International Labour Organization
Overview
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 that deals with labour issues pertaining to international labour standards. Its headquarters are in Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

. Its secretariat — the people who are employed by it throughout the world — is known as the International Labour Office. The organization received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.-Background:According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who...

 in 1969.

Members include states that were members on 1 November 1945, when the organization's new constitution came into effect after World War II.
Encyclopedia
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 that deals with labour issues pertaining to international labour standards. Its headquarters are in Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

. Its secretariat — the people who are employed by it throughout the world — is known as the International Labour Office. The organization received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.-Background:According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who...

 in 1969.

Membership and organization

Members include states that were members on 1 November 1945, when the organization's new constitution came into effect after World War II. In addition, any original member of the United Nations and any state admitted to the U.N. thereafter may join. Other states can be admitted by a two-thirds vote of all delegates, including a two-thirds vote of government delegates, at any ILO General Conference.

Unlike other United Nations specialized agencies, the International Labour Organization has a tripartite governing structure — representing governments, employers and workers.

Governing Body

The Governing Body decides the agenda of the International Labour Conference, adopts the draft programme and budget of the organization for submission to the conference, elects the director-general, requests information from member states concerning labour matters, appoints commissions of inquiry and supervises the work of the International Labour Office.

This guiding body is composed of 28 government representatives, 14 workers' representatives, and 14 employers' representatives.
Ten of the government seats are held by member states that are nations of "chief industrial importance," as first considered by an "impartial committee." The terms of office are three years.

International Labour Conference

The ILO organizes the International Labour Conference in Geneva every year in June, where conventions and recommendations are crafted and adopted. The conference also makes decisions on the ILO's general policy, work programme and budget.

Each member state is represented at the conference by four people: two government delegates, an employer delegate and a worker delegate. All of them have individual voting rights, and all votes are equal, regardless of the population of the delegate's member state. The employer and worker delegates are normally chosen in agreement with the "most representative" national organizations of employers and workers. Usually, the workers' delegates coordinate their voting, as do the employers' delegates.

Conventions

For a list, see :Category:International Labour Organization conventions

Through July 2011, the ILO has adopted 189 conventions
.

Adoption

Adoption of a convention by the International Labour Conference allows governments to ratify it, and the convention then becomes a treaty in international law when a specified number of governments have done so. But all adopted ILO conventions are considered international labour standards regardless of how many governments have ratified them.

Ratification

The coming into force of a convention results in a legal obligation to apply its provisions by the nations that have ratified it. Ratification of a convention is voluntary. Conventions that have not been ratified by member states have the same legal force as do recommendations. Governments are required to submit reports detailing their compliance with the obligations of the conventions they have ratified. Every year the International Labour Conference's Committee on the Application of Standards examines a number of alleged breaches of international labour standards.

1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

In 1998, the 86th International Labour Conference adopted the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. This declaration identified four "principles" as "core" or "fundamental", asserting that all ILO member States on the basis of existing obligations as members in the Organization have an obligation to work towards fully respecting the principles embodied in the relevant (ratifiable) ILO Conventions. The fundamental rights concern freedom of association and collective bargaining, discrimination, forced labour, and child labour. The ILO Conventions which embody the fundamental principles have now been ratified by most member states.

Recommendations

Recommendations do not have the binding force of conventions and are not subject to ratification. Recommendations may be adopted at the same time as conventions to supplement the latter with additional or more detailed provisions. In other cases recommendations may be adopted separately and may address issues not covered by, or be unrelated to, any particular convention.

History

Establishment

The ILO was established as an agency of the League of Nations
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace...

 following the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

, which ended World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

.

VanDaele, (2005) argues that in 1919 a pioneering generation of scholars, social policy experts, and politicians designed an unprecedented international organizational framework for labour politics. The founding fathers of the ILO had made great strides in social thought and action before 1919. The core members all knew one another from earlier private professional and ideological networks, in which they exchanged knowledge, experiences, and ideas on social policy. Prewar 'epistemic communities,' such as the International Association for Labour Legislation (IALL), founded in 1900, and political networks, such as the Socialist Second International
Second International
The Second International , the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. At the Paris meeting delegations from 20 countries participated...

