Guadalupe River (Texas)
Overview
 
The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County
Kerr County, Texas
Kerr County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2010, its population was 49,625. Its county seat is Kerrville. Kerr County was named by Joshua D. Brown for his fellow Kentucky native, James Kerr, a congressman of the Republic of Texas...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 to San Antonio Bay
San Antonio Bay
San Antonio Bay is a bay on the Texas Gulf coast situated between Matagorda and Aransas Bay. It consists mainly of the combined waters of the San Antonio and Guadalupe rivers, and is located at the mouth of the Guadalupe River, about 55 miles northeast of Corpus Christi and 130 miles southeast...

 on the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

. The river is a popular destination for rafters and canoers. Larger cities along the river include New Braunfels
New Braunfels, Texas
New Braunfels is a city in Comal and Guadalupe counties in the U.S. state of Texas that is a principal city of the metropolitan area. Braunfels means "brown rock" in German; the city is named for Braunfels, in Germany. The city's population was 57,740 as of the 2010 census, up 58% from the 2000...

, Kerrville
Kerrville, Texas
Kerrville is a city in Kerr County, Texas, United States. The population was 20,425 at the 2000 census. In 2009, the population was 22,826...

, Seguin
Seguin, Texas
Seguin is a city in Guadalupe County, Texas, in the United States. It is part of the San Antonio-New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,011; the July 1, 2009 Census estimate, however, showed the population had increased to 26,842...

, Gonzales
Gonzales, Texas
Gonzales is a city in Gonzales County, Texas, United States. The population was 7,202 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Gonzales County.-Geography:Gonzales is located at...

, Cuero
Cuero, Texas
Cuero is a city in DeWitt County, Texas, United States. The population was 6,571 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of DeWitt County. It is also unofficially known as the "turkey capital of the world"...

, and Victoria
Victoria, Texas
Victoria is a city in and the seat of Victoria County, Texas, United States. The population was 60,603 at the 2000 census. The three counties of the Victoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 111,163 at the 2000 census,...

. The Guadalupe has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam
Canyon Dam
The Canyon Dam in Texas is a rolled-earth dam on the Guadalupe River in the Hill Country. The water impounded by the dam forms Canyon Lake.-Geography:...

, forms Canyon Lake
Canyon Lake (Texas)
Canyon Lake is a reservoir on the Guadalupe River in the Texas Hill Country in the United States. Canyon Lake is a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir formed on the Guadalupe River in Comal County by Canyon Dam, which is located about sixteen miles northwest of New Braunfels. The dam, lake,...

 northwest of New Braunfels.
The upper river, in the Texas Hill Country
Texas Hill Country
The Texas Hill Country is a vernacular term applied to a region of Central Texas featuring tall rugged hills consisting of thin layers of soil atop limestone or granite. It also includes the Llano Uplift and the second largest granite monadnock in the United States, Enchanted Rock, which is located...

, is a smaller, faster stream with limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 banks and shaded by pecan
Pecan
The pecan , Carya illinoinensis, is a species of hickory, native to south-central North America, in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz, in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana east to western Kentucky, southwestern Ohio, North Carolina, South...

 and bald cypress trees.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County
Kerr County, Texas
Kerr County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2010, its population was 49,625. Its county seat is Kerrville. Kerr County was named by Joshua D. Brown for his fellow Kentucky native, James Kerr, a congressman of the Republic of Texas...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 to San Antonio Bay
San Antonio Bay
San Antonio Bay is a bay on the Texas Gulf coast situated between Matagorda and Aransas Bay. It consists mainly of the combined waters of the San Antonio and Guadalupe rivers, and is located at the mouth of the Guadalupe River, about 55 miles northeast of Corpus Christi and 130 miles southeast...

 on the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

. The river is a popular destination for rafters and canoers. Larger cities along the river include New Braunfels
New Braunfels, Texas
New Braunfels is a city in Comal and Guadalupe counties in the U.S. state of Texas that is a principal city of the metropolitan area. Braunfels means "brown rock" in German; the city is named for Braunfels, in Germany. The city's population was 57,740 as of the 2010 census, up 58% from the 2000...

