Emilio Aguinaldo
Overview
 
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 general
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

, politician
Politician
A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...

, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution
Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

 against Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, and the subsequent Philippine-American War
Philippine-American War
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection , was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following...

 or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 occupation. Aguinaldo also collaborated with the Japanese during their occupation of the Philippines in the Second World War.

Aguinaldo became the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

' first President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

.
Encyclopedia
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 general
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

, politician
Politician
A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...

, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution
Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

 against Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, and the subsequent Philippine-American War
Philippine-American War
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection , was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following...

 or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 occupation. Aguinaldo also collaborated with the Japanese during their occupation of the Philippines in the Second World War.

Aguinaldo became the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

' first President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president, the longest-lived president (having survived to age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors.

Early life

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' victorious revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. Aguinaldo became the Philippines' first President. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president, and the longest-lived (having survived to age 94). His marriage was in 1896 with Hilaria Del Rosario (1877–1921). They had five children (Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., María and Cristina) Hilaria Aguinaldo died because of leprosy. His second wife was María Agoncillo (1882–1963).

Family

The seventh of eight children of Carlos Aguinaldo y Jamir and Trinidad Famy y Valero (1820–1916), Emilio Aguinaldo was born on March 22, 1869 in Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit), Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

 province. His father was gobernadorcillo (town head), and, as members of the Chinese
Chinese Filipino
A Chinese Filipino derived from two words: "Tsino" and "Pinoy" ) is a Philippine national of Chinese ethnicity but born/raised in the Philippines....

-Tagalog
Tagalog people
The Tagalog people are an ethnic group in the Philippines. The name Tagalog comes from either the native term tagá-ilog, meaning 'people living along the river', or another native term, tagá-alog, meaning 'people living along the ford', a ford being a shallow part of a river or stream where people,...

 mestizo
Filipino mestizo
Filipino mestizo is a term used in the Philippines to describe people of mixed Filipino and foreign ancestry. The word mestizo is of Spanish origin, and was originally used in the Americas to only describe people of mixed European and Native American ancestry.- History :Spanish periodThe Spanish...

 minority, they enjoyed relative wealth and power.

As a young boy he received education from his great-aunt and later attended the town's elementary school. In 1880, he took up his secondary course education at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Letran College, or simply Letran is a private Roman Catholic institution of learning located in Intramuros, Manila, in the Philippines. The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the...

, which he quit on his third year to return home instead to help his widowed mother manage their farm. At the age of 28, Miong, as he was popularly called, was elected cabeza de barangay
Barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

of Binakayan, the most progressive barrio of Cavite El Viejo. He held this position serving for his town-mates for eight years. He also engaged in inter-island shipping, travelling as far south as the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
The Sulu Archipelago is a chain of islands in the southwestern Philippines. This archipelago is considered to be part of the Moroland by the local rebel independence movement. This island group forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea....

. In 1893, the Maura Law
Maura Law
The Maura Law was a law that laid the basic foundations for municipal government in the Philippines. It is named after its author, Don Antonio Maura, the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time. It was promulgated on May 19, 1893, and put into effect starting in 1895. The law's preamble stated...

 was passed to reorganize town governments with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous, changing the designation of town head from gobernadorcillo to capitan municipal effective 1895. On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo was elected town head, becoming the first person to hold the title of capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo.

Personal life

His first marriage was in 1896 with Hilaria Del Rosario
Hilaria Aguinaldo
Hilaria del Rosario was the first wife of General Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the Philippines . Emilio Aguinaldo married her on New Year's Day, 1896, the very same day he joined the Katipunan, the secret society that would initiate the Philippine Revolution...

 (1877–1921). They had five children: Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., María, and Cristina. Hilaria Aguinaldo died of leprosy. His second wife was María Agoncillo (1882–1963).