, were a decisive factor in the institutionalization of international labour politics. In the post–World War I euphoria, the idea of a 'makeable society' was an important catalyst behind the social engineering of the ILO architects. As a new discipline, international labour law became a useful instrument for putting social reforms into practice. The utopian ideals of the founding fathers – social justice and the right to decent work – were changed by diplomatic and political compromises made at the Paris Peace Conference
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities...

 of 1919, showing the ILO's balance between idealism and pragmatism.

Trade unions

Over the course of World War I, the international labour movement proposed a comprehensive programme of protection for the working classes, conceived as compensation for labour's support of the war. This programme was supposed to become an international agreement after the war. In 1919, politicians took it up in order to give social stability to the postwar order. However, the way in which the programme was instituted disappointed the high expectations of trade unions. Politicians offered labour an institution that could attempt to achieve trade-union demands. Despite open disappointment and sharp critique, the revived International Federation of Trade Unions
International Federation of Trade Unions
The International Federation of Trade Unions was an international organization of trade unions, existing between 1919 and 1945. IFTU had its roots in the pre-war IFTU....

 (IFTU), founded in 1913, quickly adapted itself to this mechanism. The IFTU increasingly oriented its international activities around the lobby work of the ILO.

Post-war reconstruction and the protection of labour unions occupied the attention of many nations during and immediately after World War I. In Great Britain, the Whitley Commission, a subcommittee of the Reconstruction Commission, recommended in its July 1918 Final Report that "industrial councils" be established throughout the world. The British Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 had issued its own reconstruction programme in the document titled Labour and the New Social Order. In February 1918, the third Inter-Allied Labour and Socialist Conference (representing delegates from Great Britain, France, Belgium and Italy) issued its report, advocating an international labour rights body, an end to secret diplomacy, and other goals. And in December 1918, the American Federation of Labor
American Federation of Labor
The American Federation of Labor was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers was elected president of the Federation at its...

 (AFL) issued its own distinctively apolitical report, which called for the achievement of numerous incremental improvements via the collective bargaining
Collective bargaining
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and the representatives of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions...

 process.

As the war drew to a close, two competing visions for the post-war world emerged. The first was offered by the International Federation of Trade Unions
International Federation of Trade Unions
The International Federation of Trade Unions was an international organization of trade unions, existing between 1919 and 1945. IFTU had its roots in the pre-war IFTU....

 (IFTU), which called for a meeting in Bern in July 1919. The Bern meeting would consider both the future of the IFTU and the various proposals which had been made in the previous few years. The IFTU also proposed including delegates from the Central Powers
Central Powers
The Central Powers were one of the two warring factions in World War I , composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria...

 as equals. Samuel Gompers
Samuel Gompers
Samuel Gompers was an English-born American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor , and served as that organization's president from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924...

, president of the AFL, boycotted the meeting, wanting the Central Powers delegates in a subservient role as an admission of guilt for their countries' role in the bringing about war. Instead, Gompers favoured a meeting in Paris which would only consider President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

's Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
The Fourteen Points was a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe...

 as a platform. Despite the American boycott, the Bern meeting went ahead as scheduled. In its final report, the Bern Conference demanded an end to wage labour and the establishment of socialism
Socialism
Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

. If these ends could not be immediately achieved, then an international body attached to the League of Nations should enact and enforce legislation to protect workers and trade unions.

Meanwhile, the Paris Peace Conference
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities...

 sought to dampen public support for communism
Communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

. Subsequently, the Allied Powers
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

 agreed that clauses should be inserted into the emerging peace treaty protecting labour unions and workers' rights, and that an international labour body be established to help guide international labour relations in the future. The advisory Commission on International Labour Legislation was established by the Peace Conference to draft these proposals. The Commission met for the first time on 1 February 1919, and Gompers was elected chairman.

Two competing proposals for an international body emerged during the Commission's meetings. The British proposed establishing an international parliament to enact labour laws which each member of the League would be required to implement. Each nation would have two delegates to the parliament, one each from labour and management. An international labour office would collect statistics on labour issues and enforce the new international laws. Philosophically opposed to the concept of an international parliament and convinced that international standards would lower the few protections achieved in the United States, Gompers proposed that the international labour body be authorized only to make recommendations, and that enforcement be left up to the League of Nations. Despite vigorous opposition from the British, the American proposal was adopted.

