Magdalene College, Cambridge
Overview
Magdalene College is a constituent college
Colleges of the University of Cambridge
This is a list of the colleges within the University of Cambridge. These colleges are the primary source of accommodation for undergraduates and graduates at the University and at the undergraduate level have responsibility for admitting students and organising their tuition. They also provide...

 of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

.

The college was founded in 1428 as a Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 hostel, in time coming to be known as Buckingham College
Buckingham College, Cambridge
Buckingham College is a name of one of the former colleges of the University of Cambridge, that existed between 1428 and 1542, when it was reformed as Magdalene College....

, before being refounded in 1542 as the College of St Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

. Magdalene College has some of the grandest benefactors including Britain's premier noble the Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal was an English nobleman.Norfolk was the son of the poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. He was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage...

, the Duke of Buckingham
Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham
Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, KG was an English nobleman. He was the son of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and the former Lady Catherine Woodville, daughter of the 1st Earl Rivers and sister-in-law of King Edward IV.-Early life:Stafford was born at Brecknock Castle in Wales...

 and Lord Chief Justice Sir Christopher Wray
Christopher Wray
Sir Christopher Wray was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench.-Early life and career:Wray, the third son of Thomas Wray, seneschal in 1535 of Coverham Abbey, Yorkshire, by Joan, daughter of Robert Jackson of Gatenby, Bedale, in the same county, was born at Bedale in 1524...

. However the refoundation was largely the work of Sir Thomas Audley
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, KG, PC, KS , Lord Chancellor of England, born in Earls Colne, Essex, the son of Geoffrey Audley, is believed to have studied at Buckingham College, Cambridge...

, Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor
The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking only after the Lord High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign...

 under Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

.
Encyclopedia
Magdalene College is a constituent college
Colleges of the University of Cambridge
This is a list of the colleges within the University of Cambridge. These colleges are the primary source of accommodation for undergraduates and graduates at the University and at the undergraduate level have responsibility for admitting students and organising their tuition. They also provide...

 of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

.

The college was founded in 1428 as a Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 hostel, in time coming to be known as Buckingham College
Buckingham College, Cambridge
Buckingham College is a name of one of the former colleges of the University of Cambridge, that existed between 1428 and 1542, when it was reformed as Magdalene College....

, before being refounded in 1542 as the College of St Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

. Magdalene College has some of the grandest benefactors including Britain's premier noble the Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal was an English nobleman.Norfolk was the son of the poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. He was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage...

, the Duke of Buckingham
Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham
Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, KG was an English nobleman. He was the son of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and the former Lady Catherine Woodville, daughter of the 1st Earl Rivers and sister-in-law of King Edward IV.-Early life:Stafford was born at Brecknock Castle in Wales...

 and Lord Chief Justice Sir Christopher Wray
Christopher Wray
Sir Christopher Wray was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench.-Early life and career:Wray, the third son of Thomas Wray, seneschal in 1535 of Coverham Abbey, Yorkshire, by Joan, daughter of Robert Jackson of Gatenby, Bedale, in the same county, was born at Bedale in 1524...

. However the refoundation was largely the work of Sir Thomas Audley
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, KG, PC, KS , Lord Chancellor of England, born in Earls Colne, Essex, the son of Geoffrey Audley, is believed to have studied at Buckingham College, Cambridge...

, Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor
The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking only after the Lord High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign...

 under Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

. Audley also gave the College its motto — garde ta foy (Old French
Old French
Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories that span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from the 9th century to the 14th century...

: "keep your faith"). Audley's successors in the Mastership and as benefactors of the College were however prone to dire ends; several benefactors were arraigned at various stages on charges of high treason and executed.

The College's most famous alumnus is Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys FRS, MP, JP, was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament who is now most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man...

, whose papers and books were donated to the College upon his death, and are now housed in the Pepys Building
Pepys Library
The Pepys Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, is the personal library collected by Samuel Pepys which he bequeathed to the college following his death in 1703....

. The College boasts a portrait of the famous diarist by Sir Peter Lely
Peter Lely
Sir Peter Lely was a painter of Dutch origin, whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.-Life:...

, which hangs in the Hall. Magdalene is noted for its 'traditional' style: it boasts a well-regarded candlelit formal hall (held every evening) and was the last all-male College in Oxford
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a university located in Oxford, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking world. Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096...

 or Cambridge to admit women in 1988 (Oriel College was the last in Oxford, admitting women in 1985). This resulted in protests by some undergraduates, including the wearing of black armbands and flying the college flag at half-mast.

Magdalene's old College buildings are representative of the College's ramshackle growth from a monks' foundation into a centre of education. It is also distinctive in that most of the old buildings are in brick rather than stone (save for the frontage of the Pepys Building). Magdalene Street
Magdalene Street
Magdalene Street is a street in the north of central Cambridge, England. It runs between Castle Street, by Castle Hill, at the junction with Northampton Street and Chesterton Lane, then Chesterton Road , to the northwest and Bridge Street at the junction with Thompson's Lane to the southeast.The...

 divides the most ancient courts from more recent developments. One of the accommodation blocks in the newer part of the college was built by Sir Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era...

 in the early 1930s.

Magdalene remains, despite this 20th-century expansion, one of the smaller colleges within the University, numbering some 300 undergraduates and an expanding postgraduate community. Opened in 2005 was Cripps Court, on Chesterton Road
Chesterton Road, Cambridge
Chesterton Road is a road in the north of Cambridge, England. The southwestern part of the road is known as Chesterton Lane. This links with Northampton Street at the junction with Castle Street to the northwest and Magdalene Street leading southeast across the River Cam into central Cambridge...

, featuring new undergraduate rooms and conference facilities.

Buckingham College

Magdalene College was first founded in 1428 as Monk's Hostel, which hosted Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 student monks. The secluded location of the hostel was chosen because it was separated from the town centre by the River Cam
River Cam
The River Cam is a tributary of the River Great Ouse in the east of England. The two rivers join to the south of Ely at Pope's Corner. The Great Ouse connects the Cam to England's canal system and to the North Sea at King's Lynn...

 and protected by the Cambridge Castle
Cambridge Castle
Cambridge Castle, locally also known as Castle Mound, is located in the town of the same name in Cambridgeshire, England. Originally built after the Norman conquest to control the strategically important route to the north of England, it played a role in the conflicts of the Anarchy, the First and...

. The main buildings of the college were first constructed in the 1470s under the leadership of John de Wisbech, then Abbot of Crowland
Abbot of Crowland
The Abbot of Crowland was the head of Crowland Abbey, an English monastery built up around the shrine of Saint Guthlac by King Æthelbald of Mercia, and refounded as a Benedictine house circa 948. The last abbot was John Wells , who handed the monastery over to royal control and dissolution in...

.
Under the patronage of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, KG played a major role in Richard III of England's rise and fall. He is also one of the primary suspects in the disappearance of the Princes in the Tower...

, the institution was renamed Buckingham College.

In the 16th century, the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

 broke away from the Papacy
English Reformation
The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church....

. With the subsequent Dissolution of the Monasteries, the parent abbey of Buckingham College, Crowland Abbey, was dissolved. However, the college remained in operation.