, Kerrville
Kerrville, Texas
Kerrville is a city in Kerr County, Texas, United States. The population was 20,425 at the 2000 census. In 2009, the population was 22,826...

, Seguin
Seguin, Texas
Seguin is a city in Guadalupe County, Texas, in the United States. It is part of the San Antonio-New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,011; the July 1, 2009 Census estimate, however, showed the population had increased to 26,842...

, Gonzales
Gonzales, Texas
Gonzales is a city in Gonzales County, Texas, United States. The population was 7,202 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Gonzales County.-Geography:Gonzales is located at...

, Cuero
Cuero, Texas
Cuero is a city in DeWitt County, Texas, United States. The population was 6,571 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of DeWitt County. It is also unofficially known as the "turkey capital of the world"...

, and Victoria
Victoria, Texas
Victoria is a city in and the seat of Victoria County, Texas, United States. The population was 60,603 at the 2000 census. The three counties of the Victoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 111,163 at the 2000 census,...

. The Guadalupe has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam
Canyon Dam
The Canyon Dam in Texas is a rolled-earth dam on the Guadalupe River in the Hill Country. The water impounded by the dam forms Canyon Lake.-Geography:...

, forms Canyon Lake
Canyon Lake (Texas)
Canyon Lake is a reservoir on the Guadalupe River in the Texas Hill Country in the United States. Canyon Lake is a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir formed on the Guadalupe River in Comal County by Canyon Dam, which is located about sixteen miles northwest of New Braunfels. The dam, lake,...

 northwest of New Braunfels.

Course

The upper river, in the Texas Hill Country
Texas Hill Country
The Texas Hill Country is a vernacular term applied to a region of Central Texas featuring tall rugged hills consisting of thin layers of soil atop limestone or granite. It also includes the Llano Uplift and the second largest granite monadnock in the United States, Enchanted Rock, which is located...

, is a smaller, faster stream with limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 banks and shaded by pecan
Pecan
The pecan , Carya illinoinensis, is a species of hickory, native to south-central North America, in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz, in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana east to western Kentucky, southwestern Ohio, North Carolina, South...

 and bald cypress trees. It is formed by two main tributary forks, the North Fork and South Fork Guadalupe Rivers. The upper Guadalupe is popular as a tubing destination where recreational users often float down the river on inflated tire inner tubes during the spring and summer months. East of Boerne, on the border of Kendall County
Kendall County, Texas
Kendall County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2008 census, its population was 32,886. Its seat is Boerne....

 and Comal County, the river flows through Guadalupe River State Park
Guadalupe River State Park
Guadalupe River State Park is a Texas state park located on a section of the Guadalupe River in Kendall and Comal Counties, northwest of Bulverde, Texas United States and is administered by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department...

, one of the more popular tubing areas along the river.

The lower river begins at the outlet of Canyon Lake
Canyon Lake (Texas)
Canyon Lake is a reservoir on the Guadalupe River in the Texas Hill Country in the United States. Canyon Lake is a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir formed on the Guadalupe River in Comal County by Canyon Dam, which is located about sixteen miles northwest of New Braunfels. The dam, lake,...

, near New Braunfels
New Braunfels, Texas
New Braunfels is a city in Comal and Guadalupe counties in the U.S. state of Texas that is a principal city of the metropolitan area. Braunfels means "brown rock" in German; the city is named for Braunfels, in Germany. The city's population was 57,740 as of the 2010 census, up 58% from the 2000...

