H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB (operating as H&M) is a Swedish retail-clothing company, known for its fast-fashion
Fast fashion
Fast fashion is a contemporary term used by fashion retailers to acknowledge that designs move from catwalk to store in the fastest time to capture current trends in the market. This has developed from a product-driven concept based on a manufacturing model referred to as "quick response" developed...

 clothing offerings for women, men, teenagers and children.

It has over 2,300 stores in 41 countries and as of 2011 employed around 87,000 people.

The design team in the company’s Sweden office controls the steps of production from merchandise planning to establishing specifications, and production is outsourced to approximately 800 factories in Europe and Asia. These facilities are used for horizontal division of labor rather than being integrated.


The company was established in 1947 by Erling Persson in Västerås
Västerås is a city in central Sweden, located on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province Västmanland, some 100 km west of Stockholm...

, Sweden. At the time it only sold women's clothing and was called Hennes, Swedish for "hers".

In 1968, Persson acquired the premises and inventory of a Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 hunting-equipment store, Mauritz Widforss. Included in the inventory was a supply of men's clothing, prompting Persson to expand into menswear. Accordingly, he renamed the store Hennes & Mauritz, later abbreviated to H&M.

Erling's son Stefan
Stefan Persson (magnate)
Stefan Persson is the chairman and main shareholder in fashion company Hennes & Mauritz , which was founded by his father Erling Persson. Stefan took over the company in 1982 and served as its chief executive officer until 1998...

 became chief executive officer in 1990 and chairman of the board in 1998.

Today, the majority of the clothing is manufactured in Asia including Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Pakistan and Turkey.

The company worldwide

Number of stores as of 31/08/2011

Africa: 3 1 – 2011.

Asia: 50 17 12 12 9 8 6 6 4 3 2 1 1

Europe: 386 202 170 158 127 115 102 88 82 77 76 66 64 44 24 23 22 16 16 14 12 10 10 6 6 5

North America: 213 56


South America:


Its first non-Swedish store was opened in Norway in 1964, and from then onwards, the company embarked upon a major expansion program opening many further stores in Europe, including Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The first H&M store to open outside of Scandinavia was in the United Kingdom, in 1976

In the 1990s, its first stores opened in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands and Spain. In Portugal the first store opened in 2003, in Chiado, Lisboa. The company has continued to expand its business and the company has an extensive network throughout much of Europe. Germany is the company's largest market (with 377 stores as of 2011), followed by the United Kingdom (with 192 stores as of 2011) and then Sweden (with 168 stores as of 2011).

In Europe, online shopping is available in the UK, Germany, Sweden, Norway, The Netherlands, Finland, Denmark and Austria.


Croatia is the second country that isn't in The European Union where H&M opened their store. On April 7 and 14, 2011, first two stores were opened in Croatia in the exclusive Cvjetni shopping center in Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

 and in the Arena Centar, near the Zagreb Arena. On August 25, 2011 store was opened in City Center One, Split, on September 8, 2011 store was opened in Zadar
Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea. It is the centre of Zadar county and the wider northern Dalmatian region. Population of the city is 75,082 citizens...

 and on September 15, 2011 store was opened in City Center One, Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

. On October 20, 2011 store was opened in Westgate Shopping City.


On March 13, 2009, the company opened its first location in Russia, in the Metropolis mall in Moscow, near the Moscow Metro
Moscow Metro
The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring town of Krasnogorsk. Opened in 1935 with one line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union. As of 2011, the Moscow Metro has 182 stations and its route length is . The system is...

 Voykovskaya station. On March 20, 2009, it opened a second Russian location in the MEGA Family Shopping Centre
MEGA Family Shopping Centre
MEGA The Family Shopping Centre is a chain of shopping centres in Russia owned and operated by IKEA. Each MEGA brings together in one place over 150 tenants offering goods and services...

 in Khimki
Khimki is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated just northwest of Moscow, at the west bank of the Moscow Canal. Population: 207,125 ; 141,000 ; 106,000 ; 23,000 .-History:...

. On October 22, 2009, a third location opened in the MEGA Family Shopping Centre in Belaya Dacha. On October 18, 2009, a store was opened in Rostokino at the Golden Babylon shopping centre, Europe's largest shopping centre.


The company opened its first Canadian store in March 2004. There are currently fifty-six stores in Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, including Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

, British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada. The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the...

, Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 and Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....


United States

As of August 2010, the company had nearly two hundred individual stores in the United States.

It had opened its first U.S. store in New York City, on Fifth Avenue (at 51st Street
51st Street (Manhattan)
51st Street is a long one-way street traveling east to west across Midtown Manhattan.-East 51st Street:*The route officially begins at Beekman Place which is on a hill overlooking FDR Drive...

