The Italian word luogotenente (English: lieutnant), plural luogotenenti, is an etymological parallel to lieutenant
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

, deriving from the Latin locum tenens "holding a place", i.e. someone who fills a position instead of another, as a substitute, deputy, et cetera.

It has a few specific historical uses:

Military post

The knightly officer who is in daily command of the Grand Master's own regimental company, to which the famigliari (closest personal staff) belonged.

Civilian administrator

It was also the governor (elsewhere other titles, such as provveditore
The Italian title provveditore or proveditore , "he who sees to things", was the style of various local district governors in the extensive, mainly maritime empire of the Venetian dogal republic...

, were used) for the Venetian Republic on the island of Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

, which it bought from its last crusader king from the house of Lusignan
The Lusignan family originated in Poitou near Lusignan in western France in the early 10th century. By the end of the 11th century, they had risen to become the most prominent petty lords in the region from their castle at Lusignan...

, usually for a two-year term, until the Turks overran it in 1570.
Besides him the military command was entrusted to a capitano ('captain', de facto military governor), from 1480 to 1571 (when Famagusta
Famagusta is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and is capital of the Famagusta District. It is located east of Nicosia, and possesses the deepest harbour of the island.-Name:...

, the last fortress, fell).
Thereafter the island became a Sandjak (military province) of the Ottoman Empire (Kibris in Turkish), part of the Elayet (district) of Djeza'ir-i bahr-i (ruled from Rhodes
Rhodes is an island in Greece, located in the eastern Aegean Sea. It is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, with a population of 117,007, and also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within...

 island), governed by an Ottoman Muhassil (Lieutenant-governor; already appointed on paper, for the conquest, since 1690), since 1745 by a (higher rank, equally military) vali
Walī , is an Arabic word meaning "custodian", "protector", "sponsor", or authority as denoted by its definition "crown". "Wali" is someone who has "Walayah" over somebody else. For example, in Fiqh the father is wali of his children. In Islam, the phrase ولي الله walīyu 'llāh...


Compound and derived titles

In the Neapolitan Two Sicilies Kingdom there was a Luogotenente generale dei reali domini al di là del Faro meaning Lieutenant-general of the royal domains beyond the Lighthouse, i.e. the Governor appointed by the King for Sicily (Statute of 11 December 1816).
  • 1824 - 1840? Luigi Carlo Maria Giuseppe di Borbone, conte di Aquila
    L'Aquila is a city and comune in central Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila. , it has a population of 73,150 inhabitants, but has a daily presence in the territory of 100,000 people for study, tertiary activities, jobs and tourism...

  • 1840 - 1848 Lt.-Gen. Luigi Nicola De Majo, duca di San Pietro
    San Pietro
    San Pietro is Italian for Saint Peter – see also Saint Peter .It may also refer to:- Churches :* Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano* Antica basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano* San Pietro di Castello in Venice...

  • 1848 - 1854 General Carlo Filangieri
    Carlo Filangieri
    Carlo Filangieri , prince of Satriano, was a Neapolitan soldier and statesman. He was the son of Gaetano Filangieri, a celebrated philosopher and jurist.-Biography:...

    , principe di Satriano
    Satriano is a town and comune in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of southern Italy.-Geography:The town is bordered by Cardinale, Davoli, Gagliato, Petrizzi, San Sostene and Soverato....

    , duca di Taormina
    Taormina is a comune and small town on the east coast of the island of Sicily, Italy, in the Province of Messina, about midway between Messina and Catania. Taormina has been a very popular tourist destination since the 19th century...

  • 1854 - 1860 Paolo Ruffo, principe di Castelcicala

Kingdom of Sardinia and Kingdom of Italy

In the Savoy dynasty's Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia and later united Kingdom of Italy, when the King was away from his office for some reason (e.g. to follow the war on the battlefield) he could appoint a Luogotenente Generale del Regno (Lieutenant-general of the realm) (chosen from members of royal family) to carry out some of the King's duties as a Viceroy.

It happened on 1848, when the king Carlo Alberto
Charles Albert of Sardinia
Charles Albert was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. He succeeded his distant cousin Charles Felix, and his name is bound with the first Italian statute and the First War of Independence...

 reached the battlefield in Lombardia, Eugenio Savoia-Carignano was 'Luogotenente Generale del Regno' and was up to him to announce next year that the defeated king abdicated and succession passed to the son Vittorio Emanuele II
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emanuel II was king of Sardinia from 1849 and, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878...

. Eugenio Savoia-Carignano covered again the same role in 1859 and in 1866 when Vittorio Emanuele II
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emanuel II was king of Sardinia from 1849 and, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878...

 was involved in the second and third War of Independence. Finally in 1860/1861 he was appointed Luogotenential duties but limited to Toscana and to southern Italy, when those regions passed under Kingdom of Sardinia.

Again on 25 May 1915 during World War I when King Vittorio Emanuele III
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III was a member of the House of Savoy and King of Italy . In addition, he claimed the crowns of Ethiopia and Albania and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia and King of Albania , which were unrecognised by the Great Powers...

, leaving Rome in order to reach the War Head Quarters in North Italy and to assume Supreme War Command, he appointed his uncle, Tomaso di Savoia Duca di Genova, 'Luogotenente Generale del Regno' with delegate powers for ordinary and urgent administration (excluding grave importance affairs) until 1919.

At the end of World War II, the same King appointed his son, Umberto
Umberto II of Italy
Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II was the last King of Italy for slightly over a month, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946. He was nicknamed the King of May -Biography:...

, as 'Luogotenente Generale del Regno' under Allied and Italian pressure in an attempt to save the monarchy, which had been compromised by its earlier association with the fascist regime.
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