House arrest
Overview
In justice
Justice
Justice is a concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, or equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics; justice is the act of being just and/or fair.-Concept of justice:...

 and law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to his or her residence
House
A house is a building or structure that has the ability to be occupied for dwelling by human beings or other creatures. The term house includes many kinds of different dwellings ranging from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to free standing individual structures...

. Travel
Travel
Travel is the movement of people or objects between relatively distant geographical locations. 'Travel' can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.-Etymology:...

 is usually restricted, if allowed at all. House arrest is a lenient alternative to prison
Prison
A prison is a place in which people are physically confined and, usually, deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime...

 time or juvenile-detention time.

While house arrest can be applied to common criminal cases when prison does not seem an appropriate measure, the term is often applied to the use of house confinement as a measure of repression by authoritarian governments against political dissident
Dissident
A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution. When dissidents unite for a common cause they often effect a dissident movement....

s.
Encyclopedia
In justice
Justice
Justice is a concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, or equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics; justice is the act of being just and/or fair.-Concept of justice:...

 and law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to his or her residence
House
A house is a building or structure that has the ability to be occupied for dwelling by human beings or other creatures. The term house includes many kinds of different dwellings ranging from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to free standing individual structures...

. Travel
Travel
Travel is the movement of people or objects between relatively distant geographical locations. 'Travel' can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.-Etymology:...

 is usually restricted, if allowed at all. House arrest is a lenient alternative to prison
Prison
A prison is a place in which people are physically confined and, usually, deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime...

 time or juvenile-detention time.

While house arrest can be applied to common criminal cases when prison does not seem an appropriate measure, the term is often applied to the use of house confinement as a measure of repression by authoritarian governments against political dissident
Dissident
A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution. When dissidents unite for a common cause they often effect a dissident movement....

s. In that case, typically, the person under house arrest does not have access to means of communication
Telephone
The telephone , colloquially referred to as a phone, is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sounds, usually the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-point communication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other...

. If electronic communication is allowed, conversations will most likely be monitored. With certain units, the conversations of criminals can be directly monitored via the unit itself.

Details

Home detention provides an alternative to imprisonment
Incarceration
Incarceration is the detention of a person in prison, typically as punishment for a crime .People are most commonly incarcerated upon suspicion or conviction of committing a crime, and different jurisdictions have differing laws governing the function of incarceration within a larger system of...

 and aims to reduce re-offending while also coping with expanding prison numbers and rising costs. It allows eligible offenders to retain or seek employment, maintain family relationships and responsibilities and attend rehabilitative programs that contribute towards addressing the causes of their offending.

The terms of house arrest can differ, but offenders are rarely confined to their residence 24 hours a day. Most programs allow employed offenders to continue to work, and only confine them during non-working hours. Offenders are also commonly allowed to leave their homes for specific, predetermined purposes; examples can include visits to the probation officer
Probation officer
Parole officers and probation officers play a role in criminal justice systems by supervising offenders released from incarceration or sentenced to non-custodial sanctions such as community service...

 or police station, religious exceptions and medical appointments. Many programs also allow the convict to leave the residence during regular, pre-approved times in order to carry out general household errands such as food shopping and laundry. Offenders may also have to respond to communications from a higher authority to verify that they are at home when required to be. Exceptions are often made to allow visitors to visit the offender.

There are several types of house arrest, varying in severity as to the requirements of the court order. A curfew
Curfew
A curfew is an order specifying a time after which certain regulations apply. Examples:# An order by a government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time...

 may restrict an offender to their house at certain times, usually during hours of darkness. Home confinement or detention would require an offender to remain at home for most hours, apart from the above mentioned exceptions. The most serious is home incarceration which would constrain an offender to their home constantly, aside from court-sanctioned treatment programmes and medical appointments.

In some exceptional cases, it is possible for a person to be placed under house arrest without trial
Trial (law)
In law, a trial is when parties to a dispute come together to present information in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes. One form of tribunal is a court...

 or legal representation
Lawyer
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political...

, with restrictions on who they can associate with. In some countries this has led to criticism, in which it is argued that this type of detention breaches the offender's human rights
Human rights
Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal and egalitarian . These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national...

. In countries with authoritarian systems of government, such measures may be politically motivated to stifle dissent.