Gompers also set the agenda for the draft charter protecting workers' rights. The Americans made 10 proposals. Three were adopted without change: That labour should not be treated as a commodity; that all workers had the right to a wage sufficient to live on; and that women should receive equal pay for equal work. A proposal protecting the freedom of speech, press, assembly, and association was amended to include only freedom of association. A proposed ban on the international shipment of goods made by children under the age of 16 was amended to ban goods made by children under the age of 14. A proposal to require an eight-hour work day was amended to require the eight-hour work day or the 40-hour work week (an exception was made for countries where productivity was low). Four other American proposals were rejected. Meanwhile, international delegates proposed three additional clauses, which were adopted: One or more days for weekly rest; equality of laws for foreign workers; and regular and frequent inspection of factory conditions.

The Commission issued its final report on 4 March 1919, and the Peace Conference adopted it without amendment on 11 April. The report became Part XIII of the Treaty of Versailles.

The first annual conference (referred to as the International Labour Conference, or ILC) began on 29 October 1919 at the Pan American Union (building) in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 and adopted the first six International Labour Conventions, which dealt with hours of work in industry, unemployment, maternity protection, night work for women, minimum age and night work for young persons in industry.
The prominent French socialist Albert Thomas
Albert Thomas (minister)
Albert Thomas was a prominent French Socialist and the first Minister of Armament for the French Third Republic during World War I. Following the Treaty of Versailles, he was nominated as the first Director General of the International Labour Office, a position he held until his death in 1932.-...

 became its first Director General.
The ILO became the first specialized agency of the United Nations system after the demise of the League in 1946. Its constitution, as amended, includes the Declaration of Philadelphia
Declaration of Philadelphia
The Declaration of Philadelphia restated the traditional objectives of the International Labour Organisation and then branched out in two new directions: the centrality of human rights to social policy, and the need for international economic planning...

 (1944) on the aims and purposes of the organization. , the current director-general is Juan Somavia
Juan Somavía
Juan Somavía is the current Director-General of the International Labour Organization .He was elected to serve as the ninth Director-General of the ILO by the Governing Body on 23 March 1998.-Term as Director-General:...

 (since 1999).

US membership

At the time of establishment, the US government was not a member of ILO, as the US Senate rejected the Covenant of the League of Nations, and the US could not join any of its agencies. Following the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the US presidency, the new administration made renewed efforts to join the ILO even without League membership. On 19 June 1934, the US Congress passed a joint resolution authorizing the President to join ILO without joining the League of Nations as a whole. On 22 June 1934, the ILO adopted a resolution inviting the US government to join the organization. On 20 August 1934, the US government responded positively and took its seat at the ILO.

Training and teaching units

The International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITCILO) is based in Turin
Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. Together with the University of Turin, Faculty of Law
University of Turin, Faculty of Law
The University of Turin, Faculty of Law is the law school of the University of Turin . The faculty of law is elsewhere called the Law Department of the University of Turin...

, the ITC offers training for ILO officers and secretariat members, as well as offering educational programmes. For instance, the ITCILO offers a Master of Laws (LL.M.) programme in Management of Development, which aims specialize professionals in the field of cooperation and development.

Child labour

The term "child labour" is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.

It refers to work that:
  • is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and
  • interferes with their schooling by:
  • depriving them of the opportunity to attend school;
  • obliging them to leave school prematurely; or
  • requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.


In its most extreme forms, child labour involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities – often at a very early age. Whether or not particular forms of "work" can be called "child labour" depends on the child's age, the type and hours of work performed, the conditions under which it is performed and the objectives pursued by individual countries. The answer varies from country to country, as well as among sectors within countries.

Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination. Children’s or adolescents’ participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, is generally regarded as being something positive. This includes activities such as helping their parents around the home, assisting in a family business or earning pocket money outside school hours and during school holidays. These kinds of activities contribute to children’s development and to the welfare of their families; they provide them with skills and experience, and help to prepare them to be productive members of society during their adult life.

ILO’s response to child labour

The ILO
Ilo
Ilo is a port city in southern Peru, with some 58,000 inhabitants. It is the largest city in the Moquegua Region and capital of the province of Ilo.-History:...

’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour
The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour is a programme that the International Labour Organization has run since 1992...

 (IPEC) was created in 1992 with the overall goal of the progressive elimination of child labour, which was to be achieved through strengthening the capacity of countries to deal with the problem and promoting a worldwide movement to combat child labour. IPEC currently has operations in 88 countries, with an annual expenditure on technical cooperation projects that reached over US$74 million, €50 million in 2006. It is the largest programme of its kind globally and the biggest single operational programme of the ILO.