Refoundation

Walden Abbey, one of the Benedictine abbeys associated with Buckingham College, came into the possession of Thomas Audley
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, KG, PC, KS , Lord Chancellor of England, born in Earls Colne, Essex, the son of Geoffrey Audley, is believed to have studied at Buckingham College, Cambridge...

 after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In 1542, Audley refounded Buckingham College as the College of Saint Mary Magdalene. Derived from Audley were the arms of Magdalene, including the motto Garde Ta Foy (from Old French
Old French
Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories that span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from the 9th century to the 14th century...

 for "keep your faith"), and the wyvern
Wyvern
A wyvern or wivern is a legendary winged reptilian creature with a dragon's head, two legs , and a barbed tail. The wyvern is found in heraldry. There exists a purely sea-dwelling variant, termed the Sea-Wyvern which has a fish tail in place of a barbed dragon's tail...

 as the crest.

Thomas Audley died in 1544 aged 56, only two years after he re-founded the college. He donated to the college seven acres of property at Aldgate
Aldgate
Aldgate was the eastern most gateway through London Wall leading from the City of London to Whitechapel and the east end of London. Aldgate gives its name to a ward of the City...

 in London, which was his reward from Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 for disposing of Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn ;c.1501/1507 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of Henry VIII of England and Marquess of Pembroke in her own right. Henry's marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the...

. This property would have brought enormous income had it been retained by the college. However, under the conspiracy of the Elizabethan banker Benedict Spinola
Benedict Spinola
Benedict Spinola , also called Benedick Spinola, and in Italian Benedetto Spinola, was a 16th century Genoese merchant of the Spinola family who lived his whole adult life in the City of London, then the principal seaport of the Kingdom of England...

, the property was permanently alienated to the Crown in 1574.

The transaction involved Spinola luring the master and fellows of the time to accept an increase in the annual rental from £9 to £15 a year in exchange for the property. The loss of the Aldgate property left the college in extreme poverty, and the street front of the college was only completed in the 1580s under the generosity of Christopher Wray
Christopher Wray
Sir Christopher Wray was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench.-Early life and career:Wray, the third son of Thomas Wray, seneschal in 1535 of Coverham Abbey, Yorkshire, by Joan, daughter of Robert Jackson of Gatenby, Bedale, in the same county, was born at Bedale in 1524...

, then Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench. The transaction was "almost certainly illegal", and was contested multiple times without success. The first and most famous lawsuit of such kind was pursued in 1615 by Barnaby Goche, was master of the college between 1604 and 1626. The court case landed Goche and the senior fellow in prison for two years. Goche was subsequently offered £10000 as a compromise, which he refused to accept. When the Quayside development site of Magdalene College was completed in 1989, a gargoyle
Gargoyle
In architecture, a gargoyle is a carved stone grotesque, usually made of granite, with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building thereby preventing rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between...

 of Spinola which spits water into the Cam was installed as a "revenge at last".

In 1650, Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys FRS, MP, JP, was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament who is now most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man...

 joined the college. He was best known for his private diaries, known to critics as the Pepys Diary, which provided a major eyewitness account for the Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman City Wall...

 of 1666. Pepys was remembered by the Pepys Library
Pepys Library
The Pepys Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, is the personal library collected by Samuel Pepys which he bequeathed to the college following his death in 1703....

, built around 1700, where the original manuscripts of his diaries and naval records are kept since their donation by the Pepys family to the college in 1703. The building is also home to the Magdalene College library.

Enlightenment

Daniel Waterland
Daniel Waterland
Daniel Cosgrove Waterland was an English theologian.Daniel Waterland was born at Walesby Rectory, Lincolnshire, England, and educated in Lincoln and at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he graduated BA in 1703 and MA in 1706...

, a theologian by training, became master of the college in 1714 and prescribed a new curriculum for undergraduate students at Magdalene. His new curriculum included Mathematics, Newtonian Physics, Geography and Astronomy, as well as Classics, Logic and Metaphysics. Waterland was also successful in attracting financial aid for the college, including funds for scholarships. The mathematician Edward Waring
Edward Waring
Edward Waring was an English mathematician who was born in Old Heath , Shropshire, England and died in Pontesbury, Shropshire, England. He entered Magdalene College, Cambridge as a sizar and became Senior wrangler in 1757. He was elected a Fellow of Magdalene and in 1760 Lucasian Professor of...

 was among those who joined the college during this period.

In 1781, Peter Peckard
Peter Peckard
Peter Peckard was an English Whig, Church of England minister and abolitionist.From 1781 he was Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. He was incorporated at Cambridge in 1782, appointed vice-chancellor in 1784, and created D.D. per literas regias in 1785. In April 1792 he became Dean of...

, one of the earliest abolitionists
Abolitionism
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery.In western Europe and the Americas abolitionism was a movement to end the slave trade and set slaves free. At the behest of Dominican priest Bartolomé de las Casas who was shocked at the treatment of natives in the New World, Spain enacted the first...

, became master of Magdalene. The Zong Massacre
Zong Massacre
The Zong Massacre was a mass-killing of African slaves that took place on November 29th, 1781, on the Zong, a British slave ship owned by James Gregson and colleagues in a Liverpool slave-trading firm....

 of 1781 prompted Peckard to speak strongly against slave trade in his sermons, some of which were published as tracts and pamphlets. Peckard set the college on the course of achieving a wider reputation of scholarship and sound thinking, and was appointed as vice-chancellor of Cambridge University later on.

Magdalene College continued to be a liberal college through the Victorian era. The college had more liberal admissions policies than most, admitting Arthur Cohen
Arthur Cohen
Arthur Cohen KC was an English barrister and Liberal Party politician.After three years' study at the gymnasium in Frankfort-on-the-Main, he entered as a student at University College London. Thence he proceeded to Cambridge University at a time when it was almost impossible for a Jew to gain...

, the first practising Jew to graduate from Cambridge. During the same period, Magdalene also admitted Catholic students such as Charles Januarius Acton
Charles Januarius Acton
Charles Januarius Edward Acton was an English cardinal born at Naples, 6 March 1803; died at Naples, 23 June 1847.He was the second son of Sir John Francis Acton, Bart. The family, a cadet branch of the Actons of Aldenham Hall, near Bridgnorth, in Shropshire, had settled in Naples some time before...

, and Asian students who were excluded from many other colleges until after the First World War.

Modern development

The modern development of Magdalene was shaped by A. C. Benson
A. C. Benson
Arthur Christopher Benson was an English essayist, poet, and author and the 28th Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge....

, master from 1915 to 1925. His enthusiasm and attention to detail produced outstanding pieces of poems, essays and literary criticism; his diaries were also studied by many later critics. His financial generosity effected significant impact on the modern appearance of the college grounds: at least 20 inscriptions around the college refer to him. In 1930, Benson court was constructed and named after A. C. Benson.

From 1972, the previously all-male colleges in Cambridge started admitting women, the first being Clare College
Clare College, Cambridge
Clare College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.The college was founded in 1326, making it the second-oldest surviving college of the University after Peterhouse. Clare is famous for its chapel choir and for its gardens on "the Backs"...

 and King's College
King's College, Cambridge
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college's full name is "The King's College of our Lady and Saint Nicholas in Cambridge", but it is usually referred to simply as "King's" within the University....

. In 1985, Oriel College, Oxford began admitting women, making Magdalene the only surviving all-male Oxbridge college. Magdalene made the controversial decision in 1986 to admit women and go co-residential. When women eventually joined the college in 1988, male students protested by wearing black arm-bands and flying the college flag at half-mast.

Although the historical perception of Magdalene's bias towards undergraduate applicants from independent school
Independent school
An independent school is a school that is independent in its finances and governance; it is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operations, nor reliant on taxpayer contributions, and is instead funded by a combination of tuition charges, gifts, and in some cases the...

s persisted, Magdalene has now an evenly mixed student body in terms of sex, race and education background. In recent years, Magdalene's access programme has attracted many applicants from state schools, especially from North West England
North West England
North West England, informally known as The North West, is one of the nine official regions of England.North West England had a 2006 estimated population of 6,853,201 the third most populated region after London and the South East...