Using technology for enforcement

In some countries, house arrest is often enforced through the use of technology products or services. One method is an electronic sensor locked to the offender's ankle (technically called an ankle monitor
Ankle monitor
An ankle monitor is a device that individuals under house arrest are often required to wear. At timed intervals, the ankle monitor sends a radio frequency signal containing location and other information to a receiver. If an offender moves outside of an allowed range, the police will be notified...

, sometimes referred to as a tether
Tether
A tether is a cord, fixture, or signal that anchors something movable to a reference point which may be fixed or moving. There are a number of applications for tethers: balloons, kites, tethered wind-energy conversion systems, anchors, tethered water-flow energy conversion systems, towing, animal...

). If the subject and the sensor venture too far from the home, the violation is recorded and the proper authorities are summoned. To discourage tampering, many ankle monitors can now detect attempted removal. The monitoring service is often contracted out to private companies, which assign employees to electronically monitor many convicts simultaneously. If the sensors detect a violation, the monitoring service calls the convict's probation officer. The electronic surveillance together with frequent contact with their probation officer and checks by the security guards provides for a secure environment.

Another method of ensuring house arrest compliance is achieved through the use of automated calling services that require no human contact to check on the offender. Random calls are made to the residence and the respondent's answer is recorded and compared to the offender's voice pattern. Authorities are notified only if the call is not answered or if the recorded answer does not match the offender's voice pattern.

Electronic monitoring
Electronic tagging
Electronic tagging is a form of non-surreptitious surveillance consisting of an electronic device attached to a person or vehicle, especially certain criminals, allowing their whereabouts to be monitored. In general, devices locate themselves using GPS and report their position back to a control...

 is considered a highly economical alternative to the cost of imprisoning offenders, especially considering that the convict is often required to pay for the monitoring as part of his or her sentence.

History

Judges have imposed sentences of home confinement, as an alternative to parole, as far back as the 1900s. But it did not become a widespread alternative to imprisonment until electronic monitoring devices made it inexpensive and easy to manage. The first-ever court sentence of house arrest with an electronic bracelet was in 1983.

Algeria

  • Ahmed Ben Bella
    Ahmed Ben Bella
    Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella was a soldier and Algerian revolutionary, who became the first President of Algeria.-Youth:...

     Former President of Algeria
    Heads of state of Algeria
    -List of heads of state of Algeria:For details of the post of President of Algeria see: President of Algeria-Affiliations:-Sources:* http://www.rulers.org/rula1.html#algeria...

     deposed by Houari Boumédiènne in 1965, went to exile in 1980.

Burma

  • Aung San Suu Kyi
    Aung San Suu Kyi
    Aung San Suu Kyi, AC is a Burmese opposition politician and the General Secretary of the National League for Democracy. In the 1990 general election, her National League for Democracy party won 59% of the national votes and 81% of the seats in Parliament. She had, however, already been detained...

    , Winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize and leader of her country's pro-democracy movement, has been under house arrest for most of the past twenty years. She was first placed under house arrest in July 1989 and, though freed six years later, she was again imprisoned in 2000. Two years later, Suu Kyi was released, but yet again jailed for the third time under house arrest after the infamous Depayin Massacre
    Depayin massacre
    The Depayin Massacre occurred on 30 May 2003, when at least 70 people associated with the National League for Democracy were killed by government-sponsored mob in Burma.-Commission observations:...

     in 2003. She is released after her fourteenth year in confinement to her dilapidated home in Rangoon, in which she served another eighteen months imprisoned, convicted by a Burmese regional court in August 2009 after an American swam across Inya Lake
    Inya Lake
    Inya Lake is the largest lake in Yangon, Burma , a popular recreational area for Yangonites, and a famous location for romance in popular culture...

     to her house. All of her periods under house arrest have been declared arbitrary by the United Nations
    United Nations
    The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

    . She was released on the 13th November 2010.
  • Ne Win
    Ne Win
    Ne Win was Burmese a politician and military commander. He was Prime Minister of Burma from 1958 to 1960 and 1962 to 1974 and also head of state from 1962 to 1981...

     Former military commander of Burma. He was deposed in 1988 and put under house arrest in 2001.

Cambodia

  • Pol Pot
    Pol Pot
    Saloth Sar , better known as Pol Pot, , was a Cambodian Maoist revolutionary who led the Khmer Rouge from 1963 until his death in 1998. From 1976 to 1979, he served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea....

     Former Premier of Cambodia. He was deposed when Vietnam
    Vietnam
    Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

     attacked Cambodia in 1978.

