Maas River in the Dutch province of North Brabant. The Maas splits near Heusden with one channel flowing north until its confluence with the river Waal to form the Merwede, while the other continues west as the main distributary of the Maas...

 on the right and the Bergse Maas
Bergse Maas
The Bergse Maas is a canal that was constructed in 1904 to be a branch of the Maas River in the Dutch province of North Brabant. The Maas splits near Heusden into the Afgedamde Maas and the Bergse Maas...

 on the left. The Bergse Maas continues under the name of Amer
Amer
thumb|right|[[Satellite]] [[image]] of the [[Rhine]]-[[Meuse river|Meuse]] [[river delta|delta]], showing the Amer The Amer is a river in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant...

, which is part of the Biesbosch
Biesbosch
De Biesbosch , is one of the largest national parks of the Netherlands and one of the last freshwater tide areas in Europe. The Biesbosch consists of a rather large network of rivers and smaller and larger creeks with islands. The vegetation is mostly willow forests, although wet grasslands and...

, and is joined by the Nieuwe Merwede
Nieuwe Merwede
The Nieuwe Merwede is a canal that was constructed in 1870 to form a branch in the Rhine-Meuse delta. It was dug along the general trajectories of a number of minor Biesbosch creeks to reduce the risk of flooding by diverting the water away from the Beneden Merwede, and to facilitate navigation...

, after which it flows on under the name of Hollands Diep
Hollands Diep
Hollands Diep is a wide river in the Netherlands and an estuary of the Rhine and Meuse river. Through the Scheldt-Rhine Canal it connects to the Scheldt river and Antwerp....

, before finally flowing into the North Sea as Haringvliet
Haringvliet
The Haringvliet is a large inlet of the North Sea, in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It is an important estuary of the Rhine-Meuse delta.Near Numansdorp, the Hollands Diep splits into the Haringvliet and the Volkerak estuaries...

.

The Meuse is crossed by railway bridge
Bridge
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle...

s between the following stations (on the left and right banks respectively):
  • Netherlands:
    • Hasselt
      Hasselt
      Hasselt is a Belgian city and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg...

       (Belgium) – Maastricht
      Maastricht
      Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

       (currently being put back online)
    • Roermond
      Roermond
      Roermond is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.The city of Roermond is a historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received city rights in 1231...

       – Weert
      Weert
      Weert is a municipality and city in the southeastern Netherlands. As of 2010, Weert had a population of 48,405. It lies on the Eindhoven–Maastricht railway line, and is also astride the Zuid-Willemsvaart canal.- Population centres :* Altweerterheide...

    • Blerick
      Venlo
      Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

       – Venlo
      Venlo
      Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

    • Cuijk
      Cuijk
      Cuijk is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands of pre-historic origin. Its existence is recorded on the Roman roadmap Tabula Peutingeriana under the name of Ceuclum. Cuijk is twinned with Maldon in Essex, UK. It is a big commuter town with very good public transport services to...

       – Nijmegen Heyendaal
    • Ravenstein
      Ravenstein, Netherlands
      Ravenstein is a city and a former municipality in the South of the Netherlands, in the province of North Brabant. The former municipality covered an area of 42.68 km²...

       – Wijchen
      Wijchen
      ' is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland, in the eastern part of the Netherlands, at .- Neighbourhoods :Neighbourhoods in Wijchen include:*Centre: Kloosterakker*Wijchen-Oost: Valendries, Oosterweg and Uilenboom....

    • 's-Hertogenbosch – Zaltbommel
      Zaltbommel
      Zaltbommel is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands. The town of Zaltbommel was first mentioned as "Bomela" in the year 850. Zaltbommel first received city status in 1231, which status was renewed in 1316....



There are also numerous road bridges and around 32 ferry crossings.