; and the college's close affiliation with international students' bursaries such as the Prince Philip Scholarship and the Jardine Foundation
Jardine Matheson Holdings
Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited often referred to as Jardines, is a multinational corporation incorporated in Bermuda and based in Hong Kong. While listed on the London Stock Exchange and the Singapore Exchange, the vast majority of Jardines shares are traded in Singapore...

 has attracted many applicants from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

, most notably Wong Yan Lung
Wong Yan Lung
Wong Yan-lung, SC, JP is the current Secretary for Justice of Hong Kong since 20 October 2005.-Early years:Wong grew up in a small flat in Tai Wong Street East in Wan Chai. He sold ice cream with his father for a monthly income of HK$300-HK$400. Wong graduated from secondary school at Queen's...

 who went on to become Secretary for Justice for Hong Kong.

Buildings and grounds

Magdalene College is located at the bend of the River Cam
River Cam
The River Cam is a tributary of the River Great Ouse in the east of England. The two rivers join to the south of Ely at Pope's Corner. The Great Ouse connects the Cam to England's canal system and to the North Sea at King's Lynn...

 on the northwestern side of the town centre, at the foot of Castle Hill, Cambridge
Castle Hill, Cambridge
Castle Hill is a hill in Cambridge, England, located in the Castle ward of the city. Cambridgeshire County Council's headquarters, Shire Hall, are located directly adjacent to Castle Hill.-History:...

. The college was deliberately built on the opposite side of the river from the town centre so that the Benedictine student-monks would be secluded from the business and temptations of the town. As such, it was the first Cambridge college to be built on the northwestern side of the Cam. The college's main site was previously settled during the Roman occupation of England.

The college's buildings are distributed on both sides of the river, and is roughly divided into four areas: the main site, where the oldest buildings including the porter's lodge and the Pepys Library
Pepys Library
The Pepys Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, is the personal library collected by Samuel Pepys which he bequeathed to the college following his death in 1703....

 are located; The Village, built in the 1930s and is exclusively student accommodation; Quayside, built on the southeastern side of the river in the 1980s as an investment project which also provides student accommodation; and Cripps Court, built in the 2000s for extra conference facilities and accommodation.

Main site

The main site of Magdalene College is the area bounded by Magdalene Street, Chesterton Lane and the River Cam. It is the first area to be populated by college buildings since as early as the 1470s. This area includes Magdalene's First Court, Second Court, Fellows' Garden, and the buildings surrounding them such as the porters' lodge
Porters' lodge
A porters' lodge is a place near the entrance of a building where one or more porters can be found to respond to enquiries from the public and direct them around the building. It is particularly associated with university accommodation in the United Kingdom, United States and Canada...

, the Master's Lodge, and the famous Pepys Library.

Porter's lodge and First Court

Aptly situated on the north-east side of Magdalene Street, a main street with heavy traffic, the porter's lodge is the first point of call for any English educational institution. It is the place where mail to members of the college is delivered and distributed. Passing the gatehouse by which the porter's lodge is situated, the First Court is immediately reached. The First Court, as its name suggests, was the earliest court to be built. Most of the buildings have been rebuilt in the restoration project which happened between 1953 and 1966. As a result, the court still looked the same as it was first built between 1470 and 1585, but few parts of the original buildings survived. The porter's lodge was not the first to be constructed: the gatehouse including the porter's lodge and the street-front of the college did not exist until 1585. Instead, the chapel was the first to be built around 1470.

The chapel lies to the north range of First Court, and its original construction dates to 1470-72. However, later renovation works meant that little of the original chapel other than the original roof remains. Since the college is dedicated to Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

, much of the chapel's artwork describes her story. The glass windows on the eastern wall of the chapel are entirely dedicated to the encounters between Mary Magdalene and Jesus Christ
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

 around the time of the crucifixion of Jesus
Crucifixion of Jesus
The crucifixion of Jesus and his ensuing death is an event that occurred during the 1st century AD. Jesus, who Christians believe is the Son of God as well as the Messiah, was arrested, tried, and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally executed on a cross...

: anointing Jesus with her jug of ointment, watching the crucifixion, weeping at the tomb and recognising Jesus after his resurrection
Resurrection of Jesus
The Christian belief in the resurrection of Jesus states that Jesus returned to bodily life on the third day following his death by crucifixion. It is a key element of Christian faith and theology and part of the Nicene Creed: "On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures"...

. Compared to most other Cambridge colleges of medieval origin, Magdalene College's chapel is much smaller and cosier, in line with the college's relatively small population.

Past the chapel, the formal hall separates the First Court to the west and the Second Court to the east. It is the place where daily formals
Formal (university)
Formal Hall or Formal Meal is the meal held at some of the oldest , universities in the United Kingdom at which students dress in formal attire and often gowns to dine...

 happen. The hall itself was first built in the early 16th century, again with many later refurbishments. To the far end is the High Table
High Table
At Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges — and other, similarly traditional and prestigious UK academic institutions At Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges — and other, similarly traditional and prestigious UK academic institutions At Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges — and other, similarly...

, placed on a platform a step above ground level, where fellows and their guests dine; in front of it are three long benches, perpendicular to the High Table, that span to the entrance, where students dine. Hung on the walls are 15 portraits of Magdalene's benefactors and notable past members.

Both the old and new Master's Lodges are located just to the north of first court. The old Master's Lodge, connected directly to the building on which the porter's lodge was situated, was built in the 16th century and vacated in 1835. The Master's Lodge then moved to a new location about 50m
Metre
The metre , symbol m, is the base unit of length in the International System of Units . Originally intended to be one ten-millionth of the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole , its definition has been periodically refined to reflect growing knowledge of metrology...

 north of te previous location; this new lodge was subsequently torn down and rebuilt in 1967 to give the Master a less grandiose, but more comfortable residence. The building which used to be Master's Lodge is now known as Old Lodge, and is predominantly student accommodation. Other than Old Lodge, there are also student rooms scattered around the buildings surrounding First Court, including the areas on top of the formal hall.

Second Court and gardens

Past the formal hall, the Second Court is most clearly marked by the Pepys Building, where the Pepys Library
Pepys Library
The Pepys Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, is the personal library collected by Samuel Pepys which he bequeathed to the college following his death in 1703....

 is housed. The architect and polymath Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke FRS was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but...

, otherwise best known for coining the idea of a biological cell
Cell (biology)
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos....

, participated in designing this building in 1677, and construction carried on from then until the 1700s because of the college's lack of money. The inscription on the arch in front of the building, Bibliotheca Pepysiana 1724, refers to the year in which the Pepys Diary was donated to the college, rather than the year in which the building was completed. Because of the famous Pepys Diary, the Pepys Library became a popular tourist destination in Cambridge. The ground and basement levels of the Pepys Building host the college library, where undergraduates course books are available and is therefore a major study spot for undergraduates.

Also situated on Second Court is Bright's Building, named after Mynors Bright
Mynors Bright
Mynors Bright was an English academic, president of Magdalene College, Cambridge from 1853 to 1873. He was the decipherer of the diary of Samuel Pepys.-Life:...