Chile

  • On January 5, 2005, former dictator Augusto Pinochet
    Augusto Pinochet
    Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, more commonly known as Augusto Pinochet , was a Chilean army general and dictator who assumed power in a coup d'état on 11 September 1973...

     was placed under house arrest by orders of the Supreme Court of Chile
    Supreme Court of Chile
    The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court in Chile. It also administrates the lower courts in the nation. It is located in the capital Santiago....

    .

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China continues to use soft detention
Soft detention
Soft detention is a form of house arrest used in the People's Republic of China to control political dissidents. It has its roots in the practices of the Chinese Empire which employed it as early as the Northern Song Dynasty when those such as Su Shi who criticized the emperor were subjected to it...

 a traditional form of house arrest used by the Chinese Empire.
  • Zhao Ziyang
    Zhao Ziyang
    Zhao Ziyang was a high-ranking politician in the People's Republic of China . He was the third Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1980 to 1987, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1987 to 1989....

    , purged Communist Chinese
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

     leader, was put under house arrest for the last 16 years of his life after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
    Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
    The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, also known as the June Fourth Incident in Chinese , were a series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing in the People's Republic of China beginning on 15 April 1989...

    . His movements had to be approved by the Communist Party of China
    Communist Party of China
    The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

    's Central Office, which only allowed him to travel quietly to different places inside China and to play golf.
  • Jiang Yanyong
    Jiang Yanyong
    Jiang Yanyong is a Chinese physician from Beijing who publicized a coverup of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome epidemic in China. Jiang was the chief physician of the 301 Military Hospital in Beijing a senior member of the Communist Party of China.-Introduction:In 1989, Dr. Jiang was the...

    , physician who revealed SARS incident in China. He was put under house arrest after requesting the government to investigate the June 4 Tiananmen incident.

Republic of China

  • Zhang Xueliang
    Zhang Xueliang
    Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang , occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang in English, nicknamed the Young Marshal , was the effective ruler of Manchuria and much of North China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928...

     was put on house arrest by Chiang Kai-shek
    Chiang Kai-shek
    Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

     after the Xi'an Incident
    Xi'an Incident
    The Xi'an Incident of December 1936 is an important episode of Chinese modern history, taking place in the city of Xi'an during the Chinese Civil War between the ruling Kuomintang and the rebel Chinese Communist Party and just before the Second Sino-Japanese War...

    . Even after the Nationalist's retreat to Taiwan, he remained in house arrest until Chiang Ching-kuo
    Chiang Ching-kuo
    Chiang Ching-kuo , Kuomintang politician and leader, was the son of President Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China...

    's death in 1988.

Egypt

  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

    i scientist
    Islamic science
    Science in the medieval Islamic world, also known as Islamic science or Arabic science, is the science developed and practised in the Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age . During this time, Indian, Iranian and especially Greek knowledge was translated into Arabic...

     working in Egypt. In 1011, he feigned madness
    Feigned madness
    Feigned madness a term used in popular culture to describe the assumption of a mental disorder for purposes of evasion or deceit, or to divert suspicion, perhaps in advance of an act of revenge.-To avoid responsibility:...

     in fear of angering the Egyptian caliph
    Caliph
    The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

     Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
    Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
    Abu ‘Ali Mansur Tāriqu l-Ḥākim, called Al-Hakim bi Amr al-Lāh , was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam .- History :...

    . He was kept under house arrest until the caliph's death in 1021.
  • Muhammad Naguib
    Muhammad Naguib
    Muhammad Naguib was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on June 18, 1953 to November 14, 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan...

    , former President of Egypt
    President of Egypt
    The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt.Under the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the supreme commander of the armed forces and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government....

    . He led a military coup in 1953 and deposed the former King Farouk. He was in turn deposed by Gamal Nasser in 1954.

Hawaii

  • The last Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani had her prison sentence commuted to imprisonment in an upstairs bedroom of Iolani Palace by the Republic of Hawaii
    Republic of Hawaii
    The Republic of Hawaii was the formal name of the government that controlled Hawaii from 1894 to 1898 when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaii which ended on July 4, 1894 and the adoption of the Newlands...

     until she was released in 1896.

Indonesia

  • Sukarno
    Sukarno
    Sukarno, born Kusno Sosrodihardjo was the first President of Indonesia.Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia's first President from 1945 to 1967...

    , First President of Indonesia. He was deposed in 1967 by General Suharto (see: Transition to the New Order).