The Meuse is navigable over a substantial part of its total length: In the Netherlands and Belgium, the river is part of the major inland navigation infrastructure, connecting the Rotterdam-Amsterdam-Antwerp port areas to the industrial areas upstream: Hertogenbosch, Venlo, Maastricht, Liège, Namur. Between Maastricht and Maasbracht
Maasbracht
Maasbracht is a town in the southeastern Netherlands. It was a separate municipality until January 1, 2007, when it became a part of the new municipality of Maasgouw. Footballer Mark van Bommel was born in Maasbracht.-External links:*...

, an unnavigable section of the Meuse is bypassed by the 36 km Juliana Canal
Juliana Canal
The Juliana Canal , named after Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, is a 36 km long canal in the southern Netherlands, providing a bypass of an unnavigable section of the river Meuse between Maastricht and Maasbracht...

. South of Namur, further upstream, the river can only carry more modest vessels, although a barge as long as 100 m. can still reach the French border town of Givet.

From Givet, the river is canalized over a distance of 272 kilometres. The canalized Meuse used to be called the "Canal de l'Est — Branche Nord" but was recently rebaptized into "Canal de la Meuse". The waterway can be used by the smallest barges that are still in use commercially (almost 40 metres long and just over 5 metres wide). Just upstream of the town of Commercy, the Canal de la Meuse connects with the Canal de la Marne au Rhin by means of a short diversion canal. (Source: NoorderSoft Waterways database).

The Cretaceous sea reptile Mosasaur
Mosasaur
Mosasaurs are large extinct marine lizards. The first fossil remains were discovered in a limestone quarry at Maastricht on the Meuse in 1764...

 is named after the river Meuse. The first fossils of it were discovered outside Maastricht 1780.

Basin area

An international agreement was signed in 2002 in Ghent
Ghent
Ghent is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish region of Belgium. It is the capital and biggest city of the East Flanders province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Lys and in the Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of...

, Belgium about the management of the river amongst France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

, the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, and Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

. Also participating in the agreement were the Belgian regional governments of Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

, Wallonia, and Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 (which is not in the basin of the Meuse but pumps running water into the Meuse).

Most of the basin area (36000 km2) is in Wallonia (12000 km2), followed by France (9000 km2), the Netherlands (8000 km2), Germany (2000 km2), Flanders (2000 km2) and Luxembourg (a few km2).

An International Commission on the Meuse has the responsibility of the implementation of the treaty.

The costs of this Commission are met by all these countries, in proportion of their own territory into the basin of the Meuse: The Netherlands and Wallonia 30%, France 15%, Germany 14.5%, Flanders 5%, Brussels 4.5%, Kingdom of Belgium and Luxemburg 0.5%.

The map of the basin area of Meuse was joined to the text of the treaty.

On the cultural plan, the river Meuse, as a major communication route, is the origin of the Mosan art
Mosan art
Mosan art is a regional style of art from the valley of the Meuse in present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany. Although the term applies to art from this region from all periods, it generally refers to Romanesque art, with Mosan Romanesque architecture, stone carving, metalwork, enamelling...

, principally (Wallonia and France).

The first landscape painted in the Middle-Age was the landscape of Meuse. For instance Joachim Patinir
Joachim Patinir
Joachim Patinir, also called de Patiner , was a Flemish Northern Renaissance history and landscape painter from the area of modern Wallonia...

  He was likely the uncle of Henri Blès
Herri met de Bles
Herri met de Bles was a Flemish Northern Renaissance and Mannerist landscape painter...

 who is sometimes defined as a Mosan landscape painter active during the second third of the 16th century (i.e., second generation of landscape painters)

Tributaries

The main tributaries of the river Meuse are listed below in downstream-upstream order, with the town where the tributary meets the river:
    • Dieze
      Dieze
      The Dieze is a short river in North Brabant, The Netherlands, tributary of the Meuse. It is formed by the confluence of the rivers Aa and Dommel in 's-Hertogenbosch. The part of the Dieze in the centre of 's-Hertogenbosch is called "Binnendieze": a partly covered network of canals...

       (near 's-Hertogenbosch)
      • Aa
        Aa River (Meuse)
        The Aa is a small river in The Netherlands. It rises near Meijel in the southeastern province of Limburg, in the Peel region. It flows northwest through the province of North Brabant towards 's-Hertogenbosch, roughly along the Zuid-Willemsvaart canal. In 's-Hertogenbosch, at the confluence of the...

