Authentication
Overview
 
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involve confirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artifact, ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one.
In art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

, antiques
Antiques
An antique is an old collectible item. It is collected or desirable because of its age , beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features...

, and anthropology
Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of humanity. It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The term "anthropology" is from the Greek anthrōpos , "man", understood to mean mankind or humanity, and -logia , "discourse" or "study", and was first used in 1501 by German...

, a common problem is verifying that a person has the said identity or a given artifact was produced by a certain person, or was produced in a certain place or period of history.

There are three types of techniques for doing this.

The first type authentication is accepting proof of identity given by a credible person which has evidence on the said identity or on the originator and the object under assessment as his artifact respectively.

The second type authentication is comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin.
Encyclopedia
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involve confirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artifact, ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one.

Authentication methods

In art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

, antiques
Antiques
An antique is an old collectible item. It is collected or desirable because of its age , beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features...

, and anthropology
Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of humanity. It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The term "anthropology" is from the Greek anthrōpos , "man", understood to mean mankind or humanity, and -logia , "discourse" or "study", and was first used in 1501 by German...

, a common problem is verifying that a person has the said identity or a given artifact was produced by a certain person, or was produced in a certain place or period of history.

There are three types of techniques for doing this.

The first type authentication is accepting proof of identity given by a credible person which has evidence on the said identity or on the originator and the object under assessment as his artifact respectively.

The second type authentication is comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin. For example, an art expert might look for similarities in the style of painting, check the location and form of a signature, or compare the object to an old photograph. An archaeologist might use carbon dating to verify the age of an artifact, do a chemical analysis of the materials used, or compare the style of construction or decoration to other artifacts of similar origin. The physics of sound and light, and comparison with a known physical environment, can be used to examine the authenticity of audio recordings, photographs, or videos.

Attribute comparison may be vulnerable to forgery. In general, it relies on the fact that creating a forgery indistinguishable from a genuine artifact requires expert knowledge, that mistakes are easily made, or that the amount of effort required to do so is considerably greater than the amount of money that can be gained by selling the forgery.

In art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

 and antiques
Antiques
An antique is an old collectible item. It is collected or desirable because of its age , beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features...

 certificates are of great importance, authenticating an object of interest and value. Certificates can, however, also be forged and the authentication of these pose a problem. For instance, the son of Han van Meegeren
Han van Meegeren
Han van Meegeren , born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a Dutch painter and portraitist, and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century....

, the well-known art-forger, forged the work of his father and provided a certificate for its provenance as well; see the article Jacques van Meegeren
Jacques van Meegeren
Jacques van Meegeren , born Jacques Henri Emil van Meegeren, was a Dutch Illustrator and painter.He is also considered to be a forger of the work of his father Han van Meegeren...

.

Criminal and civil penalties for fraud
Fraud
In criminal law, a fraud is an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual; the related adjective is fraudulent. The specific legal definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Fraud is a crime, and also a civil law violation...

, forgery
Forgery
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive. Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations. Forging money or...

, and counterfeit
Counterfeit
To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product...

ing can reduce the incentive for falsification, depending on the risk of getting caught.

The third type authentication relies on documentation or other external affirmations. For example, the rules of evidence
Rules of evidence
Rules of evidence govern whether, when, how, and for what purpose, proof of a legal case may be placed before a trier of fact for consideration....

 in criminal courts often require establishing the chain of custody
Chain of custody
Chain of custody refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail, showing the seizure, custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of evidence, physical or electronic...

 of evidence presented. This can be accomplished through a written evidence log, or by testimony from the police detectives and forensics staff that handled it. Some antiques are accompanied by certificates attesting to their authenticity. External records have their own problems of forgery and perjury
Perjury
Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the willful act of swearing a false oath or affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to a judicial proceeding. That is, the witness falsely promises to tell the truth about matters which affect the outcome of the...

, and are also vulnerable to being separated from the artifact and lost.

Currency
Currency
In economics, currency refers to a generally accepted medium of exchange. These are usually the coins and banknotes of a particular government, which comprise the physical aspects of a nation's money supply...

 and other financial instruments commonly use the first type of authentication method. Bills, coins, and cheque
Cheque
A cheque is a document/instrument See the negotiable cow—itself a fictional story—for discussions of cheques written on unusual surfaces. that orders a payment of money from a bank account...

s incorporate hard-to-duplicate physical features, such as fine printing or engraving, distinctive feel, watermarks, and holographic imagery, which are easy for receivers to verify.

