Extended chord
In music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

, extended chords are tertian
In music theory, tertian describes any piece, chord, counterpoint etc. constructed from the interval of a third...

Chord (music)
A chord in music is any harmonic set of two–three or more notes that is heard as if sounding simultaneously. These need not actually be played together: arpeggios and broken chords may for many practical and theoretical purposes be understood as chords...

 (built from third
Third may refer to:*3 , such as the 3rd of something -see also Ordinal number *Fraction , such as 1/3*1/60 of a second, or 1/3,600 of a minute *Third World, economically underdeveloped nations...

s) or triad
Triad (music)
In music and music theory, a triad is a three-note chord that can be stacked in thirds. Its members, when actually stacked in thirds, from lowest pitched tone to highest, are called:* the Root...

s with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh
Seventh may refer to:* Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution-Music:* Diminished seventh, a chromatically reduced minor seventh interval...

. Ninth
Ninth chord
A ninth chord is a chord that encompasses the interval of a ninth when arranged in close position with the root in the bass.A dominant ninth is a dominant chord with a ninth. A ninth chord, as an extended chord, typically includes the seventh along with the basic triad structure. Thus, a Cmaj9...

, eleventh
Eleventh chord
In music, an eleventh chord is a chord which contains the tertian extension of the eleventh. Typically found in jazz, an eleventh chord will also usually include the seventh and ninth along with elements of the basic triad structure. Variants include the dominant eleventh, minor eleventh, and the...

, and thirteenth chords are extended chords. The thirteenth is the farthest extension diatonically possible as, by that point, all seven tonal degrees
Tonality is a system of music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center", or tonic. The term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840...

 are represented within the chord.
In practice however, extended chords do not typically use all the chord members; when it is not altered, the fifth is often omitted, as are notes between the seventh and the highest note (i.e., the ninth is often omitted in an eleventh chord; the ninth and eleventh are usually omitted in a thirteenth chord), unless they are altered to give a special texture. See chord alteration.

Chords extended beyond the seventh are rarely seen in the Baroque era
Baroque music
Baroque music describes a style of Western Classical music approximately extending from 1600 to 1760. This era follows the Renaissance and was followed in turn by the Classical era...

, and are used more frequently in the Classical era. The Romantic era
Romantic music
Romantic music or music in the Romantic Period is a musicological and artistic term referring to a particular period, theory, compositional practice, and canon in Western music history, from 1810 to 1900....

 saw greatly increased use of extended harmony. Extended harmony prior to the 20th century usually has dominant
Dominant (music)
In music, the dominant is the fifth scale degree of the diatonic scale, called "dominant" because it is next in importance to the tonic,and a dominant chord is any chord built upon that pitch, using the notes of the same diatonic scale...

 function – as V9, V11, and V13, or V9/V, V13/ii etc.

Examples of the extended chords used as tonic harmonies include White Cherry's "Play That Funky Music
Play That Funky Music
"Play That Funky Music" is a funk song written by Robert Parissi and recorded by the band Wild Cherry. The performers on the classic recording included the members of the band at the time: lead singer Parissi, guitarist Bryan Bassett, bassist Allen Wentz, and drummer Ron Beitle, with session horn...

" (either a dominant ninth or dominant thirteenth).

Most frequent voicings and expected resolution in the common practice period

When orchestrating chords that are voiced in four or fewer parts, it is important to select which notes to use so as to give the desired sonority
Sonority may refer to:*sound*sonority hierarchy, a ranking of speech sounds by amplitude*In music theory, a chord, particularly when speaking of non-traditional harmonies...

, or effect of the intended chord. Generally, priority should be given to the third, seventh and the most extended tone, as these factors most strongly influence the quality and function of the chord. The root
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. This is not always the case, however, since a root can also be aerial or aerating . Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either...

 is never omitted from the texture. The third defines the chord's quality as major or minor. The extended note defines the quality of the extended pitch, which may be major, minor, perfect, or augmented. The seventh factor helps to define the chord as an extended chord (and not an added note chord), and also adds to the texture. Any notes which happen to be altered, such as a flatted fifth or ninth, should also be given priority. For example: in a thirteenth chord, one would play the root, third, seventh, and thirteenth, and be able to leave out the fifth, ninth, and eleventh without affecting the function of the chord. The Eleventh chord
Eleventh chord
In music, an eleventh chord is a chord which contains the tertian extension of the eleventh. Typically found in jazz, an eleventh chord will also usually include the seventh and ninth along with elements of the basic triad structure. Variants include the dominant eleventh, minor eleventh, and the...

 is an exception to this voicing, in which the root, seventh, ninth, and eleventh are most commonly used.

In the classical practices of western music, extended chords most often have dominant function (dominant or secondary dominant
Secondary dominant
Secondary dominant is an analytical label for a specific harmonic device, prevalent in the tonal idiom of Western music beginning in the common practice period...