. The section between Canyon Dam
Canyon Dam
The Canyon Dam in Texas is a rolled-earth dam on the Guadalupe River in the Hill Country. The water impounded by the dam forms Canyon Lake.-Geography:...

 and New Braunfels is the most heavily used in terms of recreation. It is a popular destination for whitewater rafters, canoe
Canoe
A canoe or Canadian canoe is a small narrow boat, typically human-powered, though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors. Canoes are usually pointed at both bow and stern and are normally open on top, but can be decked over A canoe (North American English) or Canadian...

ists, kayakers
Whitewater kayaking
Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a whitewater river. Whitewater kayaking can range from simple, carefree gently moving water, to demanding, dangerous whitewater. River rapids are graded like ski runs according to the difficulty, danger or...

 and tubing. When the water is flowing at less than 1000 cuft/s there could be hundreds if not thousands of tubes on this stretch of the river. At flows greater than 1000 cuft/s, there should be very few tubes on the water. Flows greater than 1000 cuft/s and less than 2500 cuft/s are ideal for rafting and paddling. The flow varies according to the seasons, and by the amount of rainfall the area has received. It is joined by the Comal River
Comal River
The Comal River is the shortest navigable river in the state of Texas in the United States. Proclaimed the "longest shortest river in the world" by locals, it runs entirely within the city limits of New Braunfels in southeast Comal County. It is a tributary of the Guadalupe River...

 in New Braunfels and the San Marcos River
San Marcos River
The San Marcos River rises from the San Marcos Springs, the location of Aquarena Springs, in San Marcos, Texas. The springs are home to several threatened or endangered species, including the Texas Blind Salamander, Fountain Darter, and Texas Wild Rice...

 about two miles (3 km) west of Gonzales. The Guadalupe below the San Marcos River is part of the course for the Texas Water Safari
Texas Water Safari
The Texas Water Safari, billed as the "World's Toughest Boat Race", is a trek down waterways from San Marcos, Texas, to Seadrift, Texas. The primary requirement is a boat powered only by human muscle. The event was first held in 1963, and is run annually....

.

The San Antonio River flows into the Guadalupe River just north of Tivoli
Tivoli, Texas
Tivoli is an unincorporated community in Refugio County, Texas, United States. It takes its name from the town of Tivoli in the Lazio region of central Italy.The Austwell-Tivoli Independent School District serves area students.-External links:...

. Ahead of the entry into the San Antonio Bay
San Antonio Bay
San Antonio Bay is a bay on the Texas Gulf coast situated between Matagorda and Aransas Bay. It consists mainly of the combined waters of the San Antonio and Guadalupe rivers, and is located at the mouth of the Guadalupe River, about 55 miles northeast of Corpus Christi and 130 miles southeast...

 estuary, the river forms a delta
River delta
A delta is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river. Deltas are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river...

 and splits into two distributaries
Distributary
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. They are a common feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary is a tributary...

 referred respectively as the North and South Guadalupe Rivers. Each distributary flows into the San Antonio Bay estuary at Guadalupe Bay
Guadalupe Bay
Guadalupe Bay is a slender inlet of San Antonio Bay in Calhoun County, Texas, United States, near the settlements of Seadrift and Long Mott. It is fed by the Guadalupe River, and is the site of the river's two mouths.-History:...

.

History

The river was first called after Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe by Alonso de León
Alonso De León
Alonso de León wasexplorer and governor, who led several expeditions into the area that is now northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.-Early life:...

 in 1689. It was renamed the San Augustin by Domingo Terán de los Ríos who maintained a colony on the river, but the name Guadalupe persisted. Many explorers referred to the current Guadalupe as the San Ybón above its confluence
Confluence (geography)
In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. It usually refers to the point where two streams flow together, merging into a single stream...

 with the Comal
Comal River
The Comal River is the shortest navigable river in the state of Texas in the United States. Proclaimed the "longest shortest river in the world" by locals, it runs entirely within the city limits of New Braunfels in southeast Comal County. It is a tributary of the Guadalupe River...

, and instead the Comal was called the Guadalupe. Evidence indicates that the river has been home to humans for several thousand years, including the Karankawa
Karankawa
Karankawa were a group of Native American peoples, now extinct as a tribal group, who played a pivotal part in early Texas history....

, Tonkawa
Tonkawa
The Tickanwa•tic Tribe , better known as the Tonkawa , are a Native American people indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas. They once spoke the now-extinct Tonkawa language believed to have been a language isolate not related to any other indigenous tongues...

, and Huaco Indians
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

.

Being led by Prince Solms
Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels
Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels , was a German prince and military officer in both the Austrian army and in the cavalry of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. As Commissioner General of the Adelsverein, he spearheaded the establishment of colonies of German immigrants in Texas...