The number and range of IPEC’s partners have expanded over the years and now include employers’ and workers’ organizations, other international and government agencies, private businesses, community-based organizations, NGOs, the media, parliamentarians, the judiciary, universities, religious groups and, of course, children and their families.

IPEC's work to eliminate child labour is an important facet of the ILO's Decent Work Agenda. Child labour not only prevents children from acquiring the skills and education they need for a better future, it also perpetuates poverty and affects national economies through losses in competitiveness, productivity and potential income. Withdrawing children from child labour, providing them with education and assisting their families with training and employment opportunities contribute directly to creating decent work for adults.

INDUS Child Labour Project

The INDUS (India-US) Child Labour Project is a US$40 million, €25 million initiative between the ILO-IPEC, Government of India, and the US Department of Labour. Started in 2004, the project covered an estimated 80,000 children across 21 districts in 5 major states. The project came to a conclusion in March 2009.

The INDUS Project target districts include
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Delhi


INDUS aims to eliminate child labour in these 5 states among 10 hazardous sectors.
  • Hand-rolled beedi cigarettes
  • Brassware
  • Leather, rubber, and plastic footwear
  • Hand-blown glass bangles
  • Hand-made locks
  • Hand-broken quarried stones
  • Hand-spun/hand-loomed silk thread, yarn and fabric
  • Fireworks
  • Hand-dipped matches
  • Handmade bricks


INDUS Project Strategies
  • Strengthening public education

To ensure that children withdrawn from the hazardous sectors do not relapse, Transitional Education Centres (TEC) were established to ease the mainstreaming of children back into schools within 24 months. Education up to Class VI and VII were provided by the TECs. Primary health care including health check-ups, school meals and stationaries were all funded by the project. Each child was paid a stipend of Rs. 100 per month, as long as they attained a minimum attendance rate of 80%.
  • Providing vocational training

Vocational centres were established to help equip children with necessary life skills which make decent incomes in the future viable. In addition to focusing on knowledge, skills and computer literacy, the centres also carried out life enrichment education, which includes basic workers’ rights and the dangers of HIV/AIDS. Travelling allowances of up to a maximum of Rs.300 per month and tools kits were sponsored.
  • Providing income-generating opportunities to the families of child labour

In an effort to compensate families’ loss in income due to their children enrolling into the education system, training agencies that specialize in micro-enterprise development and skill training were established. These agencies assisted families in selecting an appropriate micro-enterprise or to improve an existing skill.

Results of INDUS Project
  • The proportion of children aged 10–14 who are economically active fell from 8.7% in 2001 to 6.6% in 2006, as shown in Table 1.
    Distribution of children 2001 Population Census 2006 Population Projection and estimates % of children to population in 2001 % of children to population in 2006
    Population
    Male 132367710 125485000
    Female 120795938 116274000
    Total 253163648 241759000
    Child Labour (10-14)
    Male 6804336 4276744 8.8 6.7
    Female 5862041 3894131 8.5 6.3
    Total 12666377 8082954 8.7 6.6

Table 1: Magnitude of child labour in India
  • Primary school net enrolment rate between years 2005-2009 was 83%, a more than threefold increase from the 1950s level of 26%.


Criticisms of Project
  • Delays in the Transitional Education Centres (TEC) resulted in mainstreamed children being released to public schools at a sluggish rate. Having completed the education provided by TEC, children were not transferred to public schools promptly.
  • Progress in the income generation segment has been relatively slow. Financial benefits only reached pockets of a few targeted mothers in Tamil Nadu by mid 2007.

Forced labour

The ILO has considered the fight against forced labour to be one of its main priorities. During the interwar years, the issue was mainly considered a colonial phenomenon, and the ILO's concern was to establish minimum standards protecting the inhabitants of colonies from the worst abuses committed by economic interests. After 1945, the goal became to set a uniform and universal standard, determined by the higher awareness gained during World War II of politically and economically motivated systems of forced labour, but debates were hampered by the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 and by exemptions claimed by colonial powers. Since the 1960s, declarations of labour standards as a component of human rights have been weakened by government of postcolonial countries claiming a need to exercise extraordinary powers over labour in their role as emergency regimes promoting rapid economic development.