, who was most famous for having deciphered the Pepys Diary. It was built in 1908-09 by Aston Webb
Aston Webb
Sir Aston Webb, RA, FRIBA was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century...

 to provide extra accommodation to host increasing numbers of undergraduate students. The largest room in Bright's Building is Ramsay Hall, named after Allen Beville Ramsay. The room was originally intended to be a lecture room, but it was later refurbished in 1949 to become the college's canteen. The Pepys Building was also constructed in a way that it would provide a good view of the Fellows' Garden with all the trees and flowers planted in it.

The Fellows' Garden, situated behind Pepys Building, included a Roman-era flood barrier bank which became today's Monk's Walk, a raised footpath leading from the south side of Pepys Building to the exit of Fellows' Garden on Chesterton Lane. At the time of the college's establishment in 1428, the Fellow's Garden was a series of fishponds. The fishponds were filled between 1586 and 1609, but it was only until the 1660s that plans to cultivate a garden on the land were realised. Most of the trees planted in the original plan of the garden were chopped and replaced in a renovation in the early 1900s, under the instruction of botanist Walter Gardiner
Walter Gardiner
Walter Gardiner, FLS, FRS was a British botanist. He was educated at Clare College, Cambridge, and was a Fellow there and Lecturer in Botany at the University. He was a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1890...

. Most of the trees in the Fellows' Garden became black poplar
Black Poplar
Populus nigra, the black poplar, is a species of cottonwood poplar, the type species of section Aigeiros of the genus Populus, native to Europe, southwest and central Asia, and northwest Africa....

s and its variant, Lombardy poplars. Some fruit trees, such as quince
Quince
The quince , or Cydonia oblonga, is the sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia in the Caucasus region...

, cherry and plum trees, were later planted in the 1980s-90s. Squirrels, and the occasional woodpecker
Woodpecker
Woodpeckers are near passerine birds of the order Piciformes. They are one subfamily in the family Picidae, which also includes the piculets and wrynecks. They are found worldwide and include about 180 species....

 may be spotted in the garden; there are also a few flowerbeds in the garden on which the gardeners grow seasonal flowers.
Adjacent to the Fellows' Garden are two other gardens: the Master's Garden, which is part of the Master's Lodge and separated from the Fellows' Garden by a brick wall; and the River Court, a small, brick-paved patch of land between Bright's Building and the River Cam, where seasonal flowers are on display in the flowerbeds.

The Village

The area of Magdalene College across Magdalene Street from porter's lodge, bounded by Magdalene Street, Northampton Street, the River Cam and St John's College
St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college's alumni include nine Nobel Prize winners, six Prime Ministers, three archbishops, at least two princes, and three Saints....

 is known as the Magdalene Village. It includes Benson Court, Mallory Court and Buckingham Court, and consists almost exclusively of student accommodation. The whole area of the Village was gradually developed over a period of 45 years by three different architects, Harry Redfern
Harry Redfern
Henry 'Harry' Redfern was a British architect.Redfern designed work in Oxford, Cambridge, Abingdon and Carlisle. At the University of Cambridge he was architect of the chemical, metallurgical, physical and biological laboratories, and restored portions of Christ's College, Cambridge and Magdalene...

, Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era...

 and David Roberts. The first building developed was Mallory Court B (1925–26) and the last was the new Buckingham building (1968–70). Edwin Lutyens had an original plan which involved demolishing many existing building in the area and constructing new buildings that matched the general look and feel of the college's main site; however this plan was scrapped due to insufficient funding, and the only part of Lutyens's plan that was realised was the Lutyens building.

Passing through an obscure wooden gate opposite the porter's lodge, the open courtyard of Benson Court can be seen. Benson Court was named after A. C. Benson
A. C. Benson
Arthur Christopher Benson was an English essayist, poet, and author and the 28th Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge....

, master of Magdalene college from 1915 to 1925. Benson was best known for writing the lyrics of Land of Hope and Glory
Land of Hope and Glory
"Land of Hope and Glory" is a British patriotic song, with music by Edward Elgar and lyrics by A. C. Benson, written in 1902.- Composition :...

, a British patriotic song set to the tune of Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet OM, GCVO was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations, the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, concertos...

's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1
Pomp and Circumstance Marches
The "Pomp and Circumstance Marches" , Op. 39 are a series of marches for orchestra composed by Sir Edward Elgar....

. The cottages to either side of the entrance pathway are all pre-existing buildings that were converted into student accommodation in the 1960s. In particular, Benson Court H is one of the few buildings in college which structure survived from the 16th century, and presents its 17th-century facade which was previously known as Cross Keys Inn to the street front of Magdalene Street. To the left of the courtyard is a gentle grassy slope that leads to the "Magdalene beach", where the college punts
Punt (boat)
A punt is a flat-bottomed boat with a square-cut bow, designed for use in small rivers or other shallow water. Punting refers to boating in a punt. The punter generally propels the punt by pushing against the river bed with a pole...

 are moored and parties are held in the summer.

Across the courtyard is the Lutyens building, also designated Benson A-E, which was built and named after Edwin Lutyens, the architect who planned much of the Village. Due to a lack of funding, it was the only part of Lutyens's original grandiose plan that was actually built. Part of the building's cost was sponsored by subscriptions raised by Harvard in memory of Henry Dunster
Henry Dunster
Henry Dunster was an Anglo-American Puritan clergyman and the first president of Harvard College...

, who studied in Magdalene in 1627-30 and later became a founding father of Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

. Hence, the crest of Harvard with the inscription Veritas was found at the entrance to the D staircase. Each staircase in the building had slightly different banister designs, which Lutyens explained was "to help Magdalene men to feel in the dark whether they were entering the correct staircase". The Lutyens building currently hosts about 60 students and fellows, and the college launderette.

Another two courts can be found to the northwest of Benson Court: Mallory Court and Buckingham Court. Mallory Court was named after George Mallory
George Mallory
George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s....

, the British mountaineer who famously answered "Because it was there" when asked why he wanted to climb Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international boundary runs across the precise summit point...

. The court itself comprises student rooms, some new and some converted from existing buildings which included a defunct brewery. Buckingham Court has two groups of buildings, which included the "Tan Yard Cottages" incorporated to the college and refurbished in 1966, and a new building which contained the college's car park. Completed in 1970, the new Buckingham building marked the completion of the entire Magdalene Village.

Quayside

Most of the buildings bounded by the River Cam, Bridge Street and Thompson's Lane are owned by Magdalene College, despite being completely covered by shop-fronts and restaurants on the ground level. Many of these buildings are part of the Quayside development project, built between 1983–89, as part of a business plan of the college. As for student accommodation, this part of the college includes the Bridge Street hostels, and the Thompson's Lane hostels.

Cripps Court

Situated on the opposite side of Chesterton Lane from the main site of the college, Cripps Court is the newest part of Magdalene. It was built between 2003-05 in response to increasing demands for extra accommodation and conference facilities. The site of Cripps Court is a natural southerly slope, which can be seen from the stepped courtyard in between the buildings. The court was sponsored by, and named after, the Cripps family headed by Humphrey Cripps
Humphrey Cripps
Sir Cyril Humphrey Cripps was an English businessman and a philanthropist.Humphrey Cripps was educated at Northampton School For Boys and went up to St John's College, Cambridge to read Natural Sciences...

. It contains a 142-seat auditorium, 5 seminar rooms, an oak-roofed event gallery also called the orangery, and about 60 student rooms.

