Message authentication code

Encyclopedia

In cryptography

, a

.

A MAC algorithm

, sometimes called a

as well as its authenticity

, by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content.

s, they possess different security requirements. To be considered secure, a MAC function must resist existential forgery under chosen-plaintext attack

s. This means that even if an attacker has access to an oracle

which possesses the secret key and generates MACs for messages of the attacker's choosing, the attacker cannot guess the MAC for other messages without performing infeasible amounts of computation.

MACs differ from digital signature

s as MAC values are both generated and verified using the same secret key. This implies that the sender and receiver of a message must agree on the same key before initiating communications, as is the case with symmetric encryption. For the same reason, MACs do not provide the property of non-repudiation

offered by signatures specifically in the case of a network-wide shared secret key: any user who can verify a MAC is also capable of generating MACs for other messages. In contrast, a digital signature is generated using the private key of a key pair, which is asymmetric encryption. Since this private key is only accessible to its holder, a digital signature proves that a document was signed by none other than that holder. Thus, digital signatures do offer non-repudiation.

. However, some authors use MIC as a distinctly different term from a MAC; in their usage of the term the MIC operation does not use secret keys. This lack of security means that any MIC intended for use gauging message integrity should be encrypted or otherwise be protected against tampering. MIC algorithms are created such that a given message will always produce the same MIC assuming the same algorithm is used to generate both. Conversely, MAC algorithms are designed to produce matching MACs only if the same message, secret key and initialization vector

are input to the same algorithm. MICs do not use secret keys and, when taken on their own, are therefore a much less reliable gauge of message integrity than MACs. Because MACs use secret keys, they do not necessarily need to be encrypted to provide the same level of assurance.

s (as in the case of HMAC

) or from block cipher

algorithms (OMAC, CBC-MAC

and PMAC

). However many of the fastest MAC algorithms such as UMAC

and VMAC

are constructed based on universal hashing

.

ISO/IEC 9797-1 and -2 define generic models and algorithms that can be used with any block cipher or hash function, and a variety of different parameters. These models and parameters allow more specific algorithms to be defined by nominating the parameters. For example the FIPS PUB 113 algorithm is functionally equivalent to ISO/IEC 9797-1 MAC algorithm 1 with padding method 1 and a block cipher algorithm of DES.

In this example, the sender of a message runs it through a MAC algorithm to produce a MAC data tag. The message and the MAC tag are then sent to the receiver. The receiver in turn runs the message portion of the transmission through the same MAC algorithm using the same key, producing a second MAC data tag. The receiver then compares the first MAC tag received in the transmission to the second generated MAC tag. If they are identical, the receiver can safely assume that the integrity of the message was not compromised, and the message was not altered or tampered with during transmission.

Cryptography

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties...

, a

**message authentication code**(often**MAC**) is a short piece of information used to authenticate a messageMessage

A message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. It is a vessel which provides information. Yet, it can also be this information. Therefore, its meaning is dependent upon the context in which it is used; the term may apply to both the information and its form...

.

A MAC algorithm

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning...

, sometimes called a

**keyed**(**cryptographic**)**hash function**, accepts as input a secret key and an arbitrary-length message to be authenticated, and outputs a MAC (sometimes known as a*tag*). The MAC value protects both a message's data integrityData integrity

Data Integrity in its broadest meaning refers to the trustworthiness of system resources over their entire life cycle. In more analytic terms, it is "the representational faithfulness of information to the true state of the object that the information represents, where representational faithfulness...

as well as its authenticity

Authentication

Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity...

, by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content.

## Security

While MAC functions are similar to cryptographic hash functionCryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the hash value, such that an accidental or intentional change to the data will change the hash value...

s, they possess different security requirements. To be considered secure, a MAC function must resist existential forgery under chosen-plaintext attack

Chosen-plaintext attack

A chosen-plaintext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. The goal of the attack is to gain some further information which reduces the security of the...

s. This means that even if an attacker has access to an oracle

Oracle machine

In complexity theory and computability theory, an oracle machine is an abstract machine used to study decision problems. It can be visualized as a Turing machine with a black box, called an oracle, which is able to decide certain decision problems in a single operation. The problem can be of any...

which possesses the secret key and generates MACs for messages of the attacker's choosing, the attacker cannot guess the MAC for other messages without performing infeasible amounts of computation.

MACs differ from digital signature

Digital signature

A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not altered in transit...

s as MAC values are both generated and verified using the same secret key. This implies that the sender and receiver of a message must agree on the same key before initiating communications, as is the case with symmetric encryption. For the same reason, MACs do not provide the property of non-repudiation

Non-repudiation

Non-repudiation refers to a state of affairs where the purported maker of a statement will not be able to successfully challenge the validity of the statement or contract. The term is often seen in a legal setting wherein the authenticity of a signature is being challenged...

offered by signatures specifically in the case of a network-wide shared secret key: any user who can verify a MAC is also capable of generating MACs for other messages. In contrast, a digital signature is generated using the private key of a key pair, which is asymmetric encryption. Since this private key is only accessible to its holder, a digital signature proves that a document was signed by none other than that holder. Thus, digital signatures do offer non-repudiation.