Consumer goods such as pharmaceuticals, perfume, fashion clothing can use either type of authentication method to prevent counterfeit goods from taking advantage of a popular brand's reputation (damaging the brand owner's sales and reputation). A trademark
Trademark
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity to identify that the products or services to consumers with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or...

 is a legally protected marking or other identifying feature which aids consumers in the identification of genuine brand-name goods.

Authentication factors and identity

The ways in which someone may be authenticated fall into three categories, based on what are known as the factors of authentication: something you know, something you have, or something you are. Each authentication factor covers a range of elements used to authenticate or verify a person's identity prior to being granted access, approving a transaction request, signing a document or other work product, granting authority to others, and establishing a chain of authority.

Security research has determined that for a positive identification, elements from at least two, and preferably all three, factors be verified. The three factors (classes) and some of elements of each factor are:
  • the ownership factors: Something the user has (e.g., wrist band, ID card, security token
    Security token
    A security token may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is given to ease authentication...

    , software token
    Software token
    A software token is a type of two-factor authentication security device that may be used to authorize the use of computer services. Software tokens are stored on a general-purpose electronic device such as a desktop computer, laptop, PDA, or mobile phone...

    , phone
    Phone
    Within phonetics, a phone is:* a speech sound or gesture considered a physical event without regard to its place in the phonology of a language* a speech segment that possesses distinct physical or perceptual properties...

    , or cell phone)
  • the knowledge factors: Something the user knows (e.g., a password
    Password
    A password is a secret word or string of characters that is used for authentication, to prove identity or gain access to a resource . The password should be kept secret from those not allowed access....

    , pass phrase, or personal identification number
    Personal identification number
    A personal identification number is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system. Typically, the user is required to provide a non-confidential user identifier or token and a confidential PIN to gain access to the system...

     (PIN), challenge response (the user must answer a question))
  • the inherence factors: Something the user is or does (e.g., fingerprint
    Fingerprint
    A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges...

    , retina
    Retina
    The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical...

    l pattern, DNA
    DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

     sequence (there are assorted definitions of what is sufficient), signature
    Signature
    A signature is a handwritten depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory. Similar to a handwritten signature, a signature work describes the work as readily identifying...

    , face, voice, unique bio-electric signals, or other biometric identifier).

Two-factor authentication

When elements representing two factors are required for identification, the term two-factor authentication
Two-factor authentication
Two-factor authentication is an approach to authentication which requires the presentation of two different kinds of evidence that someone is who they say they are. It is a part of the broader family of multi-factor authentication, which is a defense in depth approach to security...

is applied. . e.g. a bankcard (something the user has) and a PIN (something the user knows). Business networks may require users to provide a password (knowledge factor) and a pseudorandom number from a security token
Security token
A security token may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is given to ease authentication...

 (ownership factor). Access to a very high security system might require a mantrap
Mantrap
Mantraps are physical security devices or constructions designed to entrap a human on purpose.-Historical usage:Historically, mantraps were mechanical devices for catching poachers and trespassers. The devices have taken many forms, the most usual being like a large foothold trap, the steel springs...

 screening of height, weight, facial, and fingerprint checks (several inherence factor elements) plus a PIN and a day code (knowledge factor elements), but this is still a two-factor authentication.

Product authentication

Counterfeit
Counterfeit
To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product...

 products are often offered to consumers as being authentic. Counterfeit consumer goods
Counterfeit consumer goods
Counterfeit consumer goods, commonly called knock-offs, are counterfeit or imitation products offered for sale. The spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly...

 such as electronics, music, apparel, and Counterfeit medications
Counterfeit medications
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness...

 have been sold as being legitimate. Efforts to control the supply chain
Supply chain
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product that is delivered to...

 and educate consumers to evaluate the packaging and labeling help ensure that authentic products are sold and used. Even security printing
Security printing
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards...

 on packages, label
Label
A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article....

s, and nameplate
Nameplate
A nameplate identifies and displays a person or product's name. Name plates are usually shaped as rectangles but are also seen in other shapes, sometimes taking on the shape of someone’s name...

s, however, is subject to counterfeiting.