Spelling and pronunciation of name

Magdalene College is officially known as "The College of Saint Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

", with "Magdalene" customarily pronounced "Maudlyn" (ˈmɔːdlɨn ). The name was chosen when Thomas Audley
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, KG, PC, KS , Lord Chancellor of England, born in Earls Colne, Essex, the son of Geoffrey Audley, is believed to have studied at Buckingham College, Cambridge...

 re-founded the college in 1542 and dedicated the college to Mary Magdalene. In early documents, the name of the college was spelt "Maudleyn" as it was pronounced, which contained the name "Audley" in the spelling. Although the standard pronunciation of the name "Magdalene" in the English language has changed, the customary pronunciation of the college's name was retained.

With the development of the General Post Office
General Post Office
General Post Office is the name of the British postal system from 1660 until 1969.General Post Office may also refer to:* General Post Office, Perth* General Post Office, Sydney* General Post Office, Melbourne* General Post Office, Brisbane...

 during the 19th century, the spelling of the college's name was fixed as "Magdalene". The final "e" in the name was introduced to avoid confusion with Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. As of 2006 the college had an estimated financial endowment of £153 million. Magdalen is currently top of the Norrington Table after over half of its 2010 finalists received first-class degrees, a record...

.

College grace

Benedic Domine nobis et donis tuis quae de tua largitate sumus sumpturi, et concede ut illis salubriter nutriti tibi debitum obsequium praestare valeamus, per Jesum Christum Dominum et Servatorem Nostrum, Amen.

Bless us Lord and your gifts, which from your bounty we are about to receive, and grant that we, healthfully sustained by them, may render to you our dutiful service, through Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour, Amen.

May Ball

The College's famous May Ball
May Ball
A May Ball is a ball at the end of the academic year that happens at any one of the colleges of the University of Cambridge. They are formal affairs, requiring evening dress, with ticket prices of around £65 to £200 , with some colleges selling tickets only in pairs...

 had been a biennial fixture since 1911. Magdalene May Ball is known as the most lavish and prestigious Ball in Cambridge for several reasons: it is the only remaining Cambridge ball to always insist on white tie
White tie
White tie is the most formal evening dress code in Western fashion. It is worn to ceremonial occasions such as state dinners in some countries, as well as to very formal balls and evening weddings...

 dress code
Dress code (Western)
A dress code is a set of rules governing what garments may be worn together and in what setting. Examples of dress codes are combinations such as "smart casual", or "morning dress". A classification of these codes is normally made for varying levels of formality and times of day...

 and it is the only ball in Cambridge to sell a majority of dining tickets over non-dining.

Master

The "Master of Magdalene College" is the name given to the Head of House. The post has been held by Duncan Robinson
Duncan Robinson
David Duncan Robinson, C.B.E., F.R.S.A., D.L., is the Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. He is also the Chairman of the Henry Moore Foundation and was, until 2007, the Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum....

 since 2002.

Under the College Statutes, the Master is appointed by the Visitor of the College
Visitor
A Visitor, in United Kingdom law and history, is an overseer of an autonomous ecclesiastical or eleemosynary institution , who can intervene in the internal affairs of that institution...

 and usually serves until reaching the statutory fellowship retirement age of 67. Exceptionally, this period may be extended until the Master in question reaches 70. This has occurred in the case of the current Master.

With the position of Master comes College-based residency in the form of the Master's Lodge, which may be populated and decorated according to the wishes of the Master. Traditionally, every Sunday, the Master attends the service in the College Chapel before sitting at the head of the High Table
High Table
At Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges — and other, similarly traditional and prestigious UK academic institutions At Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges — and other, similarly traditional and prestigious UK academic institutions At Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges — and other, similarly...

 in Hall for the evening meal.

Notable current fellows

  • Professor Nicholas Boyle
    Nicholas Boyle
    Nicholas Boyle FBA is the Schröder Professor of German at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge. He has written widely on German literature, intellectual history and religion and is known particularly for his award-winning extensive biography of Goethe...

     (Schroeder Professor of German and biographer of Goethe)
  • Professor Helen Cooper (literary scholar) (Professor of Medieval and Renaissance English, Cambridge University
    Professor of Medieval and Renaissance English, Cambridge University
    The Chair in Medieval and Renaissance English is a professorship in English at Cambridge University. It was created in 1954 for C. S. Lewis, and is unusual among professorships in this field in uniting 'medieval' and 'renaissance' categories and fields of study.-Professors of Medieval and...

    , a Chair formerly held by three previous Magdalene fellows: C.S. Lewis, J.A.W. Bennett and John Stevens)
  • Professor Eamon Duffy
    Eamon Duffy
    Eamon Duffy is an Irish Professor of the History of Christianity at the University of Cambridge, and former President of Magdalene College....

     (Professor of the History of Christianity and well known Roman Catholic commentator)
  • Professor Sir John Gurdon
    John Gurdon
    Sir John Bertrand Gurdon , FRS is a British developmental biologist. He is best known for his pioneering research in nuclear transplantation and cloning. He was recently awarded the Lasker Award.-Career:...

     (former Master, honorary fellow, developmental biologist, begetter of the Gurdon Institute)
  • Professor Emma Rothschild (Jeremy and Jane Knowles Professor of History at Harvard University, director of the Centre for History and Economics)

Notable alumni

  • Simon Ambrose
    Simon Ambrose
    Simon Ambrose was the 2007 winner of the third series of the British version of reality TV show The Apprentice, in which contestants compete for a £100,000-a-year job working for British business magnate Sir Alan Sugar...

     (Winner of The Apprentice (UK series three)
    The Apprentice (UK Series Three)
    Series Three of The Apprentice was a television series which aired in the UK on BBC One. The series began on 28 March 2007 and finished on 13 June 2007, with Simon Ambrose as the winner. Ambrose's prize was to work on a project to develop a hotel and golfing complex near Stansted Airport, whilst...

    )
  • Giles Baring
    Giles Baring
    Amyas Evelyn Giles Baring , known as Giles Baring, was a first-class English cricketer between the years 1930 and 1946.-Background:...

     (cricketer)
  • Rt. Revd. Simon Barrington-Ward
    Simon Barrington-Ward
    Simon Barrington-Ward KCMG is a Church of England bishop.Barrington-Ward is the son of a former editor of The Times, Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward and Margaret Adele Barrington-Ward. He was educated at Eton College and Magdalene College, Cambridge, from which he graduated Bachelor of Arts and...

     (Bishop of Coventry
    Bishop of Coventry
    The Bishop of Coventry is the Ordinary of the England Diocese of Coventry in the Province of Canterbury. In the Middle Ages, the Bishop of Coventry was a title used by the bishops known today as the Bishop of Lichfield....

    , 1985–1997)
  • Henry Bellingham (Member of Parliament
    Member of Parliament
    A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

     for North West Norfolk, junior minister at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
    Foreign and Commonwealth Office
    The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO is a British government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom overseas, created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office.The head of the FCO is the...

    )
  • A. C. Benson
    A. C. Benson
    Arthur Christopher Benson was an English essayist, poet, and author and the 28th Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge....

     (librettist of Land of Hope and Glory
    Land of Hope and Glory
    "Land of Hope and Glory" is a British patriotic song, with music by Edward Elgar and lyrics by A. C. Benson, written in 1902.- Composition :...

    )
  • Patrick Blackett (Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

     winning physicist)
  • Sir John Boardman
    John Boardman (archaeologist)
    Professor Sir John Boardman FBA is a classical art historian and archaeologist, "Britain's most distinguished historian of ancient Greek art." -Biography:...

     (archaeologist, Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology)
  • Charles Vyner Brooke
    Charles Vyner Brooke
    Vyner, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG was the third and final White Rajah of Sarawak.-Early life:...

