John IV of Naples
John IV was the mostly absentee duke of Naples from 997 to after 1002. He was the son and successor of Sergius III
Sergius III of Naples
Sergius III was a duke of Naples. He was preceded by his father Marinus II and succeeded by John IV....

. John IV originally recognised the suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperor.

In 999, he was captured and taken a prisoner first to Capua
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. Ancient Capua was situated where Santa Maria Capua Vetere is now...

, then back to Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 by Otto III, the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

, who had just visited Saint Nilus the Younger
Saint Nilus the Younger
Saint Nilus the Younger was an Italian saint.-Biography:Born to a Greek family of Rossano, in the Byzantine Theme of Calabria, for a time he was married and had a daughter...

 in Gaeta
Gaeta is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy. Set on a promontory stretching towards the Gulf of Gaeta, it is 120 km from Rome and 80 km from Naples....

. During his absence, Naples seems to have continued in allegiance to the Greeks, though it was technically governed by Adhemar of Spoleto. In 1002, John reappears in his duchy, probably released by Otto's successor, Henry II
Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry II , also referred to as Saint Henry, Obl.S.B., was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Ottonian dynasty, from his coronation in Rome in 1014 until his death a decade later. He was crowned King of the Germans in 1002 and King of Italy in 1004...


John had one son, Sergius
Sergius IV of Naples
Sergius IV was Duke of Naples from 1002 to 1036. He was one of the prime catalysts in the growth of Norman power in the Mezzogiorno in the first half of the eleventh century...

, who succeeded him, and two daughters. The elder was Sichelgaita (whose name may imply that John had a Lombard
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...

 wife), who married John IV of Gaeta
John IV of Gaeta
John IV was the eldest son of John III of Gaeta who was appointed co-duke in 991 while still young . John succeeded his father in 1008 or 1009 and ruled for a brief four years....

 and thus cemented alliance between her brother and Duke John V of Gaeta
John V of Gaeta
John V was the consul and duke of Gaeta from 1012 to 1032. He was the son of John IV and Sichelgaita, sister of Sergius IV of Naples. He was either very young when he succeeded his father or perhaps he was even born posthumously.His regency was disputed by Leo, his father's brother, and the...

. A second daughter is recorded unnamed by Amatus of Montecassino
Amatus of Montecassino
Amatus of Montecassino , a Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Montecassino is one of three Italo-Norman chroniclers, the others being William of Apulia and Goffredo Malaterra...

 as having been widowed by the count of Gaeta and remarrying soon after to Ranulf Drengot, the Norman
The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish and Gallo-Roman stock...

 count of Aversa. This latter account is confusing, but not impossible.


  • Chalandon, Ferdinand. Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicilie. Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    , 1907.
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