) in March 2000; there are now nine additional stores in city's Manhattan
Manhattan is the oldest and the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. Located primarily on the island of Manhattan at the mouth of the Hudson River, the boundaries of the borough are identical to those of New York County, an original county of the state of New York...

 borough alone.

On March 18, 2010, the company opened its first store in North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

 at the Crabtree Valley Mall
Crabtree Valley Mall
Crabtree Valley Mall is a regional mall located in Raleigh, North Carolina. At , it is the largest enclosed mall in the Triangle. Crabtree Valley contains over 220 stores and is anchored by Belk, Sears, and Macy's. Higher-end restaurants located in the mall include The Cheesecake Factory, P. F...

 in Raleigh
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital and the second largest city in the state of North Carolina as well as the seat of Wake County. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city's 2010 population was 403,892, over an area of , making Raleigh...


In October 2010, plans were announced for it to open its first Texas location in Dallas
Dallas, Texas
Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States...

The Dallas store opened August 19, 2011 at the North Park Mall off of 75 in North Dallas. http://www.wfaa.com/news/consumer/H--M-store--128026228.html

The company opened in The Gardens Mall
The Gardens Mall
The Gardens Mall is an upscale, two-story, enclosed shopping mall in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. Its anchors are Macy's, Sears, Bloomingdale's, Nordstrom, and Saks Fifth Avenue, and it features more than 160 specialty shops and restaurants.-Current:...

 in Palm Beach Gardens
Palm Beach Gardens, Florida
Palm Beach Gardens is a city in Palm Beach County in the U.S. state of Florida. The city is in the center of a rapidly-developing area north of West Palm Beach in the northern part of the county and the South Florida metropolitan area. , the population was 48,452...

, Florida, on November 5, 2010.

On November 11, 2010, it opened its first Oregon
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern...

 location at the Pioneer Place
Pioneer Place
Pioneer Place is an upscale, urban shopping mall in downtown Portland, Oregon. It consists of four blocks of retail, dining, parking, and an office tower named Pioneer Tower. The mall itself is spread out between four buildings, interconnected by skywalks or underground mall sections...

 in Portland
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...


In 2011, H&M announced that it would open another locations in the Carolinas in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Winston-Salem is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina, with a 2010 population of 229,617. Winston-Salem is the county seat and largest city of Forsyth County and the fourth-largest city in the state. Winston-Salem is the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region and is home to...


Online Shopping

On January 27, 2011, H&M announced through its official Twitter account that there will be online shopping available to USA customers at the turn of 2011/2012.


The company opened its first Asian store (also the company's first franchise
Franchising is the practice of using another firm's successful business model. The word 'franchise' is of anglo-French derivation - from franc- meaning free, and is used both as a noun and as a verb....

) in Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

, United Arab Emirates, in 2006. It followed with a store in the Salmiya
Salmiya is a district of the Hawalli Governorate in the State of Kuwait.Salmiya is located southeast of Kuwait City and is one of the largest areas in Kuwait consisting of both commercial and residential areas...

 district of Kuwait City
Kuwait City
-Suburbs:Although the districts below are not usually recognized as suburbs, the following is a list of a few areas surrounding Kuwait city:Al-Salam ""السلام"" -Economy:...

, Kuwait.

The first Israeli store was opened in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

 in 2010, followed by five more stores across the country. More stores are expected to open, mainly in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area.

It expanded into East Asia in March 2007, with its first store opening in Central Hong Kong
Central, Hong Kong
Central is the central business district of Hong Kong. It is located in Central and Western District, on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula...

 on March 10, 2007. Australian pop singer Kylie Minogue
Kylie Minogue
Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE - often known simply as Kylie - is an Australian singer, recording artist, songwriter, and actress. After beginning her career as a child actress on Australian television, she achieved recognition through her role in the television soap opera Neighbours, before commencing...

 opened that store where she also exclusively launched her range of swimwear, "H&M loves Kylie".

The first location in Shanghai, China, was opened in 2007.

The first Japanese store was opened in Ginza
is a district of Chūō, Tokyo, located south of Yaesu and Kyōbashi, west of Tsukiji, east of Yūrakuchō and Uchisaiwaichō, and north of Shinbashi.It is known as an upscale area of Tokyo with numerous department stores, boutiques, restaurants and coffeehouses. Ginza is recognized as one of the most...

 on September 13, 2008, while a second store was opened in Harajuku
Harajuku is the common name for the area around Harajuku Station on the Yamanote Line in the Shibuya ward of Tokyo, Japan....

 in November 2008. Another store was opened in the Shibuya
Shibuya, Tokyo
is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 2008, it has an estimated population of 208,371 and a population density of 13,540 persons per km². The total area is 15.11 km²....

 shopping district on September 19, 2009.