), and will resolve in circle progression (down a fifth) in much the same way that V7, V7/ii, V/IV, etc. might resolve to their respective tonics. Extended chords can also be altered dominants, and the extended pitch may be altered in several ways (such as V flat 13 in a major key).

Following standard voice leading rules:

V9 – I or i
  • The third, which will also be the seventh scale degree, always resolves upward to tonic.
  • The seventh resolves downwards stepwise to the third factor of the chord of resolution.
  • The extended pitch will resolve downward.

V11 – I or i
  • The seventh resolves downwards stepwise to the third factor of the chord of resolution.
  • The ninth resolves downwards stepwise to the fifth factor of the chord of resolution.
  • The eleventh doesn't move, and becomes the root of the chord of resolution.

V13 – I or i
  • The seventh resolves downwards stepwise to the third factor of the chord of resolution.
  • The third, which will also be the seventh scale degree, always resolves upward to tonic.
  • The thirteenth, will resolve downward to the tonic, and often includes a passing tone through the ninth factor of the chord of resolution. Less often, the thirteenth may also remain the same and become the third of the chord of resolution.

An important distinction between Extended and Added chords must be made, since the added tones and extended tones are enharmonic
In modern musical notation and tuning, an enharmonic equivalent is a note , interval , or key signature which is equivalent to some other note, interval, or key signature, but "spelled", or named, differently...

, but differ in function. Extended chords always have at least one octave between their lowest pitch, and extended note, otherwise the extended factor would be considered an added pitch. Extended chords usually must be resolved when used in a dominant function, whereas added chords are most often textures added to a tonic.

18th century

In the 18th-century 9th and 11th chords were theorized as downward extensions of 7th chords, according to theories of supposition.

In 1722 Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François...

 first proposed the concept that 9th and 11th chords are built from seventh chords by placing a "supposed" bass one or two thirds below the fundamental bass or actual root of the chord. With the theoretical chord F A C E G B the fundamental bass would be considered C, while the supposed bass would be F. Thus the notes F and A are added below a seventh chord on C, C E G B, triadically (in thirds). This is also referred to as the "H chord".

The theory of supposition was adopted and modified by Roussier, Marpurg
Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg
Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg was a German music critic, music-theorist and composer. He was friendly and active with many figures of the Enlightenment of the 18th century.-Life:...

, and other theorists. A. F. C. Kollmann, following Kirnberger
Johann Kirnberger
Johann Philipp Kirnberger was a musician, composer , and music theorist. A pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach, he became a violinist at the court of Frederick II of Prussia in 1751. He was the music director to the Prussian Princess Anna Amalia from 1758 until his death. Kirnberger greatly admired J.S...

, adopted a simpler approach and one closer to that prevalent today, in which Rameau's "supposed" bass is considered the fundamental and the 9th and 11th are regarded as transient notes inessential to the structure of the chord. Thus F A C E G B is considered a seventh chord on F, F A C E, with G and B being nonchord tone
Nonchord tone
A nonchord tone, nonharmonic tone, or non-harmony note is a note in a piece of music which is not a part of the implied harmony that is described by the other notes sounding at the time...

s added above triadically.

19th century

In 19th-century classical music the seventh chord was generally the upper limit in "chordal consonance
Consonance and dissonance
In music, a consonance is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance , which is considered to be unstable...

", with 9th and 11th chords being used for "extra power" but invariably with one or more notes treated as appoggiaturas. The thickness of complete 9th, 11th, or 13th chords in close position was also generally avoided through leaving out one or more tones or using wider spacing (open position).

20th century

In the 20th century, especially in jazz and popular music, 9th chords were used as elaborations of simpler chords, particularly as substitutes for the tonic triad at the end of a piece. The "'piling up'" of thirds above the tonic to make 7th, 9th, 11th, or even 13th chords "is one of the most important characteristics of jazz harmony".

Further reading

  • Popp, Marius (1998). Applicatory Harmony in Jazz, Pop & Rock Improvisation. ISBN 973-569-228-7.

See also

  • Added tone chord
    Added tone chord
    An added tone chord is a non-tertian chord composed of a tertian triad and an extra "added" note. The added note is not a seventh , but typically a non-tertian note, which cannot be defined by a sequence of thirds from the root, such as the added sixth or fourth...

  • Elektra chord
    Elektra chord
    The Elektra chord is a "complexly dissonant signature-chord" and motivic elaboration used by composer Richard Strauss to represent the title character of his opera Elektra that is a "bitonal synthesis of E major and C-sharp major" and may be regarded as a polychord related to conventional chords...

  • Hendrix chord
    Hendrix chord
    In music, the dominant 79 chord is sometimes known colloquially as the Hendrix chord or Purple Haze chord, nicknamed for guitarist Jimi Hendrix...

  • Upper structure triad for an examination of extended harmony with emphasis on jazz and pop

External links

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