Gennady Strekalov
Gennadi Mikhailovich Strekalov (October 26, 1940 - December 25, 2004) was an Instructor-Test-Cosmonaut and Department Head at Russian aerospace firm RSC Energia. He has been decorated twice as Hero of the Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.-Overview:...

 (December 10, 1980 and April 11, 1984). He also received the Ashoka Chakra Award
Ashoka Chakra Award
The Ashok Chakra is an Indian military decoration awarded for valor, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peace time equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for the "most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice" other...

 from India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 in 1984.


Strekalov was born on October 26, 1940 in Mytishchi
Mytishchi is a city and the administrative center of Mytishchinsky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, which lies to the northeast of Russia's capital Moscow, on the Yauza River and the Moscow–Yaroslavl railroad. The city is the oblast's largest center for industry and education...

 near Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. He graduated from N.E. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School
Technical school
Technical school is a general term used for two-year college which provide mostly employment-preparation skills for trained labor, such as welding, culinary arts and office management.-Associations supporting technical schools:...

 in 1965 with an engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

's diploma
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to...

. He died in Moscow on December 25, 2004 from cancer. He was 64 years old.

Spaceflight experience

Strekalov had worked as an engineer at RSC Energia since graduation from the N. E. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School. He was involved in experimental investigations and testing of space technology
Space technology
Space technology is technology that is related to entering, and retrieving objects or life forms from space."Every day" technologies such as weather forecasting, remote sensing, GPS systems, satellite television, and some long distance communications systems critically rely on space infrastructure...

. He held the degree of candidate of technical sciences. He independently developed and released documentation for a series of enterprise
A business is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit...

-related products. As part of an operations group, he participated in mission control for flights of scientific research vehicles belonging to the Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

. In January 1974, he began training as a crew member for a mission aboard the Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

 as a flight engineer
Flight engineer
Flight engineers work in three types of aircraft: fixed-wing , rotary wing , and space flight .As airplanes became even larger requiring more engines and complex systems to operate, the workload on the two pilots became excessive during certain critical parts of the flight regime, notably takeoffs...

 and, in 1976, was part of the backup crew for the Soyuz 22
Soyuz 22
Soyuz 22 was 1976 Soviet manned spaceflight. It was an earth-sciences mission using a modified Soyuz spacecraft, and was also, some observers speculated, a mission to observe NATO exercises near Norway....


Starting October 1978, he underwent flight
Flight is the process by which an object moves either through an atmosphere or beyond it by generating lift or propulsive thrust, or aerostatically using buoyancy, or by simple ballistic movement....

 training to be the flight engineer for a Soyuz expedition to visit the long-term Salyut
The Salyut program was the first space station program undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted of a series of nine space stations launched over a period of eleven years from 1971 to 1982...

 space station. From November 27 to December 10 of 1980, he successfully completed an experimental mission aboard the Soyuz T-3
Soyuz T-3
-Backup crew:-Mission parameters:*Mass: 6850 kg*Perigee: 200 km*Apogee: 251 km*Inclination: 51.6°*Period: 88.7 minutes-Mission highlights:...

A spacecraft or spaceship is a craft or machine designed for spaceflight. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, planetary exploration and transportation of humans and cargo....

 as a research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

 engineer as part of the crew composed of L. D. Kizim, O. G. Malcarov, and G. M. Strekalov. During the flight, a docking of the Soyuz T-3 spacecraft with the Salyut 6
Salyut 6
Salyut 6 , DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme. Launched on 29 September 1977 by a Proton rocket, the station was the first of the 'second-generation' type of space station. Salyut 6 possessed several revolutionary advances over the earlier...

-Process-11 orbital
Orbital spaceflight
An orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit. To do this around the Earth, it must be on a free trajectory which has an altitude at perigee above...

 complex was accomplished.

From June 1981 to April 1983, he underwent direct flight training to be the flight engineer of the primary expedition for a mission aboard the Soyuz-T spacecraft and the long-term Salyut 7
Salyut 7
Salyut 7 was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991. It was first manned in May 1982 with two crew via Soyuz T-5, and last visited in June 1986, by Soyuz T-15. Various crew and modules were used over its lifetime, including a total of 12 manned and 15 unmanned launches...

 orbiting station. In the period from 20 - 22 April 1983, he flew aboard the Soyuz T-8
Soyuz T-8
-Backup crew:-Mission parameters:*Mass: 6850 kg*Perigee: 200 km*Apogee: 230 km*Inclination: 51.6°*Period: 88.6 minutes-Mission highlights:...

 spacecraft as part of a crew comprising V. G. Titov, G. M. Strekalov, and A. A Screbrov.

From 3 to April 11 of 1984, he participated in a third space mission aboard the Salyut-7 orbital scientific-research complex as part of an international Soviet-India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n crew including Yu. V. Malishev, G. M. Strekalov, and R. Sharma, of India.

In the period from 1 August to 10 December 1990, he completed a fourth space fight as flight engineer of the seventh primary expedition to the Soyuz TM-10
Soyuz TM-10
-Mission highlights:TM-10 marked the return to earth of Japanese reporter Toyohiro Akiyama.The Soyuz arrived at Mir's aft port with four passengers: quail for cages in Kvant-2. A quail had laid an egg en route to the station. It was returned to Earth, along with 130 kg of experiment results...

 station and the Mir
Mir was a space station operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, at first by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, Mir was the first modular space station and had a greater mass than that of any previous spacecraft, holding the record for the...

 orbital scientific-research complex as part of a crew including G. M. Manakov and G. M. Strekalov.

From 3 October to 4 November 1994, he was flight engineer of the Soyuz TM-21
Soyuz TM-21
Soyuz TM-21 was Soyuz mission, a human spaceflight mission transporting personnel to the Russian space station Mir. Part of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, the mission launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, atop a Soyuz-U2 carrier rocket, at 06:11:34 UTC on March 14, 1995...

 / Mir EO-18 / STS-71
STS-71 was the third mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried out the first Space Shuttle docking to Mir, a Russian space station. The mission used Space Shuttle Atlantis, which lifted off from launch pad 39A on 27 June 1995 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida...


External links

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