         (in 's-Hertogenbosch)
      • Dommel
        Dommel
        The Dommel is a creek in Belgium and the Netherlands, left tributary of the Dieze. It rises in north-eastern Belgium near Peer and flows into the southern part of the Netherlands. The Dommel takes in water from the Keersop, Tongelreep, Run, Gender and Kleine Dommel streams and merges at...

         (in 's-Hertogenbosch)
    • Raam (river in North Brabant)
      Raam (river in North Brabant)
      The Raam is a small river in the eastern part of North Brabant. It flows into the Meuse at the old town Grave....

       (in Grave)
    • Niers
      Niers
      The Niers is a river in Germany and the Netherlands, right tributary to the river Meuse. Its source is near Erkelenz, south of Mönchengladbach, in North Rhine-Westphalia . The Niers flows through Mönchengladbach, Viersen, Wachtendonk, Geldern and Goch before flowing into the Meuse just across the...

       (in Gennep
      Gennep
      Gennep is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands.- Population centres :Aaldonk, Dam, De Looi, Diekendaal, Gennep, Heijen, Hekkens, Milsbeek, Ottersum, Smele, Ven-Zelderheide and Zelder.- The city of Gennep :...

      )

    • Swalm
      Swalm
      The Swalm is a small river in Germany and the Netherlands, tributary to the river Meuse. Its source is near Wegberg, in the district Heinsberg, south-west of Mönchengladbach, in North Rhine-Westphalia . The Swalm flows through Wegberg and Brüggen before flowing into the Meuse just across the...

       (in Swalmen
      Swalmen
      Swalmen is a town in the south-eastern Netherlands. The town is situated between the German border and the Meuse river .Until 1 January 2007, Swalmen was a separate municipality, covering the villages Swalmen, Asselt and Boukoul...

      )
    • Rur/Roer
      Rur
      The Rur , — not to be confused with the Ruhr — is a river which flows through portions of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse...

       (in Roermond
      Roermond
      Roermond is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.The city of Roermond is a historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received city rights in 1231...

      )
      • Wurm
        Wurm
        The Wurm is a river in Germany , a left tributary of the Rur. The source of the Wurm are several brooks in the forests southwest of Aachen, which form the Wurm after the Diepenbenden reservoir. From there the Wurm nowadays flows through canals through the city of Aachen, until it resurfaces at the...

         (in Heinsberg
        Heinsberg
        Heinsberg is the capital of the district Heinsberg in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated near the border with the Netherlands, on the river Wurm, approx...

        , Germany)
      • Merzbach
        Merzbach
        Merzbach is a river of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany....

         (in Linnich
        Linnich
        Linnich is a town in the district of Düren in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the river Rur, approx. 10 km north-west of Jülich.-Economy:Linnich is the home of SIG Combibloc the specialist for aseptic carton packaging....

        , Germany)
      • Inde
        Inde
        The Inde is a small river in Belgium and Germany, left tributary of the Rur. It has its source near Raeren in Eastern Belgium, runs through Aachen-Kornelimünster, Eschweiler and Inden, and flows into the river Rur near Jülich...

         (in Jülich
        Jülich
        Jülich is a town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Jülich is well known as location of a world-famous research centre, the Forschungszentrum Jülich and as shortwave transmission site of Deutsche Welle...

        , Germany)
    • Geleenbeek
      Geleenbeek
      The Geleenbeek is a small river in Limburg, the Netherlands. Its source is near the village Benzenrade, part of the city of Heerlen. It flows generally northwest, along Nuth, Schinnen, Spaubeek, turns north at Geleen, flows through the centre of Sittard, and further north through Nieuwstadt until...

       (near Maasbracht
      Maasbracht
      Maasbracht is a town in the southeastern Netherlands. It was a separate municipality until January 1, 2007, when it became a part of the new municipality of Maasgouw. Footballer Mark van Bommel was born in Maasbracht.-External links:*...