Iran

  • Mohammad Mosaddegh , Former Premier of Iran was deposed by coup in 1953 with support of the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    . Following three years of imprisonment, he was placed under house arrest until his death.
  • Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri
    Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri
    Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri Najafabadi was a prominent Iranian scholar, Islamic theologian, Shiite Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist. He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979...

     was sentenced to house arrest from 1997 to 2003.
  • Mehdi Karroubi
    Mehdi Karroubi
    Mehdi Karroubi is an influential Iranian reformist politician, democracy activist, mojtahed, and chairman of the National Trust Party. He was Chairman of the parliament from 1989 to 1992 and 2000 to 2004, and a presidential candidate in the 2005 and 2009 presidential elections.He is a founding...

     an influential Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    ian reformist politician
    Politician
    A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...

    , democracy activist, mojtahed, and chairman of the National Trust Party
    National Trust Party (Iran)
    National Trust Party , also translated as National Confidence Party, is an Iranian political party based on reformist and populist message. NTP was established in 2005 by former Parliament speaker Mehdi Karroubi following his controversial defeat in 2005 presidential election...

    , Chairman of the parliament
    Majlis of Iran
    The National Consultative Assembly of Iran , also called The Iranian Parliament or People's House, is the national legislative body of Iran...

     from 1989 to 1992 and 2000 to 2004, and a presidential candidate in the 2005
    Iranian presidential election, 2005
    Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on June 17, 2005, the run-off on June 24. Mohammad Khatami, the previous President of Iran, stepped down on August 2, 2005, after serving his maximum two consecutive four-year terms according to the Islamic Republic's constitution...

     and 2009 presidential elections
    Iranian presidential election, 2009
    Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers. The next morning the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran's official news agency, announced that with two-thirds of the votes counted, Ahmadinejad had won the election...

    . He is under house arrest from February 2011 until now.
  • Mir-Hossein Mousavi
    Mir-Hossein Mousavi
    Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989. He was a Reformist candidate for the 2009 presidential election and eventually the leader of the opposition in the post-election...

     is an Iranian reformist politician, painter and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran
    Prime Minister of Iran
    Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.-Prime Ministers of Qajar era:In the Qajar era, prime ministers were known by...

     from 1981 to 1989. He was a candidate for the 2009 presidential election
    Iranian presidential election, 2009
    Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers. The next morning the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran's official news agency, announced that with two-thirds of the votes counted, Ahmadinejad had won the election...

    . He is under house arrest from February 2011 until now.

Italy

  • In Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    , the house arrest (in Italian arresti domiciliari) are a common practice of detention of suspects
    Detention of suspects
    The detention of suspects is the process of keeping a person who has been arrested in a police-cell, remand prison or other detention centre before trial or sentencing. One criticism of pretrial detention is that eventual acquittal can be a somewhat hollow victory, in that there is no way to...

    , alternative to detention in a correctional facility, and is also commonly practiced on those felons who are close to the end of their prison terms, or for those whose health condition do not allow their permanence in a correctional facility, except some particular cases of extremely dangerous persons. As for the article n°284 of the Italian Penal Procedure Code, the house arrests are imposed by a Judge, who orders the suspect to stay confined in his house, home, residence, private property, or any other place of cure or assistance where he/she may be housed at the moment. When necessary, the judge may also forbid any contact between the subject and any person other than those who cohabit with him/her or who assist him/her. If the subject is unable to take care of his/her life necessities or if he/she is in conditions of absolute poverty, the judge may authorize him/her to leave his/her home for the strict necessary time to take care of said needs or to exercise a job. The prosecuting authorities and law enforcement can check at any moment the factive respect of said orders by the subject, who's de facto
    De facto
    De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

    considered in state of detention; violation of house arrest terms are immediately followed by transfer in a correctional facility. House arrests can not be applied to a subject that has been found guilty of escape
    Prison escape
    A prison escape or prison break is the act of an inmate leaving prison through unofficial or illegal ways. Normally, when this occurs, an effort is made on the part of authorities to recapture them and return them to their original detainers...

     within the previous five years.

New Zealand

  • At sentencing the judge can grant offenders who receive a short-term sentence (two years or less) leave to apply for home detention. This is called front-end home detention – i.e. it is applied for at the beginning of a sentence. If it is deferred by the judge, an offender has two weeks to apply, during which time they will be granted bail. Offenders serving long-term sentences can apply for back-end home detention five months before their Parole Eligibility Date, though, if granted, they won’t be released until three months before their PED.