     (last White Rajah of Sarawak
    Sarawak
    Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

    )
  • Anthony Bull
    Anthony Bull
    Anthony Bull CBE CStJ was a British transport engineer and was president of the Institute of Transport.-Background and education:...

     (transport engineer)
  • David Burghley (Olympic
    1928 Summer Olympics
    The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but had to give way to war-victim Antwerp, Belgium, and Pierre de...

     champion, 400m hurdles)
  • Sir David Calcutt
    David Calcutt
    Sir David Charles Calcutt QC was an eminent barrister and public servant, knighted in 1991. He was the Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge from 1985 until 1994. He was also responsible for the creation of the Press Complaints Commission.-References:...

     (former Master and barrister)
  • Henry Chadwick
    Henry Chadwick (theologian)
    Henry Chadwick KBE was a British academic and Church of England clergyman. A former Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford — and as such also head of Christ Church, Oxford — he also served as Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge, becoming the first person in four centuries to have headed a college at...

     KBE
    Order of the British Empire
    The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

     (former head of Christ Church
    Christ Church, Oxford
    Christ Church or house of Christ, and thus sometimes known as The House), is one of the largest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England...

    , Oxford
    University of Oxford
    The University of Oxford is a university located in Oxford, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking world. Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096...

    )
  • Greg Clark
    Greg Clark
    Rt. Hon. Gregory David Clark is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament for Tunbridge Wells since 2005. Clark is currently a Minister of State in the Department for Communities and Local Government, with responsibility for overseeing decentralisation, a key...

     (Member of Parliament for Tunbridge Wells
    Tunbridge Wells (UK Parliament constituency)
    Tunbridge Wells is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It returns one Member of Parliament , elected under the first-past-the-post voting system.-Boundaries:...

    , Minister of State
    Minister of State
    Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. In some countries a "minister of state" is a junior minister, who is assigned to assist a specific cabinet minister...

     in the Department for Communities and Local Government
    Department for Communities and Local Government
    The Department for Communities and Local Government is the UK Government department for communities and local government in England. It was established in May 2006 and is the successor to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, established in 2001...

    )
  • David Clary
    David Clary
    David Clary, FRS is a British theoretical chemist. He has been President of Magdalen College, Oxford since 2005.-Life:He attended Colchester Royal Grammar School from 1964–71. He has a BSc from the University of Sussex and a PhD and ScD from the University of Cambridge, where he was at Corpus...

     (President, Magdalen College, Oxford
    Magdalen College, Oxford
    Magdalen College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. As of 2006 the college had an estimated financial endowment of £153 million. Magdalen is currently top of the Norrington Table after over half of its 2010 finalists received first-class degrees, a record...

    )
  • Arthur Cohen
    Arthur Cohen
    Arthur Cohen KC was an English barrister and Liberal Party politician.After three years' study at the gymnasium in Frankfort-on-the-Main, he entered as a student at University College London. Thence he proceeded to Cambridge University at a time when it was almost impossible for a Jew to gain...

     (lawyer and Liberal politician; first Jewish graduate of Cambridge University)
  • Peter Cowie
    Peter Cowie
    Peter Cowie is a film historian and author of more than thirty books on film. In 1963 he was the founder/publisher and general editor of the annual International Film Guide, a survey of worldwide film production. Educated at Charterhouse School, and an Exhibitioner in History at Magdalene...

     (film historian)
  • Thomas Cranmer
    Thomas Cranmer
    Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build a favourable case for Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon which resulted in the separation of the English Church from...

     (Archbishop of Canterbury and graduate of Jesus College; Fellow of Magdalene)
  • Stella Creasy
    Stella Creasy
    Dr Stella Judith Creasy is a British Labour Co-operative politician who has been the Member of Parliament for Walthamstow since 2010.-Education:...

     (Member of Parliament for Walthamstow
    Walthamstow (UK Parliament constituency)
    Walthamstow is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.- 1885–1918 :...

    )
  • Katie Derham
    Katie Derham
    Katie Derham is a British newscaster and a presenter on television and radio.-Early life:Derham was born in Stockport to John and Margaret Derham, and grew up in Wilmslow...

     (TV newsreader)
  • Monty Don
    Monty Don
    Montagu Denis Wyatt Don is a British television presenter, writer and speaker on horticulture, best known for presenting the BBC television series Gardeners' World.-Early life:...

     (gardener)
  • William Donaldson
    William Donaldson
    Charles William Donaldson was an English satirist, writer, playboy and, under the pseudonym of Henry Root, author of The Henry Root Letters.-Life and career:...

     (creator of Henry Root)
  • Henry Dunster
    Henry Dunster
    Henry Dunster was an Anglo-American Puritan clergyman and the first president of Harvard College...

     (first President of Harvard University
    Harvard University
    Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

    )
  • Julian Fellowes
    Julian Fellowes
    Julian Alexander Kitchener-Fellowes, Baron Fellowes of West Stafford, DL , known as Julian Fellowes, is an English actor, novelist, film director and screenwriter, as well as a Conservative peer.-Early life:...

     (actor and Academy Award
    Academy Awards
    An Academy Award, also known as an Oscar, is an accolade bestowed by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers...

     winning screenwriter)
  • Bamber Gascoigne
    Bamber Gascoigne
    Bamber Gascoigne, FRSL is a British television presenter and author, most known for being the original quizmaster on University Challenge.-Biography:...

     (TV presenter, University Challenge
    University Challenge
    University Challenge is a British quiz programme that has aired since 1962. The format is based on the American show College Bowl, which ran on NBC radio from 1953 to 1957, and on NBC television from 1959 to 1970....

    )
  • Robin Gibson
    Robin Warwick Gibson
    Robin Warwick Gibson, OBE was a British gallery curator and art historian best known for his work at the National Portrait Gallery in London between 1968 and 2001, including eight years as Chief Curator...

     (former Chief Curator, National Portrait Gallery, art historian & writer)
  • H.R.H. The Duke of Gloucester
    Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
    Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester is a member of the British Royal Family. Prince Richard is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his father's death in 1974. He is currently 20th in the line of succession...

     (member of the British Royal Family
    British Royal Family
    The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with...

    )
  • H.R.H. Prince William of Gloucester
    Prince William of Gloucester
    Prince William of Gloucester was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of George V.-Early life:...

     (member of the British Royal Family
    British Royal Family
    The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with...

    )
  • Dr Maurice Goldhaber
    Maurice Goldhaber
    Maurice Goldhaber was an Austrian-born American physicist, who in 1957 established that neutrinos have negative helicity.-Early Life and Childhood:...

     (American physicist)
  • Sir Christopher Greenwood
    Christopher Greenwood
    Sir Christopher John Greenwood CMG QC is a duly elected member of the International Court of Justice. He is a barrister and professor of international law at the London School of Economics...

     QC
    Queen's Counsel
    Queen's Counsel , known as King's Counsel during the reign of a male sovereign, are lawyers appointed by letters patent to be one of Her [or His] Majesty's Counsel learned in the law...

     (British judge)
  • Antony Grey
    Antony Grey
    Antony Grey was a leading English lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights activist. He lived with his partner, Eric Thompson, for 50 years after first meeting in 1960...

     (pioneer gay rights activist)
  • Sir Norman Hartnell (couturier and dressmaker to the Queen)
  • Abdul Khalek Hassouna
    Abdul Khalek Hassouna
    Mohammed Abdul Khalek Hassouna was an Egyptian diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the Arab League from 1952 to 1972.-Life and career:...