Descendants

Several of Aguinaldo's descendants became prominent political figures in their own right:
  • Baldomero Aguinaldo
    Baldomero Aguinaldo
    Baldomero Aguinaldo y Baloy was a leader of the Philippine Revolution. He was the first cousin of Emilio Aguinaldo, the first president of the Philippines, as well as the grandfather of Cesar Virata, a former prime minister in the 1980s.-Early life:Baldomero Aguinaldo was born in Kawit, Cavite...

    , first cousin and leader of the Philippine Revolution
    Philippine Revolution
    The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

    .
  • Cesar Virata
    Cesar Virata
    Cesar Enrique Aguinaldo Virata is a former Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981-1986 under the Interim Batasang Pambansa and the Regular Batasang Pambansa. One of the Philippines' business leaders and leading technocrats, he served as Finance Minister from 1970 during the Marcos regime and...

    , grandnephew and served as Prime Minister of the Philippines
    Prime Minister of the Philippines
    The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

     from 1981 to 1986.
  • Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera, a granddaughter served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1979 to 1992.
  • Consuelo Aguinaldo, granddaughter and Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr.'s daughter.
  • Miguel Aguinaldo, son and Councilor of Imus, Cavite
    Imus, Cavite
    The Municipality of Imus is a first-class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines, and it is the officially designated capital of Cavite...

    .
  • Emilio Aguinaldo IV, great-grandson and current Vice-Mayor of Kawit, Cavite.
  • Joseph Emilio Abaya
    Joseph Emilio Abaya
    Joseph Emilio "Jun" Aguinaldo Abaya is a Filipino politician. A member of the Liberal Party, he has been elected to two terms as a Member of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, representing the 1st District of Cavite...

    , great-grandson and Representative of 1st District of Cavite.
  • Peter Abaya, great-grandson and president of Alternative Fuels Corp., an attached agency of the Philippine National Oil Corporation.
  • Sandra Aguinaldo, great-granddaughter and TV reporter.
  • Angelo Aguinaldo, great-grandson and curator.
  • Emilio Aguinaldo-Suntay III, Gen. Aguinaldo's great grandson and museum curator.
  • Eduardo Aguinaldo Dizon, Gen. Aguinaldo's great-grandnephew, First Filipino Police Officer in Toronto, Canada. His son, Eduardo Dizon, Jr., also went on to become a police officer in Toronto, Canada

While Aguinaldo's great-grandchildren usually stay out of the public eye, they continue to support many of Aguinaldo's traditions, such as the awarding of the Philippine Military Academy Aguinaldo Saber Award. The youngest great-grandchild, Emiliana, currently confers the award.

Philippine Revolution

In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan
Katipunan
The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night...

 or the K.K.K., a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio
Andres Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino nationalist and revolutionary. He was a founder and later Supremo of the Katipunan movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution...

, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force. Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo
Magdalo (Katipunan faction)
The Magdalo faction of the Katipunan was a chapter in Cavite, mostly led by ilustrados of that province.It was named after Mary Magdalene...

, in honor of Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

. His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo
Baldomero Aguinaldo
Baldomero Aguinaldo y Baloy was a leader of the Philippine Revolution. He was the first cousin of Emilio Aguinaldo, the first president of the Philippines, as well as the grandfather of Cesar Virata, a former prime minister in the 1980s.-Early life:Baldomero Aguinaldo was born in Kawit, Cavite...

, was also called Magdalo.

The Katipunan revolt against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896, in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

). However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive due to lack of arms. Their absence contributed to Bonifacio's defeat. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare and refers to conflicts in which a small group of combatants including, but not limited to, armed civilians use military tactics, such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to harass a larger and...

, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.

On February 17, 1897, Aguinaldo and group of katipuneros defeated Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja
Camilo de Polavieja
Camilo Polavieja y del Castillo, Marques de Polavieja was a Spanish general born in Madrid on July 13, 1838, in a family of merchants...

 at the Battle of Zapote Bridge
Battle of Zapote Bridge (1897)
The Battle of Zapote Bridge was fought on February 17, 1897, as part of the Philippine Revolution. Filipino revolutionary forces headed by General Emilio Aguinaldo defeated Spanish forces under Governor-General Camilo de Polavieja. In this battle, General Edilberto Evangelista, a Filipino civil...

 in Cavite. General Edilberto Evangelista
Edilberto Evangelista
Edilberto Evangelista was a Filipino civil engineer who trained in the University of Ghent, Belgium. His popularity by the time of the Philippine Revolution could have made him president rather than Emilio Aguinaldo, lest he was killed by a bullet in the head.-Early Life and Career:He was born in...