Nigeria

  • Shehu Shagari
    Shehu Shagari
    Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari, Turakin Sakkwato served as the President of Nigeria's Second Republic , after the handover of power by General Olusegun Obasanjo's military government....

    , President of Nigeria
    President of Nigeria
    The President of Nigeria is the Head of State and head of the national executive. Officially styled President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The current President of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan.-History:On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained...

     was placed under house arrest on December 31, 1983, following a military coup which ousted his government (see: Nigerian Second Republic
    Nigerian Second Republic
    The Second Republic was the republican government of Nigeria between 1979 and 1983 governed by the second republican constitution.- Founding :...

    ).
  • General Muhammadu Buhari
    Muhammadu Buhari
    Muhammadu Buhari was a military ruler of Nigeria and an unsuccessful candidate for president in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 presidential elections...

    , Military Head of State
    President of Nigeria
    The President of Nigeria is the Head of State and head of the national executive. Officially styled President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The current President of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan.-History:On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained...

     was confined to his residence following the palace coup which ejected him from office.
  • MKO Abiola
    Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola
    Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola , often referred to as M. K. O. Abiola, was a popular Nigerian Yoruba businessman, publisher, politician and aristocrat of the Egba clan...

    , was placed under house arrest after he declared himself the rightful winner of the 1993 presidential elections
    Nigerian Third Republic
    The Third Republic was the planned republican government of Nigeria in 1993 which was to be governed by the Third Republican constitution.- Founding :...

    , against the wishes of the Ibrahim Babangida
    Ibrahim Babangida
    General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida CFR DSS mni , popularly known as IBB, was a Nigerian Army officer and military ruler of Nigeria...

     military junta. He was detained for five years till his death in 1998.

Pakistan

  • Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

    , 9th Prime minister
    Prime Minister of Pakistan
    The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

     and 4th President of Pakistan
    President of Pakistan
    The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

    . He was deposed in 1977 in a military coup — Operation Fair Play
    Operation Fair Play
    Operation Fairplay was the code-name for the coup d'etat conducted at midnight on July 4, 1977 by the Pakistan Army's 111th Infantry Brigade led by Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq against the elected civilian government of then-Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.-1977 election:The coup was...

    — led by Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
    Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
    General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq , was the 4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan from July 1977 to his death in August 1988...

    . Bhutto was put to trial and hanged later in 1979.
  • Navaz Sharif, 12th Prime minister
    Prime Minister of Pakistan
    The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

    . Sharif was deposed in 1999 in a similar military coup led by Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Pervez Musharraf
    Pervez Musharraf
    Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

    . Sharif was put in a forced trial, but due to foreign pressure exerted by Saudi Arabia
    Saudi Arabia
    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

     and the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    , Sharif was exiled to Saudi Arabia which narrowly spared his life to face the same fate as of Bhutto. In 2010, Sharif was again put in house arrest by President Asif Ali Zardari when he announced a long march to support the Lawyers' Movement
    Lawyers' Movement
    The Lawyers' Movement was the name given to the popular mass protest movement started by the lawyers of Pakistan in response to the dictatorial actions of 9 March 2007, by the country's military ruler General Pervez Musharraf, when he unconstitutionally sacked Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, the Chief...

    . However, Sharif broke the house arrest in his vehicle and drove to Islamabad to join the Movement.
  • Imran Khan
    Imran Khan
    Imran Khan Niazi is a Pakistani politician and former Pakistani cricketer, playing international cricket for two decades in the late twentieth century. After retiring, he entered politics...

    , former captain of Pakistan cricket team and chairman of Pakistan Movement of Justice
    Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf
    The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf is a political party in Pakistan. PTI was founded by former Pakistani cricket captain and philanthropist Imran Khan. The party's slogan is "Justice, Humanity and Self Esteem".-Founding:...

     (PTI) was placed under house arrest at the declaration of a state of emergency
    2007 Pakistani state of emergency
    A state of emergency was declared by Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf on November 3, 2007, and lasted until December 15, 2007,during which time the constitution of Pakistan was suspended....

     by Chief of Army Staff General Pervaz Musharraf on November 3, 2007.
  • Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
    Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
    Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry is the current Chief Justice of Pakistan.He became chief justice of Pakistan's Supreme Court in 2005 and soon became not only a central figure in the nation's political struggles but an icon to the country's legal profession and others campaigning for the rule of law...