    , Egyptian politician and diplomat, Secretary-General of the Arab League
  • Gavin Hastings
    Gavin Hastings
    Andrew Gavin Hastings, OBE is a former Scotland rugby union player. He is frequently considered one of the best, if not the best, rugby player to come out of Scotland. His nickname is "Big Gav".Hastings was born in Edinburgh...

     OBE (rugby
    Rugby football
    Rugby football is a style of football named after Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union.-History:...

     international)
  • Nick Herbert
    Nick Herbert
    Nicholas Le Quesne "Nick" Herbert is a British Conservative Party politician and the Member of Parliament for Arundel and South Downs...

     (Member of Parliament for Arundel and South Downs
    Arundel and South Downs
    Arundel and South Downs is a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.-Boundaries:...

    , Minister of State for Justice
    Justice Minister
    A justice ministry is a ministry or other government agency charged with justice. The ministry is often headed by a minister for justice or secretary of justice or secretary for justice; sometimes the head of a department of justice is entitled attorney general.Specific duties may relate to...

    )
  • Adam Holloway
    Adam Holloway
    Adam James Harold Holloway is a British Conservative Party politician and the Member of Parliament for Gravesham.-Early life:...

     (Member of Parliament for Gravesham
    Gravesham (UK Parliament constituency)
    Gravesham is a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election...

    )
  • Sir Antony Jay
    Antony Jay
    Sir Antony Rupert Jay, CVO, is an English writer, broadcaster, director, and actor famous for the co-authorship, with Jonathan Lynn, of the successful British political comedies Yes Minister and Yes, Prime Minister...

     (author, Yes Minister
    Yes Minister
    Yes Minister is a satirical British sitcom written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn that was first transmitted by BBC Television between 1980–1982 and 1984, split over three seven-episode series. The sequel, Yes, Prime Minister, ran from 1986 to 1988. In total there were 38 episodes—of which all but...

    )
  • Richard Johnson (chaplain)
    Richard Johnson (chaplain)
    Richard Johnson was the first Christian cleric in Australia.Johnson was the son of John and Mary Johnson. He was born in Welton, Yorkshire and educated at Hull Grammar School under Joseph Milner. In 1780 he entered Magdalene College, Cambridge as a sizar and graduated in 1784...

     (First chaplain to Australia)
  • Igor Judge, Baron Judge (Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales
    Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales
    The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales. Historically, he was the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, but that changed as a result of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005,...

    )
  • Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan
    Akhtar Hameed Khan
    Akhtar Hameed Khan was a Pakistani development activist and social scientist credited for pioneering microcredit and microfinance initiatives, farmers' cooperatives, and rural training programmes in the developing world. He promoted participatory rural development in Pakistan and other developing...

     (Social scientist)
  • Charles Kingsley
    Charles Kingsley
    Charles Kingsley was an English priest of the Church of England, university professor, historian and novelist, particularly associated with the West Country and northeast Hampshire.-Life and character:...

     (author of The Water Babies and Regius Professor of Modern History)
  • Lewis H. Lapham
    Lewis H. Lapham
    Lewis H. Lapham is an American writer. He was the editor of the American monthly Harper's Magazine from 1976 until 1981, and from 1983 until 2006. He also is the founder of the eponymous publication about history and literature entitled Lapham's Quarterly. He has written numerous books on...

     (American writer)
  • Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory
    Trafford Leigh-Mallory
    Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory KCB, DSO & Bar was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force. Leigh-Mallory served as a Royal Flying Corps pilot and squadron commander during World War I...

     (air vice marshal, Battle of Britain)
  • C.S. Lewis (literary critic, author and theologian)
  • Chris Lintott
    Chris Lintott
    Christopher John Lintott is an English astrophysicist currently serving as the Director of Citizen Science at the Adler Planetarium. He is a post-doctoral researcher who is involved in a number of popular science projects aimed at bringing astronomical science to a wider audience...

     (Astrophysicist)
  • Selwyn Lloyd
    Selwyn Lloyd
    John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd CH PC CBE TD , known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British Conservative Party politician who served as Foreign Secretary from 1955 to 1960, then as Chancellor of the Exchequer until 1962...

     (former Foreign Secretary
    Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
    The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior member of Her Majesty's Government heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and regarded as one of the Great Offices of State...

    , Chancellor of the Exchequer
    Chancellor of the Exchequer
    The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all economic and financial matters. Often simply called the Chancellor, the office-holder controls HM Treasury and plays a role akin to the posts of Minister of Finance or Secretary of the...

     and Speaker of the House of Commons
    Speaker of the British House of Commons
    The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's lower chamber of Parliament. The current Speaker is John Bercow, who was elected on 22 June 2009, following the resignation of Michael Martin...

    )
  • John McPhee
    John McPhee
    John Angus McPhee is an American Pulitzer Prize-winning writer, widely considered one of the pioneers of creative nonfiction....

     (Pulitzer Prize
    Pulitzer Prize
    The Pulitzer Prize is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City...

    -winning writer)
  • George Mark Malloch Brown, Baron Malloch-Brown (former United Nations Deputy Secretary-General
    United Nations Deputy Secretary-General
    The Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations is an office created to handle many of the administrative responsibilities, help manage Secretariat operations, and ensure coherence of activities and programmes. The post was formally established by the General Assembly at the end of 1997...

     and Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
    Foreign and Commonwealth Office
    The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO is a British government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom overseas, created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office.The head of the FCO is the...

    )
  • George Mallory
    George Mallory
    George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s....

     (mountaineer)
  • John Manningham
    John Manningham
    John Manningham was an English lawyer and diarist, a contemporary source for Elizabethan and Jacobean life and the London dramatic world, including William Shakespeare.-Life:...

     (sixteenth- and seventeenth-century diarist, lawyer; noted for recording details of an original performance of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night)
  • Kingsley Martin
    Kingsley Martin
    Basil Kingsley Martin was a British journalist who edited the left-leaning political magazine the New Statesman from 1930 to 1960....

     (journalist)
  • Sir Samuel Morland
    Samuel Morland
    Sir Samuel Morland, 1st Baronet , or Moreland, was a notable English academic, diplomat, spy, inventor and mathematician of the 17th century, a polymath credited with early developments in relation to computing, hydraulics and steam power.-Education:The son of Thomas Morland, the rector of...

     (diplomat, spy, inventor, mathematician)
  • Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin
    Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin
    Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, MBE, TD was an Irish journalist, author, sports official, the sixth president of the International Olympic Committee...

     (former President of the International Olympic Committee
    International Olympic Committee
    The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

    )
  • Dr Roger Morris (electrical engineer)
  • Sir Andrew Morritt
    Andrew Morritt
    Sir Robert Andrew Morritt CVO is a British judge, currently the Chancellor of the High Court.He attended Magdalene College, Cambridge....

     (Chancellor of the High Court of Justice
    High Court of Justice
    The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales...

    )
  • Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II (current King
    King
    - Centers of population :* King, Ontario, CanadaIn USA:* King, Indiana* King, North Carolina* King, Lincoln County, Wisconsin* King, Waupaca County, Wisconsin* King County, Washington- Moving-image works :Television:...

     or Kabaka of Buganda
    Kabaka of Buganda
    Kabaka is the title of the king of the Kingdom of Buganda. According to the traditions of the Baganda they are ruled by two kings, one spiritual and the other material....

    )
  • Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II
    Mutesa II of Buganda
    Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Mutesa II KBE , was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda from November 22, 1939 until his death. He was the thirty-fifth Kabaka of Buganda and the first President of Uganda...