      )
    • Geul
      Geul
      The Geul is a river in Belgium and the Netherlands. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse. The source of the Geul is near the German-Belgian border south of Aachen at approx. altitude. After approx. it flows into the Netherlands, and after a further it flows into the river Meuse, north of...

       (near Meerssen
      Meerssen
      Meerssen is a place and a municipality in southeastern Netherlands.-History:The Treaty of Meerssen was signed in Meerssen in 870. The Treaty of Meerssen was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the surviving sons of Louis I, Charles II of the West Franks and Louis the German...

      )
    • Geer/Jeker
      Jeker
      The Jeker is a river in Belgium and the Netherlands. It is a left tributary to the river Meuse. The source of the Jeker is near the village Geer in the Belgian province Liège. Most of its course is in Belgium , except the final approx. 5 km in the Netherlands...

       (in Maastricht
      Maastricht
      Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

      )
    • Voer/Fouron
      Voer
      The Voer is a small river in Belgium and the Netherlands. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse. The source of the Voer is near the village Sint-Pieters-Voeren in the Belgian province Limburg. It crosses the Dutch border between 's-Gravenvoeren and Mesch, and flows into the river Meuse in...

       (in Eijsden
      Eijsden
      Eijsden is a place situated in the southern part of the Dutch province of Limburg. Until January 1st, 2011 it was the main village in a municipality with the same name. On that date this municipality merged with a neighbouring one, which resulted in the new Eijsden-Margraten municipality.Eijsden...

      )
    • Berwinne/Berwijn
      Berwinne
      The Berwinne is a river of eastern Belgium, right tributary of the Meuse. It flows for 31.9 kilometres through the provinces of Liège and Limburg. Its source is in the eastern part of the municipality Aubel, near the Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial...

       (near Moelingen, part of Voeren)
    • Ourthe
      Ourthe
      The Ourthe is a 165 km long river in the Ardennes in Wallonia . It is a right tributary to the river Meuse. The Ourthe is formed at the confluence of the Ourthe Occidentale and the Ourthe Orientale , west of Houffalize.The source of the Ourthe Occidentale is near Libramont-Chevigny, in the...

       (in Liège)
      • Weser/Vesdre
        Vesdre
        thumb|right|250px|The course of the VesdreThe Weser or Vesdre is a river in eastern Belgium, in the province of Liège, and is a right tributary to the river Ourthe. Its source lies in the High Fens , close to the border with Germany near Monschau...

         (near Liège)
      • Amel/Amblève
        Amblève (river)
        The Amblève or Amel is a 93 km long river in eastern Belgium in the province of Liège. It is a right tributary of the river Ourthe. It rises near Büllingen in the High Fens , close to the border with Germany.Tributaries of the Amblève are the rivers Warche, Eau Rouge, Salm and Lienne...

         (in Comblain-au-Pont
        Comblain-au-Pont
        Comblain-au-Pont is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. On January 1, 2006 Comblain-au-Pont had a total population of 5,372. The total area is 22.68 km² which gives a population density of 237 inhabitants per km². It is situated at the confluence of the rivers...

        )
        • Salm (in Trois-Ponts
          Trois-Ponts
          Trois-Ponts is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Province of Liege. On January 1, 2006 Trois-Ponts had a total population of 2,445. The total area is 68.90 km² which gives a population density of 35 inhabitants per km². It is situated at the confluence of the...

          )
        • Warche
          Warche
          The Warche is a river in eastern Belgium .From its source at Losheimergraben on the Belgian-German border, it flows roughly west about 50 km, across the south of the Hautes Fagnes region....

           (near Malmedy
          Malmedy
          Malmedy is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region, Province of Liège. It belongs to the French Community of Belgium, within which it is French-speaking with facilities for German-speakers. On January 1, 2006 Malmedy had a total population of 11,829...