Information content

The authentication of information can pose special problems (especially man-in-the-middle attack
Man-in-the-middle attack
In cryptography, the man-in-the-middle attack , bucket-brigade attack, or sometimes Janus attack, is a form of active eavesdropping in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making them believe that they are talking directly to each other...

s), and is often wrapped up with authenticating identity.

Literary forgery
Literary forgery
Literary forgery refers to writing, such as a manuscript or a literary work either deliberately misattributed to a historical or invented author, or a purported memoir presented as genuine.- History :The common, or popularly known, instance of literary forgery may involve for example the work of a...

 can involve imitating the style of a famous author. If an original manuscript
Manuscript
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

, typewritten text, or recording is available, then the medium itself (or its packaging - anything from a box to e-mail headers) can help prove or disprove the authenticity of the document.

However, text, audio, and video can be copied into new media, possibly leaving only the informational content itself to use in authentication.

Various systems have been invented to allow authors to provide a means for readers to reliably authenticate that a given message originated from or was relayed by them. These involve authentication factors like:
  • A difficult-to-reproduce physical artifact, such as a seal
    Seal (device)
    A seal can be a figure impressed in wax, clay, or some other medium, or embossed on paper, with the purpose of authenticating a document ; but the term can also mean the device for making such impressions, being essentially a mould with the mirror image of the design carved in sunken- relief or...

    , signature
    Signature
    A signature is a handwritten depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory. Similar to a handwritten signature, a signature work describes the work as readily identifying...

    , watermark
    Watermark
    A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light , caused by thickness or density variations in the paper...

    , special stationery
    Stationery
    Stationery has historically meant a wide gamut of materials: paper and office supplies, writing implements, greeting cards, glue, pencil case etc.-History of stationery:...

    , or fingerprint
    Fingerprint
    A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges...

    .
  • A shared secret
    Shared secret
    In cryptography, a shared secret is a piece of data, known only to the parties involved, in a secure communication. The shared secret can be a password, a passphrase, a big number or an array of randomly chosen bytes....

    , such as a passphrase, in the content of the message.
  • An electronic signature
    Electronic signature
    An electronic signature, or e-signature, is any electronic means that indicates either that a person adopts the contents of an electronic message, or more broadly that the person who claims to have written a message is the one who wrote it . By comparison, a signature is a stylized script...

    ; public key infrastructure
    Public key infrastructure
    Public Key Infrastructure is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. In cryptography, a PKI is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective user identities by means of a certificate...

     is often used to cryptographically guarantee that a message has been signed by the holder of a particular private key.


The opposite problem is detection of plagiarism
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work, but the notion remains problematic with nebulous...

, where information from a different author is passed of as a person's own work. A common technique for proving plagiarism is the discovery of another copy of the same or very similar text, which has different attribution. In some cases excessively high quality or a style mismatch may raise suspicion of plagiarism.

Factual verification

Determining the truth
Truth
Truth has a variety of meanings, such as the state of being in accord with fact or reality. It can also mean having fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal. In a common usage, it also means constancy or sincerity in action or character...

 or factual accuracy of information in a message is generally considered a separate problem from authentication. A wide range of techniques, from detective
Detective
A detective is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person. The latter may be known as private investigators or "private eyes"...

 work to fact checking
Fact checker
A fact checker is the person who checks factual assertions in non-fictional text, usually intended for publication in a periodical, to determine their veracity and correctness...

 in journalism, to scientific experiment
Experiment
An experiment is a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Experiments vary greatly in their goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results...

 might be employed.

Video authentication

It is sometimes necessary to authenticate the veracity of video recordings used as evidence in judicial proceedings. Proper chain-of-custody records and secure storage facilities can help ensure the admissibility of digital or analog recordings by the Court.

History and state-of-the-art

Historically, fingerprint
Fingerprint
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges...

s have been used as the most authoritative method of authentication, but recent court cases in the US and elsewhere have raised fundamental doubts about fingerprint reliability. Outside of the legal system as well, fingerprints have been shown to be easily spoof
Spoofing attack
In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.- Spoofing and TCP/IP :...

able, with British Telecom's top computer-security official noting that "few" fingerprint readers have not already been tricked by one spoof or another. Hybrid or two-tiered authentication methods offer a compelling solution, such as private keys encrypted by fingerprint inside of a USB device.