, 228 pioneer immigrants from Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 traveled overland from Indianola
Indianola, Texas
Indianola is a ghost town located on Matagorda Bay in Calhoun County, Texas, United States. The community, once the county seat of Calhoun County, is a part of the Victoria, Texas, Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1875, the city had a population of 5,000, but on September 15 of that year, a...

 to the site chosen to be the first German settlement in Texas, New Braunfels. Upon reaching the Guadalupe River, the pioneers found the river too high to cross due to the winter rains. Prince Solms, perhaps wishing to impress the others with his bravado, plunged into the raging waters and crossed the swollen river on horseback. Not to be outdone by anyone, Betty Holekamp
Betty Holekamp
Betty Holekamp was a German colonist and pioneer in Texas. She is recognized for several "firsts" as a Texas pioneer, such as being the first to sew an American flag upon Texas's acceptance into the Union, and thus is known as the Betsy Ross of Texas...

 immediately followed and successfully crossed the river to the astonishment of her fellow colonists and perhaps to the chagrin of the Prince. Thus Betty Holekamp is known as the first white woman to cross the Guadalupe on horseback.

A sudden flash flood
Flash flood
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas—washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a storm, hurricane, or tropical storm or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields...

 on the river on 17 July 1987 near Comfort
Comfort, Texas
Comfort is a census-designated place in Kendall County, Texas, United States. The population was 2,363 at the 2010 census. It is part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:...

 swept a bus away from a nearby road. Forty-three people were on the bus at the time as it left a church camp. Ten drowned, while the rest were rescued, mostly from treetops. On April 18, 1989, the story of the deaths and rescues and this flood was aired on the pilot episode of Rescue 911
Rescue 911
Rescue 911 is an informational reality-based television series, hosted by William Shatner. Originally intended to be only a set of three TV specials, Rescue 911 was picked up by CBS for the 1989 fall season after two specials aired on April 18, 1989 and May 9, 1989...

 and it was later made into a television movie called Flood: Who Will Save Our Children?.

Fishing

The Guadalupe River is listed as one of the 100 top trout streams in the United States. In addition to fly fishing for rainbow and brown trout on the tail-waters of the Guadalupe River below Canyon Lake, anglers can catch largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, Guadalupe bass, white bass, and the Rio Grande cichlid.

River Conditions / Flow

Guadalupe River conditions can change rapidly. The Guadalupe River flow
Volumetric flow rate
The volumetric flow rate in fluid dynamics and hydrometry, is the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time...

 is set by the dam at Canyon Lake
Canyon Lake (Texas)
Canyon Lake is a reservoir on the Guadalupe River in the Texas Hill Country in the United States. Canyon Lake is a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir formed on the Guadalupe River in Comal County by Canyon Dam, which is located about sixteen miles northwest of New Braunfels. The dam, lake,...

 operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. It is highly regulated and well maintained to ensure safety. The Guadalupe River is, however, prone to severe flooding. During the rainy seasons the water can reach well above the banks of the river and exceed “normal” levels, in which case the Guadalupe river will be closed to swimming. If the flow gauge exceeds 1,000 cubic feet per second at the Sattler Gage, then the Guadalupe River is closed to tubing
Tubing (recreation)
Tubing is a recreational activity where an individual rides on top of an inner tube, either on water, snow, or through the air. The tubes themselves are also known as "donuts" or "biscuits" due to their shape.-Water:Tubing on water generally consists of two forms: towed and free-floating, also...

.

Points of interest

  • Riverside Nature Center
    Riverside Nature Center
    The Riverside Nature Center is a non-profit arboretum with wildlife and native plant sanctuary located on the Guadalupe River at 150 Francisco Lemos Street, Kerrville, Texas. The gardens are open daily without charge....

    , Kerrville, Texas
    Kerrville, Texas
    Kerrville is a city in Kerr County, Texas, United States. The population was 20,425 at the 2000 census. In 2009, the population was 22,826...

    | Guadalupe River Home Page

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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