          )
    • Hoyoux
      Hoyoux
      The Hoyoux is a river of Belgium, a right tributary of the Meuse. It flows for 28 kilometres through the province of Liège in the northern-central part of the country. It flows into the Meuse in Huy....

       (in Huy
      Huy
      Huy is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Province of Liege. Huy lies along the river Meuse, at the mouth of the small river Hoyoux. It is in the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia, home to about two-thirds of the Walloon population...

      )
    • Mehaigne
      Mehaigne
      The Mehaigne is a river in Belgium. It is a left tributary to the Meuse River. Its source is at La Bruyère province of Namur, at an elevation of 180 meters....

       (in Wanze
      Wanze
      Wanze is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Liège. It consists of the former municipalities of Wanze, Antheit, Bas-Oha, Huccorgne, Moha and Vinalmont....

      )
    • Sambre
      Sambre
      The Sambre is a river in northern France and Wallonia, southern Belgium, left tributary of the Meuse River. The ancient Romans called the river Sabis.-Course:...

       (in Namur
      Namur (city)
      Namur is a city and municipality in Wallonia, in southern Belgium. It is both the capital of the province of Namur and of Wallonia....

      )
    • Bocq
      Bocq
      The Bocq is a small river in the province of Namur, southern Belgium, right tributary of the Meuse. Its source is in Scy, a hamlet of Hamois. It flows west through Hamois and Spontin, and into the Meuse in Yvoir....

       (in Yvoir
      Yvoir
      Yvoir is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Namur. On 1 January 2006 the municipality had 8,450 inhabitants. The total area is 56.84 km², making it a population density of 149 inhabitants per km². The municipality consists of the villages Dorinne, Durnal, Evrehailles,...

      )
    • Molignée (in Anhée
      Anhée
      Anhée is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Namur. It consists of the villages Anhée, Annevoie-Rouillon, Bioul, Denée, Haut-le-Wastia, Sosoye and Warnant.On 1 January 2006 the municipality had 6,934 inhabitants...

      )
    • Lesse
      Lesse
      The Lesse is a river in the Ardennes, in the Walloon region of Belgium. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse.The source of the Lesse is near Libramont-Chevigny, in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. The Lesse flows roughly in north-western direction. Near Han-sur-Lesse the entire river goes...

       (in Anseremme, part of Dinant
      Dinant
      Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Belgium. The Dinant municipality includes the old communes of Anseremme, Bouvignes-sur-Meuse, Dréhance, Falmagne, Falmignoul, Foy-Notre-Dame, Furfooz, Lisogne, Sorinnes, and Thynes.-Origins to...

      )
    • Viroin (in Vireux-Molhain
      Vireux-Molhain
      Vireux-Molhain is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.-Population:-References:*...

      )
    • Semois or Semoy
      Semois
      The Semois is a river flowing from the Ardennes uplands of Belgium and France towards the River Meuse, of which it is a right tributary....

       (in Monthermé
      Monthermé
      Monthermé is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.-Population:-References:*...

      )
    • Sormonne (in Warcq
      Warcq, Ardennes
      Warcq is a commune in the Ardennes département in northern France.-Geography:The Sormonne River flows through the commune before flowing into the Meuse River.-Population:...

      )
    • Bar (near Dom-le-Mesnil
      Dom-le-Mesnil
      Dom-le-Mesnil is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.-Population:-References:*...

      )
    • Chiers
      Chiers
      The Chiers is a river in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse. Its total length is about 130 km.The source of the Chiers is near Differdange, in Luxembourg...

       (in Bazeilles
      Bazeilles
      Bazeilles is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.It lies near Sedan.-History:During the 1870 Franco-Prussian war, Bazeilles was the site of the Battle of Bazeilles, one of the first occasions of modern urban warfare.-Population:...

      )
      • Othain
        Othain
        The Othain is a long river in the Meurthe-et-Moselle and Meuse départements, northeastern France. Its source is at Gondrecourt-Aix, in the Woëvre. It flows generally northwest...