In a computer data context, cryptographic methods have been developed (see digital signature
Digital signature
A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not altered in transit...

 and challenge-response authentication
Challenge-response authentication
In computer security, challenge-response authentication is a family of protocols in which one party presents a question and another party must provide a valid answer to be authenticated....

) which are currently not spoofable if and only if the originator's key has not been compromised. That the originator (or anyone other than an attacker
Adversary (cryptography)
In cryptography, an adversary is a malicious entity whose aim is to prevent the users of the cryptosystem from achieving their goal...

) knows (or doesn't know) about a compromise is irrelevant. It is not known whether these cryptographically based authentication methods are provably secure since unanticipated mathematical developments may make them vulnerable to attack in future. If that were to occur, it may call into question much of the authentication in the past. In particular, a digitally signed
Digital signature
A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not altered in transit...

 contract
Legal instrument
Legal instrument is a legal term of art that is used for any formally executed written document that can be formally attributed to its author, records and formally expresses a legally enforceable act, process, or contractual duty, obligation, or right, and therefore evidences that act, process, or...

 may be questioned when a new attack on the cryptography underlying the signature is discovered.

Strong authentication

The U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Government's National Information Assurance Glossary
National Information Assurance Glossary
Committee on National Security Systems Instruction No. 4009, National Information Assurance Glossary, published by the United States federal government, is an unclassified glossary of Information security terms intended to provide a common vocabulary for discussing Information Assurance...

 defines strong authentication as
layered authentication approach relying on two or more authenticators to establish the identity of an originator or receiver of information.

Authentication vs. authorization

The process of authorization
Authorization
Authorization is the function of specifying access rights to resources, which is related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular. More formally, "to authorize" is to define access policy...

 is sometimes mistakenly thought to be the same as authentication; many widely adopted standard
Standardization
Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.The goals of standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers , compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality....

 security protocols, obligatory regulations, and even statutes make this error. However, authentication is the process of verifying a claim made by a subject that it should be allowed to act on behalf of a given principal (person, computer, process, etc.). Authorization, on the other hand, involves verifying that an authenticated subject has permission to perform certain operations or access specific resources. Authentication, therefore, must precede authorization.

For example, when you show proper identification credentials to a bank teller, you are asking to be authenticated to act on behalf of the account holder. If your authentication request is approved, you become authorized to access the accounts of that account holder, but no others.

Even though authorization cannot occur without authentication, the former term is sometimes used to mean the combination of both.

To distinguish "authentication" from the closely related "authorization", the short-hand notations A1 (authentication), A2 (authorization) as well as AuthN / AuthZ (AuthR) or Au / Az are used in some communities.

Normally delegation was considered to be a part of authorization domain. Recently authentication is also used for various type of delegation tasks. Delegation in IT network
Delegation in IT
If a computer user temporarily hand over his authorizations to another user then this process is called delegation.-Types of Delegation in IT network:There are essentially two classes of delegation.# Delegation at Authentication/Identity Level...

 is also a new but evolving field.

Access control

One familiar use of authentication and authorization is access control
Access control
Access control refers to exerting control over who can interact with a resource. Often but not always, this involves an authority, who does the controlling. The resource can be a given building, group of buildings, or computer-based information system...

. A computer system that is supposed to be used only by those authorized must attempt to detect and exclude the unauthorized. Access to it is therefore usually controlled by insisting on an authentication procedure to establish with some degree of confidence the identity of the user, granting privileges established for that identity. Common examples of access control involving authentication include:
  • Asking for photoID when a contractor first arrives at a house to perform work.
  • Using captcha
    CAPTCHA
    A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by a person. The process usually involves one computer asking a user to complete a simple test which the computer is able to generate and grade...

     as a means of asserting that a user is a human being and not a computer program.
  • A computer program using a blind credential
    Blind credential
    A blind credential is a token asserting that someone qualifies under some criteria or has some status or right, without revealing "who" that person is — without including their name or address, for instance...

     to authenticate to another program
  • Entering a country with a passport
    Passport
    A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

  • Logging in to a computer
  • Using a confirmation E-mail
    E-mail
    Electronic mail, commonly known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the...

     to verify ownership of an e-mail address
  • Using an Internet banking
    Online banking
    Online banking allows customers to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society.-Features:...

     system
  • Withdrawing cash from an ATM
    Automated teller machine
    An automated teller machine or automatic teller machine, also known as a Cashpoint , cash machine or sometimes a hole in the wall in British English, is a computerised telecommunications device that provides the clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public...