    , Chief Justice of Pakistan, was put under house arrest on November 3, 2007 by General Pervaz Musharraf. His arrest led to mass protest
    Movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf
    The movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf was an August 2008 attempt by the Pakistan Peoples Party , the Pakistan Muslim League , Awami National Party , and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam to force Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf out of office....

     and Lawyers' Movement
    Lawyers' Movement
    The Lawyers' Movement was the name given to the popular mass protest movement started by the lawyers of Pakistan in response to the dictatorial actions of 9 March 2007, by the country's military ruler General Pervez Musharraf, when he unconstitutionally sacked Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, the Chief...

    .
  • Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan
    Abdul Qadeer Khan
    Abdul Qadeer Khan , also known in Pakistan as Mohsin-e-Pakistan , D.Eng, Sc.D, HI, NI , FPAS; more widely known as Dr. A. Q...

    , Pakistan's top scientist and founder of Pakistan's Gas-centrifuge programme of the Pakistan's nuclear device was also put under house arrest for a long time by General Pervez Musharraf. Khan was forced to attend continuous military debriefings by Musharraf and was put in house arrest for a long time. Later, he was released from imprisonment in 2008 by the order of Islamabad High Court
    Islamabad High Court
    -History:Islamabad High Court located in Islamabad the capital of Pakistan was established under a presidential order on December 14, 2007. However its creation was delayed because of the stay order issued by the Lahore High Court after its establishment was challenged there. But Supreme Court of...

     and the Supreme Court of Pakistan
    Supreme Court of Pakistan
    The Supreme Court is the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It has number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the...

    . Although the order has not been fully acted upon, he is legally out of under house arrest.

Roman Catholic Church

  • Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei , was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism...

     was put under house arrest for his belief in Copernicus's theory of the sun in the middle of the universe and all the planets and stars revolving around it. He stayed under house arrest until 1642 when he died.

Singapore

  • Chia Thye Poh
    Chia Thye Poh
    Chia Thye Poh was the longest-serving political prisoner in the history of Singapore and perhaps the longest-serving prisoner of conscience of the 20th century, if not one of its longest-serving political prisoners....

    , former leftist Member of Parliament, was arrested without charges and held under detention without trial in 1966. 22 years later, he was released and placed under house arrest in a guardhouse on the resort island of Sentosa
    Sentosa
    Sentosa, which translates to peace and tranquility in Malay , is a popular island resort in Singapore, visited by some five million people a year...

     and made to pay the rent, on the pretext that he was now a "free" man.

South Africa

  • Bram Fischer
    Bram Fischer
    Abram Louis Fischer, commonly known as Bram Fischer, was a South African lawyer of Afrikaner descent, notable for anti-apartheid activism and for the legal defence of anti-apartheid figures, including Nelson Mandela at the Rivonia Trial.-Tributes:Fischer is widely acknowledged as a key figure in...

    , former South African Communist Party
    South African Communist Party
    South African Communist Party is a political party in South Africa. It was founded in 1921 as the Communist Party of South Africa by the joining together of the International Socialist League and others under the leadership of Willam H...

     leader, was diagnosed with cancer while in prison and was placed under house arrest due to pressure from the anti-apartheid groups.

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

  • Former Premier
    Premier of the Soviet Union
    The office of Premier of the Soviet Union was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . Twelve individuals have been premier...

     Nikita Khrushchev
    Nikita Khrushchev
    Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964...

     was placed under house arrest for the seven years before his death after being deposed in 1964.

Tunisia

  • Habib Bourguiba
    Habib Bourguiba
    Habib Bourguiba was a Tunisian statesman, the Founder and the first President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 until 7 November 1987...

    , Former President of Tunisia. He was deposed in a military coup in 1987.
  • Muhammad VIII al-Amin
    Muhammad VIII al-Amin
    Muhammad VIII al-Amin was the last bey of Tunisia . He was the first head of state of independent Tunisia from 1956 until he was deposed in 1957...

    , former king of Tunisia, he was deposed in 1957 by Habib Bourguiba.

United Kingdom

  • Provision to detain terrorist suspects under house arrest without trial
    Trial (law)
    In law, a trial is when parties to a dispute come together to present information in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes. One form of tribunal is a court...

     has been made possible by the controversial Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005
    Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005
    The Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, intended to deal with the Law Lords' ruling of 16 December 2004 that the detention without trial of eight foreigners at HM Prison Belmarsh under Part 4 of the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001...