         (in Montmédy
        Montmédy
        Montmédy is a commune in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France.-Citadel of Montmédy:In 1221 the first castle of Montmédy was built on top of a hill by the Count of Chiny. Montmédy became soon the capital of his territory - later it belonged to Luxembourg, Burgundy, Austria and...

        )

Distributaries

The mean annual discharge rate of the Meuse has been relatively stable over the last few thousand years. One recent study estimates that average flow has increased about 10% since 2000 BC. The hydrological distribution of the Meuse changed during the later Middle Ages, when a major flood forced it to shift its main course northwards towards the Merwede
Merwede
The Merwede is the name of several interconnected stretches of river in The Netherlands, all part of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. The Meuse river joins the Waal at Woudrichem to form the Boven Merwede...

 river. From then on, several stretches of the original Merwede were named "Maas" (i.e. Meuse) instead and served as the primary outflow of that river. Those branches are currently known as the Nieuwe Maas and Oude Maas.

However, during another series of severe floods the Meuse found an additional path towards the sea, resulting in the creation of the Biesbosch
Biesbosch
De Biesbosch , is one of the largest national parks of the Netherlands and one of the last freshwater tide areas in Europe. The Biesbosch consists of a rather large network of rivers and smaller and larger creeks with islands. The vegetation is mostly willow forests, although wet grasslands and...

 wetlands and Hollands Diep
Hollands Diep
Hollands Diep is a wide river in the Netherlands and an estuary of the Rhine and Meuse river. Through the Scheldt-Rhine Canal it connects to the Scheldt river and Antwerp....

 estuaries. Thereafter, the Meuse split near Heusden
Heusden
Heusden is a municipality and a city in the South of the Netherlands. It is located between the cities Waalwijk and 's-Hertogenbosch.- Population centres :...

 into two main tributaries, one flowing north to join the Merwede, and one flowing directly to the sea. The branch of the Meuse leading directly to the sea eventually silted up, (and now forms the Oude Maasje
Oude Maasje
The Oude Maasje is a former distributary of the river Maas , which runs parallel to the current canalised Bergse Maas.-History:...

 stream), but in 1904 the canalised Bergse Maas
Bergse Maas
The Bergse Maas is a canal that was constructed in 1904 to be a branch of the Maas River in the Dutch province of North Brabant. The Maas splits near Heusden into the Afgedamde Maas and the Bergse Maas...

 was dug to take over the functions of the silted-up branch. At the same time, the branch leading to the Merwede was dammed at Heusden, (and has since been known as the Afgedamde Maas
Afgedamde Maas
The Afgedamde Maas is a former distributary of the Maas River in the Dutch province of North Brabant. The Maas splits near Heusden with one channel flowing north until its confluence with the river Waal to form the Merwede, while the other continues west as the main distributary of the Maas...

) so that little water from the Meuse now actually enters the old Maas estuary, or the current Rhine distributaries. The resulting separation of the rivers Rhine and Meuse is considered to be the greatest achievement in Dutch hydraulic engineering before the completion of the Zuiderzee Works
Zuiderzee Works
The Zuiderzee Works are a manmade system of dams, land reclamation and water drainage works, the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century. The project involved the damming of the Zuiderzee, a large, shallow inlet of the North Sea, and the...

 and Delta Works
Delta Works
The Delta Works is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea. The works consist of dams, sluices, locks, dikes, levees, and storm surge barriers...

.

One recent study notes that the difference between summer and winter flow volumes has increased significantly in the last 100–200 years. These workers point out that the frequency of serious floods (i.e. flows > 1000% of normal) has increased markedly. They predict that winter flooding of the Meuse may become a recurring problem in the coming decades.

Départements, provinces and towns

The Meuse flows through the following departments of France, provinces of Belgium
Provinces of Belgium
Belgium is divided into three regions, two of them are subdivided into five provinces each.The division into provinces is fixed by Article 5 of the Belgian Constitution...