In some cases, ease of access is balanced against the strictness of access checks. For example, the credit card
Credit card
A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services...

 network does not require a personal identification number
Personal identification number
A personal identification number is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system. Typically, the user is required to provide a non-confidential user identifier or token and a confidential PIN to gain access to the system...

 for authentication of the claimed identity; and a small transaction usually does not even require a signature of the authenticated person for proof of authorization of the transaction. The security of the system is maintained by limiting distribution of credit card numbers, and by the threat of punishment for fraud.

Security experts
Computer security
Computer security is a branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and networks. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to...

 argue that it is impossible to prove the identity of a computer user with absolute certainty. It is only possible to apply one or more tests which, if passed, have been previously declared to be sufficient to proceed. The problem is to determine which tests are sufficient, and many such are inadequate. Any given test can be spoof
Spoofing attack
In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.- Spoofing and TCP/IP :...

ed one way or another, with varying degrees of difficulty.

See also

  • Access Control Service
    Access Control Service
    Access Control Service, or Windows Azure AppFabric Access Control Service is a cloud-based service that provides an easy way of authenticating and authorizing users to gain access to web applications and services while allowing the features of authentication and authorization to be factored out of...

  • Athens access and identity management
    Athens access and identity management
    Athens is an Access and Identity Management service based in the United Kingdom that is supplied by Eduserv to provide single sign-on to protected resources combined with full user management capability...

  • Atomic Authorization
    Atomic Authorization
    Atomic authorization is the act of securing authorization rights independently from the intermediary applications that utilize them and the parties to which they apply...

  • Authentication OSID
  • Authenticity in art
    Authenticity in art
    Authenticity in art has a variety of meanings related to different ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic.Denis Dutton distinguishes between nominal authenticity and expressive authenticity....

  • Authorization
    Authorization
    Authorization is the function of specifying access rights to resources, which is related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular. More formally, "to authorize" is to define access policy...

  • Basic access authentication
  • Biometrics
    Biometrics
    Biometrics As Jain & Ross point out, "the term biometric authentication is perhaps more appropriate than biometrics since the latter has been historically used in the field of statistics to refer to the analysis of biological data [36]" . consists of methods...

  • CAPTCHA
    CAPTCHA
    A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by a person. The process usually involves one computer asking a user to complete a simple test which the computer is able to generate and grade...

  • Chip Authentication Program
    Chip Authentication Program
    thumb|right|250px|A GemAlto EZIO CAP Device Whitelabeled as Barclays PINSentryThe Chip Authentication Program is a MasterCard initiative and technical specification for using EMV banking smartcards for authenticating users and transactions in online and telephone banking. It was also adopted by...

  • Closed-loop authentication
    Closed-loop authentication
    Closed-loop authentication, as applied to computer network communication, refers to a mechanism whereby one party verifies the purported identity of another party by requiring them to supply a copy of a token transmitted to the canonical or trusted point of contact for that identity...

  • Diameter (protocol)
  • Digital Identity
    Digital identity
    Digital identity is the aspect of digital technology that is concerned with the mediation of people's experience of their own identity and the identity of other people and things...

  • Encrypted key exchange
    Encrypted key exchange
    Encrypted Key Exchange is a family of password-authenticated key agreement methods described by Steven M. Bellovin and Michael Merritt...

     (EKE)
  • EAP
    Extensible Authentication Protocol
    Extensible Authentication Protocol, or EAP, is an authentication framework frequently used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections. It is defined in RFC 3748, which made RFC 2284 obsolete, and was updated by RFC 5247....