    .

United States

  • William Calley
    William Calley
    William Laws Calley is a convicted American war criminal and a former U.S. Army officer found guilty of murder for his role in the My Lai Massacre on March 16, 1968, during the Vietnam War.-Early life:...

    , U.S. Army officer responsible for the My Lai massacre
    My Lai Massacre
    The My Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass murder of 347–504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Most of the victims were women, children , and...

    , served 3½ years of house arrest after presidential clemency instead of his original sentence of life imprisonment.
  • Riddick Bowe
    Riddick Bowe
    Riddick Lamont Bowe is a retired American boxer. He is a two-time heavyweight champion and a former undisputed heavyweight champion...

    , a former boxing
    Boxing
    Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

     champion, was sentenced to be under brief house arrest after being released from prison.
  • Lionel Tate
    Lionel Tate
    Lionel Alexander Tate is the youngest American citizen ever sentenced to life imprisonment without possibility of parole...

     was sentenced under one-year house arrest under the terms of the plea bargain offered in January 2004.
  • Martha Stewart
    Martha Stewart
    Martha Stewart is an American business magnate, author, magazine publisher, and television personality. As founder of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, she has gained success through a variety of business ventures, encompassing publishing, broadcasting, and merchandising...

     was sentenced to five months of house arrest following her release from prison on March 4, 2005.
  • Debra Lafave
    Debra Lafave
    Debra Jean Beasley, better known under her former married name of Debra Lafave, is a former teacher at Angelo L. Greco Middle School in Temple Terrace, Florida. She pleaded guilty in 2005 to...

    , a former middle-school teacher
    Teacher
    A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

    , was sentenced to house arrest on November 22, 2005 for having sex with a 14-year-old pupil.
  • Paris Hilton
    Paris Hilton
    Paris Whitney Hilton is an American businesswoman, heiress, and socialite. She is a great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton . Hilton is known for her controversial participation in a sex tape in 2003, and appearance on the television series The Simple Life alongside fellow socialite and childhood...

    , an heiress
    Beneficiary
    A beneficiary in the broadest sense is a natural person or other legal entity who receives money or other benefits from a benefactor. For example: The beneficiary of a life insurance policy, is the person who receives the payment of the amount of insurance after the death of the insured...

     and socialite
    Socialite
    A socialite is a person who participates in social activities and spends a significant amount of time entertaining and being entertained at fashionable upper-class events....

    , was re-assigned to house arrest on June 7, 2007, but was ordered back to prison on June 8, 2007 to serve the remainder of her 45-day sentence for violating probation from a prior DUI
    Driving under the influence
    Driving under the influence is the act of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit...

     conviction.
  • Dr. Dre
    Dr. Dre
    Andre Romelle Young , primarily known by his stage name Dr. Dre, is an American record producer, rapper, record executive, entrepreneur, and occasional actor. He is the founder and current CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and a former co-owner and artist of Death Row Records...

    , one of the founding fathers of gangsta rap
    Gangsta rap
    Gangsta Rap is a subgenre of hip hop music that evolved from hardcore hip hop and purports to reflect urban crime and the violent lifestyles of inner-city youths. Lyrics in gangsta rap have varied from accurate reflections to fictionalized accounts. Gangsta is a non-rhotic pronunciation of the word...

     and former member of the influential hip-hop group N.W.A, was sentenced to a house arrest after breaking the jaw of a record producer. He told VH1
    VH1
    VH1 or Vh1 is an American cable television network based in New York City. Launched on January 1, 1985 in the old space of Turner Broadcasting's short-lived Cable Music Channel, the original purpose of the channel was to build on the success of MTV by playing music videos, but targeting a slightly...

    's Behind the Music
    Behind the Music
    Behind the Music is a television series on VH1. It originally ran from 1997 to 2006, before it was stopped and only aired new episodes sporadically. The series places its generality on documentation of musical artists or groups who are interviewed and profiled, and discuss how their careers became...

    , "The walls started to cave in on me."
  • T.I.
    T.I.
    Clifford Joseph Harris, Jr. , better known by his stage name T.I., is an American rap artist, film and music producer, actor and author. He is also the founder and co-chief executive officer of Grand Hustle Records....