In June 1998 the International Labour Conference adopted a Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up that obligates member States to respect, promote and realize freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour, the effective abolition of child labour, and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

With the adoption of the Declaration, the International Labour Organization (ILO) created the InFocus Programme on Promoting the Declaration which is responsible for the reporting processes and technical cooperation activities associated with the Declaration; and it carries out awareness raising, advocacy and knowledge functions.

In November 2001, following the publication of the In Focus Programme's first Global Report on forced labour, the ILO Governing Body created a Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL), as part of broader efforts to promote the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up.

Since its inception, SAP-FL has focused on raising global awareness of forced labour in its different forms, and mobilising action against its manifestation. Several thematic and country-specific studies and surveys have since been undertaken, on such diverse aspects of forced labour as bonded labour, human trafficking
Human trafficking
Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or a modern-day form of slavery...

, forced domestic work, rural servitude, and forced prison labour.

The Special Action Programme to combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL) has spearheaded the ILO’s work in this field since early 2002. The programme is designed to:

• Raise global awareness and understanding of modern forced labour

• Assist governments in developing and implementing new laws, policies and action plans

• Develop and disseminate guidance and training materials on key aspects of forced labour and trafficking

• Implement innovative programmes that combine policy development, capacity building of law enforcement and labour market institutions, and targeted, field-based projects of direct support for both prevention of forced labour and identification and rehabilitation of its victims.

Minimum wage law

To protect the right of labours for fixing minimum wage
Minimum wage
A minimum wage is the lowest hourly, daily or monthly remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers. Equivalently, it is the lowest wage at which workers may sell their labour. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in a great many jurisdictions, there are differences of opinion about...

, ILO has created Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928
Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928
Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 is an International Labour Organization Convention.It was established in 1928:Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to minimum wage-fixing machinery,......

, Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951
Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951
Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery Convention, 1951 is an International Labour Organization Convention.It was established in 1951, with the preamble stating:...

 and Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970
Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970
Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970 is an International Labour Organization Convention.It was established in 1970, with the preamble stating:...

 as minimum wage law
Minimum wage law
Minimum wage law is the body of law which prohibits employers from hiring employees or workers for less than a given hourly, daily or monthly minimum wage. More than 90% of all countries have some kind of minimum wage legislation....

.

HIV/AIDS

Under the name ILOAIDS, the ILO created the Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work as a document providing principles for "policy development and practical guidelines for programmes at enterprise, community, and national levels." Including:
  • prevention of HIV
  • management and mitigation of the impact of AIDS on the world of work
  • care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS
  • elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status.

Indigenous peoples

ILO-Convention 169
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 is an International Labour Organization Convention, also known as ILO-convention 169, or C169. It is the major binding international convention concerning indigenous peoples, and a forerunner of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.It...

 concerns indigenous
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

 and tribal peoples in independent countries. It was adopted on 27 June 1989 by the General Conference of the ILO at its 76th session. Its entry into force was 5 September 1991.

Migrant workers

For the rights of migrant worker
Migrant worker
The term migrant worker has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world. The United Nations' definition is broad, including any people working outside of their home country...

s, ILO has adopted conventions, including Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975
Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975
Migrant Workers Convention, 1975, or Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers is an International Labour Organization Convention for the rights of migrant workers...

 and United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families in 1990.

Domestic workers

For the rights and decent work
Decent work
Decent work is the availability of employment in conditions of freedom, equity, human security and dignity.According to the International Labour Organization ILO, Decent Work involves opportunities for work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social...

 of domestic worker
Domestic worker
A domestic worker is a man, woman or child who works within the employer's household. Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to cleaning and household maintenance, known as housekeeping...

s including migrant domestic workers
Migrant domestic workers
Migrant Domestic Workers who work for wealthy families in the UK are currently allowed to change employers without breaking the law so long as they continue working full time as a domestic worker in a private household....

, ILO has adopted Convention on domestic workers
Convention on domestic workers
The Convention on Domestic Workers, formally the Convention concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers is a convention setting labour standards for domestic workers...

 on 16 June 2011.

Labour statistics

The ILO is a major provider of labour statistics. Labour statistics are an important tool for its member states to monitor their progress toward improving labour standards. As part of their statistical work, ILO maintains several databases, such as Laborsta. This database covers 11 major data series for over 200 countries. In addition, ILO publishes a number of compilations of labour statistics, such as the Key Indicators of Labour Markets (KILM). KILM covers 20 main indicators on labour participation rates, employment, unemployment, educational attainment, labour cost, and economic performance. Many of these indicators have been prepared by other organizations. For example, the Division of International Labour Comparisons
Division of international labor comparisons
The International Labor Comparisons Program of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusts economic statistics to a common conceptual framework in order to make data comparable across countries...

 of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Labor Statistics
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is a unit of the United States Department of Labor. It is the principal fact-finding agency for the U.S. government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics. The BLS is a governmental statistical agency that collects, processes, analyzes, and...

 prepares the hourly compensation in manufacturing indicator.