     (former King or Kabaka of Buganda and President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     of Uganda
    Uganda
    Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...

    )
  • Mike Newell
    Mike Newell (director)
    Michael Cormac "Mike" Newell is an English director and producer of motion pictures for the screen and for television. After the release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire in 2005, Newell became the third most commercially successful British director in recent years, behind Christopher Nolan...

     (film director
    Film director
    A film director is a person who directs the actors and film crew in filmmaking. They control a film's artistic and dramatic nathan roach, while guiding the technical crew and actors.-Responsibilities:...

     whose works include Four Weddings and a Funeral
    Four Weddings and a Funeral
    Four Weddings and a Funeral is a 1994 British comedy film directed by Mike Newell. It was the first of several films by screenwriter Richard Curtis to feature Hugh Grant...

    and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
    Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film)
    Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire is a 2005 fantasy film directed by Mike Newell and based on the novel of the same name by J. K. Rowling. It is the fourth instalment in the Harry Potter film series, written by Steve Kloves and produced by David Heyman...

    )
  • Adam Nicolson
    Adam Nicolson
    Adam Nicolson, Baron Carnock, FRSL, FSA , is a British author who writes about English history, landscape and the sea....

     (historian and author, son of Nigel Nicolson
    Nigel Nicolson
    Nigel Nicolson OBE was a British writer, publisher and politician.-Biography:Nicolson was the son of the writers Sir Harold Nicolson and Vita Sackville-West; he had a brother Ben, later an art historian...

    , and grandson of Vita Sackville-West
    Vita Sackville-West
    The Hon Victoria Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson, CH , best known as Vita Sackville-West, was an English author, poet and gardener. She won the Hawthornden Prize in 1927 and 1933...

     and Harold Nicolson
    Harold Nicolson
    Sir Harold George Nicolson KCVO CMG was an English diplomat, author, diarist and politician. He was the husband of writer Vita Sackville-West, their unusual relationship being described in their son's book, Portrait of a Marriage.-Early life:Nicolson was born in Tehran, Persia, the younger son of...

    )
  • Charles Stewart Parnell
    Charles Stewart Parnell
    Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish landowner, nationalist political leader, land reform agitator, and the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party...

     (Irish nationalist, did not graduate)
  • Samuel Pepys
    Samuel Pepys
    Samuel Pepys FRS, MP, JP, was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament who is now most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man...

     (naval administrator, MP and diarist)
  • Francis Pym
    Francis Pym
    -Bibliography:****- External links :...

     (former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
    Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
    The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior member of Her Majesty's Government heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and regarded as one of the Great Offices of State...

    )
  • Michael Ramsey
    Michael Ramsey
    Arthur Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury PC was the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury. He was appointed on 31 May 1961 and was in office from June 1961 to 1974.-Career:...

     (Archbishop of Canterbury)
  • Julian Rathbone
    Julian Rathbone
    Julian Christopher Rathbone was an English novelist.- Life :Julian Rathbone attended Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he was a contemporary of Bamber Gascoigne and Sylvia Plath. At Cambridge he took tutorials with FR Leavis, for whom, without having ever been what might be described as a...

     (English novelist)
  • Sir Michael Redgrave
    Michael Redgrave
    Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave, CBE was an English stage and film actor, director, manager and author.-Youth and education:...

     (actor)
  • Alan Rusbridger
    Alan Rusbridger
    Alan Charles Rusbridger is the editor of the British newspaper The Guardian. He has also been a reporter and a columnist.-Early life:...

     (editor, The Guardian
    The Guardian
    The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

    )
  • Sir Frederic Salusbury (Editor of the Daily Herald)
  • Nicholas Shakespeare
    Nicholas Shakespeare
    Nicholas William Richmond Shakespeare is a British journalist and writer. Born to a diplomat, Shakespeare grew up in the Far East and in South America. He was educated at the Dragon School preparatory school then Winchester College and Cambridge and worked as a journalist for BBC television and...

     (novelist)
  • John Simpson (journalist)
  • Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder
    Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder
    Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, GCB was a senior British air force commander. During the First World War, he was a pilot and squadron commander in the Royal Flying Corps and he went on to serve as a senior officer in the Royal Air Force during the inter-war...

     (Marshal of the Royal Air Force, World War II)
  • John Tedder, 2nd Baron Tedder
    John Tedder, 2nd Baron Tedder
    John Michael Tedder, 2nd Baron Tedder, FRSE , was the Purdie Professor of Chemistry at St. Andrews University, Scotland.-Early life and education:...

     (Professor of Chemistry, expert in free radical chemistry)
  • Ven. Nanavira Thera
    Nanavira Thera
    Ñāṇavīra Thera born Harold Edward Musson was an English Theravāda Buddhist monk, ordained in 1950 in Sri Lanka...

     (Buddhist monk)
  • Philip Vellacott (Classical scholar)
  • Roger Vignoles
    Roger Vignoles
    Roger Vignoles is a British pianist and accompanist. He regularly performs with the world’s leading singers – including Kiri Te Kanawa, Thomas Allen, Anne Sofie von Otter, Thomas Hampson, Gitta-Maria Sjøberg, Sarah Walker, Susan Graham, Felicity Lott, Stephan Genz, Monica Groop, Wolfgang Holzmair,...

     (concert pianist and accompanist)
  • Rob Wainwright
    Rob Wainwright
    Robert Iain Wainwright is a former rugby union footballer who was capped 37 times for Scotland and once for the British Lions. He played flanker. He was educated at Glenalmond College and Magdalene College, Cambridge where he represented Cambridge University R.U.F.C..He received his first cap in...

     (rugby
    Rugby football
    Rugby football is a style of football named after Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union.-History:...

     international)
  • Wong Yan-lung (Secretary for Justice of Hong Kong)
  • Geoffrey Webb
    Geoffrey Webb
    Geoffrey Fairbank Webb was a British art historian, Slade Professor of Fine Art and head of the Monuments and Fine Arts section of the Control Commission during World War II....

     (art historian)
  • Geoffrey Whitney
    Geoffrey Whitney
    Geoffrey Whitney was an English poet, now best known for the influence on Elizabethan writing of the Choice of Emblemes that he compiled.-Life:...

     (sixteenth-century poet and emblematist)

Notable Honorary Fellows

  • Benjamin Britten
    Benjamin Britten
    Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH was an English composer, conductor, and pianist. He showed talent from an early age, and first came to public attention with the a cappella choral work A Boy Was Born in 1934. With the premiere of his opera Peter Grimes in 1945, he leapt to...

  • T. S. Eliot
    T. S. Eliot
    Thomas Stearns "T. S." Eliot OM was a playwright, literary critic, and arguably the most important English-language poet of the 20th century. Although he was born an American he moved to the United Kingdom in 1914 and was naturalised as a British subject in 1927 at age 39.The poem that made his...

  • Thomas Hardy
    Thomas Hardy
    Thomas Hardy, OM was an English novelist and poet. While his works typically belong to the Naturalism movement, several poems display elements of the previous Romantic and Enlightenment periods of literature, such as his fascination with the supernatural.While he regarded himself primarily as a...

  • Seamus Heaney
    Seamus Heaney
    Seamus Heaney is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer. He lives in Dublin. Heaney has received the Nobel Prize in Literature , the Golden Wreath of Poetry , T. S. Eliot Prize and two Whitbread prizes...

  • Rudyard Kipling
    Rudyard Kipling
    Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature...

  • Nelson Mandela
    Nelson Mandela
    Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing...


External links

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