, provinces of the Netherlands
Provinces of the Netherlands
A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the local municipalities, having the responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance. The government of each province consists of three major parts: the Provinciale Staten which is the...

 and towns: Haute-Marne
Haute-Marne
Haute-Marne is a department in the northeast of France named after the Marne River.-History:Haute-Marne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

 Vosges
Vosges
Vosges is a French department, named after the local mountain range. It contains the hometown of Joan of Arc, Domrémy.-History:The Vosges department is one of the original 83 departments of France, created on February 9, 1790 during the French Revolution. It was made of territories that had been...

: Neufchâteau
Neufchâteau, Vosges
Neufchâteau is a commune in the Vosges department in Lorraine in northeastern France.Inhabitants are called Néocastriens.-Geography:Positioned at the confluence of the Rivers Meuse and Mouzon, the little town dominates the Vosges Plain...

 Meuse
Meuse
Meuse is a department in northeast France, named after the River Meuse.-History:Meuse is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

: Commercy
Commercy
Commercy is a commune in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France.It is the home of the madeleines referred to by Marcel Proust in A la Recherche du Temps Perdu.-History:...

, Saint-Mihiel
Saint-Mihiel
Saint-Mihiel is a commune in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France.-History:Saint-Mihiel was captured by the Germans in the first year of World War I, and was re-captured during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel from 12 September to 19 September 1918, during World War...

, Verdun
Verdun
Verdun is a city in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is the slightly smaller city of Bar-le-Duc.- History :...

, Stenay
Stenay
Stenay is a commune in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France.It was one of the last villages to experience fighting during World War I. Stenay was captured on 11 November 1918 by the American 89th Division under General William M. Wright only hours before the Armistice went into...

 Ardennes
Ardennes (département)
Ardennes is a department in the northeast part of France named after the Ardennes area.- History :The department is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was named after the Ardennes hills, which are located in northeast France, southern...

: Sedan
Sedan, France
Sedan is a commune in France, a sub-prefecture of the Ardennes department in northern France.-Geography:The historic centre is built on a peninsula formed by an arc of the Meuse River. It is around from the Belgian border.-History:...

, Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières is a commune in northern France, capital of the Ardennes department in the Champagne-Ardenne region. Charleville-Mézières is located on the banks of the Meuse River.-History:...

, Givet
Givet
Givet is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France very close to the Belgian border. It lies on the river Meuse where Emperor Charles V built the fortress of Charlemont....

 Namur
Namur (province)
Namur is a province of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium. It borders on the Walloon provinces of Hainaut, Walloon Brabant, Liège and Luxembourg in Belgium, and on France. Its capital is the city of Namur...

: Dinant
Dinant
Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Belgium. The Dinant municipality includes the old communes of Anseremme, Bouvignes-sur-Meuse, Dréhance, Falmagne, Falmignoul, Foy-Notre-Dame, Furfooz, Lisogne, Sorinnes, and Thynes.-Origins to...

, Namur
Namur (city)
Namur is a city and municipality in Wallonia, in southern Belgium. It is both the capital of the province of Namur and of Wallonia....

 Liège
Liège (province)
Liège is the easternmost province of Belgium and belongs to the Walloon Region. It is an area of French and German ethnicity. It borders on the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and in Belgium the provinces of Luxembourg, Namur, Walloon Brabant , and those of Flemish Brabant and Limburg . Its...

: Huy
Huy
Huy is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Province of Liege. Huy lies along the river Meuse, at the mouth of the small river Hoyoux. It is in the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia, home to about two-thirds of the Walloon population...

, Liège, Visé
Visé
Visé is a Walloon municipality and city of Belgium, where it is located on the river Meuse, in the province of Liège.The municipality consists of the former municipalities of Visé, Lanaye, Lixhe, Richelle, Argenteau and Cheratte....

 Limburg
Limburg (Netherlands)
Limburg is the southernmost of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands. It is located in the southeastern part of the country and bordered by the province of Gelderland to the north, Germany to the east, Belgium to the south and part of the west, andthe Dutch province of North Brabant partly to...

: Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

, Roermond
Roermond
Roermond is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.The city of Roermond is a historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received city rights in 1231...