On February 25, 2009, the company announced that it had signed an agreement to open its first store in South Korea, located in the Myeongdong
Myeong-dong or Myong-dong is a dong in Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea between Chungmu-ro, Eulji-ro, and Namdaemun-ro. It covers 0.99 km² with a population of 3,529 and is mostly a commercial area, being one of Seoul's main shopping and tourism districts.-History:Myeongdong dates back to the...

 district of Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, and that it was scheduled to open during Spring 2010.

The company will open the first store in Singapore in Autumn 2011, to be located on Orchard Road
Orchard Road
Orchard Road is a road in Singapore that is the retail and entertainment hub of the city-state. It is regularly frequented by the local population as well as being a major tourist attraction...



Although the company as of May 2011 has no stores in Australia, in April 2007, Kylie Minogue teamed up with the company to introduce a swimwear line called, "H&M loves Kylie", featuring a theme of Australia. "When we think of Australia and glamour, we think Kylie, who is such a stylish person," the company's design head Margareta van den Bosch said in a statement. It has been suggested that a barrier to entry into Australia (and other Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
The Southern Hemisphere is the part of Earth that lies south of the equator. The word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' or "half sphere"...

 nations) is that these countries seasons are opposite to the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...



In 2008, the company used the song "Hang On" by British singer-songwriter Lettie
Lettie is a London-based singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist.-Biography:Lettie grew up in Suffolk, England.She is a former Medieval History student, obsessed with collecting pieces of the past in the forms of books, postcards, second hand shop finds and newspaper clippings.Lettie met...

 as background music to its UK website. Their fashions have been featured in an interactive fashion art film by Imagine Fashion called Decadent Control. It premiered in March 2011 and stars Roberto Cavalli
Roberto Cavalli
Roberto Cavalli is an Italian fashion designer from Florence.-Biography:Roberto Cavalli was born in Florence, Tuscany. His grandfather, Giuseppe Rossi, was a member of the Macchiaioli Movement, whose work is exhibited in the Uffizi Gallery. Cavalli decided to enroll at the local Art Institute,...

, Kirsty Hume
Kirsty Hume
Kirsty Hume is a Scottish model who came to prominence in the fashion world in the 1990s. A columnist likened her appearance to a Botticelli angel....

, Eva Herzigová
Eva Herzigová
Eva Herzigová is a Czech model and actress.-Early life and career:Herzigová was born in Litvínov, Czechoslovakia . She began her modeling career after winning a modeling beauty contest in Prague in 1989, at the age of sixteen. After arriving in Paris, her popularity increased...

 and Brad Kroenig.

Guest-designer collaborations

In November 2004, selected company stores offered an exclusive collection by fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld
Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer based in Paris. He has collaborated on a variety of fashion and art related projects, most notably as head designer and creative director for the fashion house Chanel...

. The press reported large crowds and that the initial inventories in the larger cities were sold out within an hour, although the clothes were still available in less-fashion-sensitive areas until the company redistributed them to meet with demand.

In November 2005, the company launched a collection by Stella McCartney
Stella McCartney
Stella Nina McCartney is an English fashion designer. She is the daughter of former Beatles member Sir Paul McCartney and the late photographer and animal rights activist, Linda McCartney.-Early life:...

 and, in November 2006, by avant-garde
Avant-garde means "advance guard" or "vanguard". The adjective form is used in English to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics....

 Dutch designers Viktor & Rolf
Viktor & Rolf
Viktor & Rolf is an Amsterdam-based fashion house. The company was founded in 1993 by designers Viktor Horsting and Rolf Snoeren .- History :...


In March 2007, it launched another collaboration designed by the pop star Madonna
Madonna (entertainer)
Madonna is an American singer-songwriter, actress and entrepreneur. Born in Bay City, Michigan, she moved to New York City in 1977 to pursue a career in modern dance. After performing in the music groups Breakfast Club and Emmy, she released her debut album in 1983...

. In June 2007 the company worked with game developers Maxis
Maxis is an American company founded as an independent video game developer in 1987. It is currently a subsidiary of Electronic Arts . Maxis is the creator of one of the best-selling computer games of all time, The Sims and its first sequel, The Sims 2...

 to create a stuff pack for the latter's The Sims 2
The Sims 2
The Sims 2 is a strategic life simulation computer game developed by Maxis and published by Electronic Arts. It is the sequel to the best-selling computer game, The Sims, which debuted on February 4, 2000. It was first released on September 14, 2004 for Microsoft Windows. A port to Apple Mac OS X...

computer game, H&M Fashion Stuff.

In November 2007, the company launched a collection by Italian designer Roberto Cavalli
Roberto Cavalli
Roberto Cavalli is an Italian fashion designer from Florence.-Biography:Roberto Cavalli was born in Florence, Tuscany. His grandfather, Giuseppe Rossi, was a member of the Macchiaioli Movement, whose work is exhibited in the Uffizi Gallery. Cavalli decided to enroll at the local Art Institute,...