Connections within the UN

As with other UN specialized agencies (or programmes) working on international development
International development
International development or global development is a concept that lacks a universally accepted definition, but it is most used in a holistic and multi-disciplinary context of human development — the development of greater quality of life for humans...

, the ILO is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.

Most Recent ILO Committee Reports and Recommendations

The ILO has several specialized and technical committees that focus on labor relations and trade union rights issues. One of these bodies is the ILO Committee on Freedom of Association. This committee has successfully issued recommendations in 2010 on 6 anomalous and highly celebrated cases in the labor front, 2 of which are the following:

Case Number 2716 - International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Associations (IUF) and the National Union of Workers in the Hotel, Restaurant, and Allied Industries (NUWHRAIN), Dusit Hotel Nikko Chapter supported by the Alliance of Progressive Labour (APL), the Bukluran ng Manggagawang Pilipino (BMP), the Confederation of Independent Unions in the Public Sector (CIU), Manggagawa para sa Kalayaan ng Bayan (MAKABAYAN), the National Labor Union (NLU), Partido ng Manggagawa (PM), the Public Services Labor Independent Confederation (PSLINK), the Alliance of Coca-Cola Unions of the Philippines (ACCUP), the Automotive Industry Workers Alliance (AIWA), the League of Independent Bank Organization (LIBO), the National Alliance of Broadcast Unions (NABU), the Postal Employees Union of the Philippines (PEUP), Pinag-isang Tinig at Lakas ng Anak Pawis (PIGLAS), the Philippine Metalworkers Alliance (PMA) and the Workers Solidarity Network (WSN).
  • The complainants allege that, in a decision concerning anti-union dismissals in the context of a labour dispute, the Supreme Court of the Philippines held that workers who shaved or cropped their hair engaged in an unprotected illegal strike, and thus upheld the dismissal of 29 trade union officers and allowed dismissal of 61 trade union members, in violation of the principles of freedom of association. The issue has been protested on wildly in the Philippines.


Case Number 2669 - International Wiring Systems Workers Union (IWSWU)
  • Military threat and harassment against IWSWU officers and their families; interference by the armed forces of the Philippines in trade union affairs by dissuading trade union members to engage in collective bargaining; and vilification campaign against IWSWU members and families to the detriment of their safety and security

See also

  • Centre William Rappard
    Centre William Rappard
    The Centre William Rappard at Rue de Lausanne 154, Geneva, Switzerland, was built between 1923 and 1926 to house the International Labour Office . It was the first building in Geneva designed to house an international organization...

    , first permanent home of the ILO on the north bank of Lake Geneva
  • Decent work
    Decent work
    Decent work is the availability of employment in conditions of freedom, equity, human security and dignity.According to the International Labour Organization ILO, Decent Work involves opportunities for work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social...

     agenda of the ILO
  • United Nations Global Compact, 1999–2000, encouraging businesses to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies

International Labour Organization Conventions
  • Labour movement
    Labour movement
    The term labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labour...

  • Ohlin Report
    Ohlin Report
    The Ohlin Report was a report drafted by a group of experts of the International Labour Organization led by Bertil Ohlin in 1956. Together with the Spaak Report it provided the basis for the Treaty of Rome on the common market in 1957 and the creation of the European Economic Community in...

    , providing the basis for the Treaty of Rome on the common market in 1957 and the creation of the European Economic Community in 1958
  • Seoul Declaration on Safety and Health at Work
    Seoul Declaration on Safety and Health at Work
    On June 29, 2008, the XVIII World Congress on Safety and Health at Work signed the Seoul Declaration on Safety and Health at Work. The declaration included statements concerning national governments' responsibility for perpetuating a "national preventative safety and health culture", for improving...

    , 2008
  • Social clause
    Social clause
    Within the context of international trade, a social clause is the integration of seven core ILO labour rights conventions into trade agreements.-Background:...

    , the integration of seven core ILO labour rights conventions into trade agreements

External links




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