## Message integrity codes

The term*message integrity code (MIC)*is frequently substituted for the term MAC, especially in communications, where the acronym MAC traditionally stands for Media Access ControlMedia Access Control

The media access control data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the medium access control, is a sublayer of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model , and in the four-layer TCP/IP model...

. However, some authors use MIC as a distinctly different term from a MAC; in their usage of the term the MIC operation does not use secret keys. This lack of security means that any MIC intended for use gauging message integrity should be encrypted or otherwise be protected against tampering. MIC algorithms are created such that a given message will always produce the same MIC assuming the same algorithm is used to generate both. Conversely, MAC algorithms are designed to produce matching MACs only if the same message, secret key and initialization vector

Initialization vector

In cryptography, an initialization vector is a fixed-size input to a cryptographic primitive that is typically required to be random or pseudorandom...

are input to the same algorithm. MICs do not use secret keys and, when taken on their own, are therefore a much less reliable gauge of message integrity than MACs. Because MACs use secret keys, they do not necessarily need to be encrypted to provide the same level of assurance.

## Implementation

MAC algorithms can be constructed from other cryptographic primitives, such as cryptographic hash functionCryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the hash value, such that an accidental or intentional change to the data will change the hash value...

s (as in the case of HMAC

HMAC

In cryptography, HMAC is a specific construction for calculating a message authentication code involving a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret key. As with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authenticity of a message...

) or from block cipher

Block cipher

In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation. A block cipher encryption algorithm might take a 128-bit block of plaintext as input, and output a corresponding 128-bit block of ciphertext...

algorithms (OMAC, CBC-MAC

CBC-MAC

In cryptography, a cipher block chaining message authentication code , is a technique for constructing a message authentication code from a block cipher. The message is encrypted with some block cipher algorithm in CBC mode to create a chain of blocks such that each block depends on the proper...

and PMAC

PMAC (cryptography)

PMAC, which stands for Parallelizable MAC, is a message authentication code algorithm. It was created by Phillip Rogaway ....

). However many of the fastest MAC algorithms such as UMAC

UMAC

In cryptography, a message authentication code based on universal hashing, or UMAC, is a type of message authentication code calculated choosing a hash function from a class of hash functions according to some secret process and applying it to the message. The resulting digest or fingerprint is...

and VMAC

VMAC

VMAC is a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm using a universal hash proposed by Ted Krovetz and Wei Dai in April 2007. The algorithm was designed for high performance backed by a formal analysis....

are constructed based on universal hashing

Universal hashing

Using universal hashing refers to selecting a hash function at random from a family of hash functions with a certain mathematical property . This guarantees a low number of collisions in expectation, even if the data is chosen by an adversary...

.

## Standards

Various standards exist that define MAC algorithms. These include:- FIPS PUB 113
*Computer Data Authentication*, withdrawn in 2002, defines an algorithm based on DESDES-Computing:* Data Encryption Standard* DirectShow Editing Services, an Application Programming Interface-Medical:* Diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen and the origin of the phrase "DES daughter"* DES gene, which encodes the Desmin protein...

. - ISO/IEC 9797-1ISO/IEC 9797-1ISO/IEC 9797-1 Information technology — Security techniques — Message Authentication Codes — Part 1: Mechanisms using a block cipher is an international standard that defines methods for calculating a message authentication code over data.Rather than defining one specific...

*Mechanisms using a block cipher* - ISO/IEC 9797-2
*Mechanisms using a dedicated hash-function*

ISO/IEC 9797-1 and -2 define generic models and algorithms that can be used with any block cipher or hash function, and a variety of different parameters. These models and parameters allow more specific algorithms to be defined by nominating the parameters. For example the FIPS PUB 113 algorithm is functionally equivalent to ISO/IEC 9797-1 MAC algorithm 1 with padding method 1 and a block cipher algorithm of DES.

## Example

In this example, the sender of a message runs it through a MAC algorithm to produce a MAC data tag. The message and the MAC tag are then sent to the receiver. The receiver in turn runs the message portion of the transmission through the same MAC algorithm using the same key, producing a second MAC data tag. The receiver then compares the first MAC tag received in the transmission to the second generated MAC tag. If they are identical, the receiver can safely assume that the integrity of the message was not compromised, and the message was not altered or tampered with during transmission.

## See also

- Integrity check value
- UMACUMACIn cryptography, a message authentication code based on universal hashing, or UMAC, is a type of message authentication code calculated choosing a hash function from a class of hash functions according to some secret process and applying it to the message. The resulting digest or fingerprint is...
- HMACHMACIn cryptography, HMAC is a specific construction for calculating a message authentication code involving a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret key. As with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authenticity of a message...
- CMACCMACIn cryptography, CMAC is a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm. It may be used to provide assurance of the authenticity and, hence, the integrity of binary data...
- VMACVMACVMAC is a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm using a universal hash proposed by Ted Krovetz and Wei Dai in April 2007. The algorithm was designed for high performance backed by a formal analysis....
- Poly1305-AESPoly1305-AESPoly1305-AES is a cryptographic message authentication code written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.-Description:...
- MMH-Badger MACMMH-Badger MACIn cryptography, to guarantee the integrity of a message, one can use either public key digital signatures or use a Message Authentication Code . A MAC is one of the possible authentication techniques involving the use of a secret key to generate a small fixed-size block of data. The basic setting...