. It was reported that the clothing sold out very quickly. Also in 2007, another design with Kylie Minogue
Kylie Minogue
Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE - often known simply as Kylie - is an Australian singer, recording artist, songwriter, and actress. After beginning her career as a child actress on Australian television, she achieved recognition through her role in the television soap opera Neighbours, before commencing...

 was launched in Shanghai, China. In the fall of 2008 the Japanese company Comme des Garçons
Comme des Garçons
Comme des Garçons, written コム・デ・ギャルソン in Japanese and French for "Like Boys," is a Japanese fashion label headed by Rei Kawakubo, who owns the company with her husband Adrian Joffe....

 was selected as guest designer.

For spring and summer 2009, the British designer Matthew Williamson
Matthew Williamson
Matthew Williamson is an English fashion designer. His collections often have an Indian influence, perhaps related to the time Williamson spent working in India for the clothing store Monsoon...

 created two exclusive ranges for the company – the first being a collection of women's clothes released in selected stores. The second collection saw Williamson branch into menswear for the first time, only in selected stores. The second collection also featured swimwear for men and women and was available in every company store worldwide.

On November 14, 2009, the company released a limited-edition diffusion collection by Jimmy Choo
Jimmy Choo
Dato' Jimmy Choo, OBE, born Choo Yeang Keat, is a Malaysian fashion designer based in London, United Kingdom. He is best known for founding Jimmy Choo Ltd that became known for its handmade women's shoes....

 featuring shoes and handbags, ranging from £30 to £170 including a range of men's shoes. The collection also included clothing designed by Choo for the first time, many garments made from suede and leather, and was available in 200 stores worldwide, including London's Oxford Circus
Oxford Circus
Oxford Circus is the area of London at the busy intersection of Regent Street and Oxford Street, in the West End. It is served by Oxford Circus tube station, which is directly beneath the junction itself.- History :...

 store. Sonia Rykiel
Sonia Rykiel
Sonia Rykiel née Flis is a French fashion designer.Ethnically a Polish-Romanian Jew, Sonia Rykiel was born in Neuilly a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France, the eldest of five daughters of a Polish mother and a Romanian father. At the age of 17, she was employed to dress the window...

 also collaborated with the company, by designing a ladies knitwear and lingerie range that was released in selected company stores on December 5, 2009.

For Fall 2010, the company collaborated with French fashion house Lanvin
Lanvin (clothing)
Lanvin is a high fashion house founded by Jeanne Lanvin.-History:Lanvin made such beautiful clothes for her daughter that they began to attract the attention of a number of wealthy people who requested copies for their own children...

 for its 2010 guest designer.

For Spring/Summer 2011, the company collaborated with fashion blogger Elin Kling, which was available at selected stores only.

In June 2011, H&M announced a collaboration plan with Versace.

In November 2011, H&M announced a collaboration plan with Marni
Marni (clothing)
Marni is an Italian fashion label founded by Consuelo Castiglioni in 1994, who remains as the label's designer.-History:The fashion line started in 1994, when Castiglioni became known for her contributions to the design of fur, stemming from her husband's family fur business...

, to be launched in spring 2012.


The branding consultancy Interbrand
Interbrand, a division of Omnicom, is a global branding consultancy, specializing in vast brand services, including brand analytics, brand strategy, brand valuation, corporate design, digital brand management, and naming...

 ranked the company as the twenty-first most-valuable global brand in 2009 and 2010, making it the highest-ranked retailer in the survey. Its worth is estimated at $12–16 billion.

The full company name Hennes & Mauritz was rebranded to H&M to simplify worldwide perception of the brand.

The company owns the two-letter domain hm.com. The domain was registered in the early 1990s, but data on the first registration is lost. In 1998 Hennes & Mauritz was able to buy the domain hm.com from a company called A1 in a non-published domain transaction.

Corporate objective

The company describes its mission as "Fashion and quality at the best price." Its goals for 2008 have been to intensify the sales in the existing stores, as well as to increase the number of new stores by a net ten percent to fifteen percent per year. In 2007, the company opened 193 new stores and closed 16 . Expansion and maintaining of financial stability are the company's strategic goals. In the last five years the revenues rose by 73 percent and the earnings per share increased by 139 percent.

Home furnishing

In a press release, the company announced that it would begin selling home furnishings. As of 2009, it was distributed exclusively by the company's internet catalog, so it is only available in countries where H&M is sold online, such as Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the UK


On January 6, 2010, it was reported that unsold clothing and other items in one New York City store are cut up before being discarded, presumably to prevent resale or use.

See also

  • List of companies of Sweden
  • European Retail Round Table
    European Retail Round Table
    The European Retail Round Table is a European organisation which represents companies from the European retail sector. Together the members employ about 2.3 million people and have a turnover of €400 billion.The organisation is based in Brussels, Belgium....

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.