in which specific hierarchical
relationships are based on a key
"center", or tonic
. The term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron
(1810) and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis
in 1840 (Reti, 1958; Simms 1975, 119; Judd, 1998; Dahlhaus 1990). Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most often used to refer to Major-Minor tonality (also called diatonic tonality, common practice tonality, or functional tonality), the system of musical organization of the common practice period
, and of Western-influenced popular music throughout much of the world today.
(1997,) considers key
(or relaxation and tension, respectively), and hierarchical relationships to be the three most basic concepts in tonality.
[Tonality is] the special meaning [functions] that chords receive through their relationship to a fundamental sonority, the tonic triad.
[Tonality is the] set of relationships, simultaneous or successive, among the tones of the scale.
But one will say, 'What is the principal behind these scales, and what, if not acoustic phenomena and the laws of mathematics, has set the order of their tones?' I respond that this principle is purely metaphysical [anthropological]. We conceive this order and the melodic and harmonic phenomena that spring from it out of our conformation and education. (p.249)
[Tonality is] the art of combining tones in such successions and such harmonies or successions of harmonies, that the relation of all events to a fundamental tone is made possible.
Tonality is the organized relationship of musical sounds, as perceived and interpreted with respect to some central point of reference that seems to co-ordinate the separate items and events and to lend them meaning as component parts of a unified whole.
[Tonality is] prolonged motion within the framework of a single key-determined progression.
[Tonality is] contrapuntal progressions ... can be key defining and capable of assuming structural significance.
[Tonality is] directed motion within the framework of a single prolonged sonority.