, Venlo
Venlo
Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

, Gennep
Gennep
Gennep is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands.- Population centres :Aaldonk, Dam, De Looi, Diekendaal, Gennep, Heijen, Hekkens, Milsbeek, Ottersum, Smele, Ven-Zelderheide and Zelder.- The city of Gennep :...

 Limburg
Limburg (Belgium)
Limburg is the easternmost province of modern Flanders, which is one of the three main political and cultural sub-divisions of modern Belgium. It is located west of the river Meuse . It borders on the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Belgian provinces of Liège, Flemish Brabant...

: Maaseik
Maaseik
Maaseik is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. The city is located on the river Meuse , bordering the Netherlands. The Maaseik municipality includes the town of Maaseik and the villages of Neeroeteren and Opoeteren...

 North Brabant
North Brabant
North Brabant , sometimes called Brabant, is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west.- History :...

: Boxmeer
Boxmeer
Boxmeer is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It incorporates the former municipality of Beugen en Rijkevoort and that of Vierlingsbeek.- Population centres :...

, Cuijk
Cuijk
Cuijk is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands of pre-historic origin. Its existence is recorded on the Roman roadmap Tabula Peutingeriana under the name of Ceuclum. Cuijk is twinned with Maldon in Essex, UK. It is a big commuter town with very good public transport services to...

, Grave, Ravenstein
Ravenstein
-Places:*Ravenstein, Germany in the district Neckar-Odenwald, Baden-Württemberg*Ravenstein, Netherlands in Oss, North Brabant-People:*Johann von Ravenstein a Lieutenant in World War I and Lieutenant general in the Wehrmacht during World War II...

, Lith
Lith
Lith is a town in the province North Brabant in the Netherlands. Before 2011 there was also a municipality, since 2011 Lith is a part of Oss- External links :*...

, Heusden
Heusden
Heusden is a municipality and a city in the South of the Netherlands. It is located between the cities Waalwijk and 's-Hertogenbosch.- Population centres :...

, Aalburg
Aalburg
Aalburg is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. The municipality was formed in 1973 in a merger of the former municipalities of Eethen, Veen, and Wijk en Aalburg.- Population centres :...

, Woudrichem
Woudrichem
Woudrichem is a municipality and a city in the south of the Netherlands.- Population centres :Almkerk, Andel, Bronkhorst, Duizend Morgen, Eng, Giessen, Oudendijk, Rijswijk, Stenenheul, Uitwijk, Uppel, Waardhuizen, Woudrichem and Zandwijk....

 Gelderland
Gelderland
Gelderland is the largest province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. The capital city is Arnhem. The two other major cities, Nijmegen and Apeldoorn have more inhabitants. Other major regional centers in Gelderland are Ede, Doetinchem, Zutphen, Tiel, Wijchen,...

: Maasdriel
Maasdriel
Maasdriel is a municipality in the province of Gelderland, in the eastern Netherlands.-Population centres:Alem, Ammerzoden, Hedel, Heerewaarden, Hoenzadriel, Hurwenen, Kerkdriel, Rossum, Velddriel, Well & Wellseind and the small settlement of Wordragen....

 South Holland
South Holland
South Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the western part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is The Hague and its largest city is Rotterdam.South Holland is one of the most densely populated and industrialised areas in the world...

: Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

, Dordrecht
Dordrecht
Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

, Maassluis
Maassluis
Maassluis is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 32,847 in 2004, and covers an area of 10.11 km² .It received city rights in 1811...


Deutschlandlied

The Meuse (Maas) is mentioned in the (nowadays not sung) first stanza of the Deutschlandlied German national anthem. The lyrics written in 1841 describe a then–disunited Germany with the river as its western boundary, where King William I of the Netherlands
William I of the Netherlands
William I Frederick, born Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau , was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg....

 had joined the German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...

 with his Duchy of Limburg in 1839. Though the duchy's territory officially became an integral part of the Netherlands by the 1867 Treaty of London, the text passage remained unchanged when the Deutschlandlied was declared the national anthem of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

in 1922.

External links

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