  • Fingerprint Verification Competition
    Fingerprint Verification Competition
    Fingerprint Verification Competition is an international competition focused on fingerprint verification software assessment. A subset of fingerprint impressions acquired with various sensors was provided to registered participants, to allow them to adjust the parameters of their algorithms...

  • Geolocation
    Geolocation
    Geolocation is the identification of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar, mobile phone or an Internet-connected computer terminal...

  • Global Trust Center
    Global Trust Center
    Global Trust Center is an international not-for-profit organisation that aims to develop policies to protect the rights and integrity of individual users of digital communications while reaffirming accountability and legal values...

  • HMAC
    HMAC
    In cryptography, HMAC is a specific construction for calculating a message authentication code involving a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret key. As with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authenticity of a message...

  • Identity Assurance Framework
  • Identification (information)
    Identification (information)
    The function of identification is to map a known quantity to an unknown entity so as to make it known. The known quantity is called the identifier and the unknown entity is what needs identification. A basic requirement for identification is that the Id be unique. Ids may be scoped, that is, they...


  • Java Authentication and Authorization Service
    Java Authentication and Authorization Service
    Java Authentication and Authorization Service, or JAAS, pronounced "Jazz", is a Java security framework for user-centric security to augment the Java code-based security...

  • Kerberos
  • Multi-factor authentication
    Multi-factor authentication
    Multi-factor authentication, sometimes called strong authentication, is an extension of two-factor authentication. This is the Defense in depth approach of "Security In Layers" applied to authentication. While two-factor authentication only involves exactly two factors, multi-factor...

  • Needham-Schroeder protocol
    Needham-Schroeder protocol
    The term Needham–Schroeder protocol can refer to one of two communication protocols intended for use over an insecure network, both proposed by Roger Needham and Michael Schroeder. These are:...

  • OpenID
    OpenID
    OpenID is an open standard that describes how users can be authenticated in a decentralized manner, eliminating the need for services to provide their own ad hoc systems and allowing users to consolidate their digital identities...

     – an authentication method for the web
  • Point of Access for Providers of Information
    Point of Access for Providers of Information
    PAPI is a system for providing access control to restricted information resources across the Internet. It intends to keep authentication as an issue local to the organization the user belongs to, while leaving the information providers full control over the resources they offer...

     - the PAPI protocol
  • Public key cryptography
  • Provenance
    Provenance
    Provenance, from the French provenir, "to come from", refers to the chronology of the ownership or location of an historical object. The term was originally mostly used for works of art, but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including science and computing...

  • RADIUS
    RADIUS
    Remote Authentication Dial In User Service is a networking protocol that provides centralized Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting management for computers to connect and use a network service...

  • Recognition of human individuals
  • Secret sharing
    Secret sharing
    Secret sharing refers to method for distributing a secret amongst a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a share of the secret. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own.More formally, in a...

  • Secure remote password protocol
    Secure remote password protocol
    The Secure Remote Password protocol is a password-authenticated key agreement protocol.- Overview :The SRP protocol has a number of desirable properties: it allows a user to authenticate themselves to a server, it is resistant to dictionary attacks mounted by an eavesdropper, and it does not...

     (SRP)
  • Secure Shell
    Secure Shell
    Secure Shell is a network protocol for secure data communication, remote shell services or command execution and other secure network services between two networked computers that it connects via a secure channel over an insecure network: a server and a client...

  • Security printing
    Security printing
    Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards...

  • Tamper-evident
    Tamper-evident
    Tamper-evident describes a device or process that makes unauthorized access to the protected object easily detected. Seals, markings or other techniques may be tamper indicating.-Tampering:...

  • TCP Wrapper
    TCP Wrapper
    TCP Wrapper is a host-based networking ACL system, used to filter network access to Internet Protocol servers on operating systems such as Linux or BSD...

  • Time-based authentication
    Time-based authentication
    Time-based authentication is a special procedure to prove an individual's identity and authenticity on appearance simply by detecting its presence at a scheduled time of day or within a scheduled time interval and on a distinct location....

  • Two-factor authentication
    Two-factor authentication
    Two-factor authentication is an approach to authentication which requires the presentation of two different kinds of evidence that someone is who they say they are. It is a part of the broader family of multi-factor authentication, which is a defense in depth approach to security...

  • Woo Lam 92 (protocol)


External links

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