    , an American
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     rapper
    Rapping
    Rapping refers to "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics". The art form can be broken down into different components, as in the book How to Rap where it is separated into “content”, “flow” , and “delivery”...

     and co-CEO of Grand Hustle Records
    Grand Hustle Records
    Grand Hustle Records is an Atlanta, Georgia-based record label formed in 2003 by Clifford "T.I." Harris and Jason Geter. Today it operates as a subsidiary of Warner Music Group, and is distributed by Atlantic Records.-Artists:*P$C...

    , was sentenced to house arrest after gun charges.
  • Michael Vick
    Michael Vick
    Michael Dwayne Vick is an American football quarterback for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League...

    , Former Atlanta Falcons
    Atlanta Falcons
    The Atlanta Falcons are a professional American football team based in Atlanta, Georgia. They are a member of the South Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

     quarterback
    Quarterback
    Quarterback is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive team and line up directly behind the offensive line...

    , was "OK'd" for transition to home confinement from his federal incarceration on February 26, 2009.
  • John G. Rowland
    John G. Rowland
    John Grosvenor Rowland was the 86th Governor of Connecticut from 1995 to 2004; he is a member of the Republican Party. He is married to Patty Rowland, his second wife, and the couple have five children between them...

    , former governor of Connecticut
    Connecticut
    Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

    , spent four months under house arrest after serving 10 months in federal prison for corruption while in office.
  • Bernard Madoff
    Bernard Madoff
    Bernard Lawrence "Bernie" Madoff is a former American businessman, stockbroker, investment advisor, and financier. He is the former non-executive chairman of the NASDAQ stock market, and the admitted operator of a Ponzi scheme that is considered to be the largest financial fraud in U.S...

    , after his Ponzi scheme
    Ponzi scheme
    A Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to its investors from their own money or the money paid by subsequent investors, rather than from any actual profit earned by the individual or organization running the operation...

     was discovered, and $50 billion went missing.
  • Donte Stallworth, an NFL wide receiver, was sentenced on June 16, 2009 to two years house arrest for killing a pedestrian with his vehicle while driving intoxicated
    Driving under the influence
    Driving under the influence is the act of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit...

     in Miami, Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

    .
  • Adrian Lamo
    Adrian Lamo
    Adrian Lamo is a threat analyst and "grey hat" hacker. He first gained media attention for breaking into several high-profile computer networks, including those of The New York Times, Yahoo!, and Microsoft, culminating in his 2003 arrest...

    , served six months house arrest following his convictions for hacking into The New York Times
    The New York Times
    The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. The New York Times has won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization...

     and Microsoft
    Microsoft
    Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

    .
  • Lil Boosie
    Lil Boosie
    Torrence Hatch , better known by his stage name Lil Boosie, is an American rapper from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hatch was bestowed the nickname Boosie by his family, and he was raised in southside Baton Rouge...

    , A rapper was sentenced to house arrest while awaiting trial.
  • Lindsay Lohan
    Lindsay Lohan
    Lindsay Lohan is an American actress, pop singer and model. She began her career as a child fashion model before making her motion picture debut in Disney's 1998 remake of The Parent Trap at the age of 11...

     in 2011, is serving house arrest for violating her probation.
  • Dominique Strauss-Kahn
    Dominique Strauss-Kahn
    Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn , often referred to in the media, and by himself, as DSK, is a French economist, lawyer, politician, and member of the French Socialist Party...

     was held under house arrest on bail
    Bail
    Traditionally, bail is some form of property deposited or pledged to a court to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will return for trial or forfeit the bail...

     as an alternative to detention at Riker's Island before his trial for sexual assault. Upon the discovery of new evidence, Strauss-Kahn was released from house arrest on 1 July 2011.

In popular culture

  • Disturbia (film)
    Disturbia (film)
    Disturbia is a 2007 American thriller film directed by D. J. Caruso and executive produced by Ivan Reitman. It is an updated version of Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Rear Window...

  • 100 Feet
    100 Feet
    100 Feet is a 2008 American horror film, written and directed by Eric Red. The film stars Famke Janssen, Bobby Cannavale, Ed Westwick, and Michael Paré.-Plot:The film begins with Marnie Watson being driven home in a police car...

  • Cherish (film)
    Cherish (film)
    Cherish is a 2002 comedy-drama film written and directed by Finn Taylor. It premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 14, 2002 and had a limited theatrical release June 7 of that same year...

  • House Arrest
    House Arrest (film)
    House Arrest is a 1996 comedy film. The film was directed by Harry Winer who has directed other films but is more prolific as a television series director. The film stars Jamie Lee Curtis and Kevin Pollak...

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