, civil engineer, revolutionary and trench builder, was killed in the battle. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution's hotbed and the Aguinaldo-led katipuneros had a string of victories there.

However, conflict between the Magdalo and another Cavite Katipunan faction, the Magdiwang, led to Bonifacio's intervention in the province. The Cavite rebels then made overtures about establishing a revolutionary government in place of the Katipunan
Katipunan
The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night...

. Though Bonifacio already considered the Katipunan to be a government, he acquiesced and presided over elections held during the Tejeros Convention
Tejeros Convention
The Tejeros Convention was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite on March 22, 1897...

 in Tejeros, Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

 on March 22, 1897. Bonifacio lost the leadership to Aguinaldo, and was elected instead to the office of Secretary of the Interior. Even this was questioned by Daniel Tirona, claiming Bonifacio had not the necessary schooling for the job. Insulted, Bonifacio (drew out his gun and would have killed Tirona on the spot had he not been stopped) declared the Convention null and void, and sought to return to his power base in Morong (present-day Rizal).

Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and attempted to reassert his authority, accusing the Aguinaldo faction of treason and by issuing orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction. At Aguinaldo's orders, Bonifacio and his brothers were arrested and, in a mock trial lasting one day, convicted of treason, and sentenced to death. After some vacillation, Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence, but canceled his commutation order after being convinced by Generial Manuel Noriel, President of the Council of War the death sentence, and others prominent in his government that the sentence must stand. Andrés and Procopio were executed by firing squad on May 10, 1897 at Mount Hulog, about four kilometers west of Maragondon, Cavite
Maragondon, Cavite
The Municipality of Maragondon is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. Maragondon is 54 kilometers away from Manila going southeast. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 33,604 people...

.

Biak-na-Bato

Spanish pressure intensified, eventually forcing Aguinaldo's forces to retreat to the mountains. Emilio Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Pact of Biak-na-Bato
The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 14, 1897, created a truce between Spanish Colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera and Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution...

. Under the pact, Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and "$800,000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the amount) as an indemnity.
The documents were signed on December 14 and 15, 1887. On December 23, Aguinaldo and other Katipunan officials departed for Hong Kong to enter voluntary exile. $400,000, representing the first installment of the indemnity, was deposited into Hong Kong banks. While in exile, Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the "Supreme Council of the Nation".

One revolutionary general who remained in the Philippines, Francisco Makabulos, established a Central Executive Committee to serve as a provisional revolutionary government "until a general government of the Republic in these islands shall again be established." Meanwhile, Spanish officials continued to arrest and imprison Filipinos suspected of having been involved in the rebellion. The consequence of this disregard of the pact by both sides was the resurgence of the revolution.

In April 1898, war broke out between Spain and the United States. In the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, the American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore
Commodore (USN)
Commodore was an early title and later a rank in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard and a current honorary title in the U.S. Navy with an intricate history. Because the U.S. Congress was originally unwilling to authorize more than four ranks until 1862, considerable importance...

 George Dewey
George Dewey
George Dewey was an admiral of the United States Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War...

 engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron, and blockaded Manila. Dewey provided transport to return Aguinaldo to the Philippines. Aguinaldo promptly resumed command of revolutionary forces and besieged Manila.

Independence and Government

After the outbreak of Spanish American War. Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines from Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 to support the American forces in fighting against the Spaniards, arriving on May 19, 1898.. After five days, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator.

On 12 June, at Aguinaldo's ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence
Philippine Declaration of Independence
The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo , Cavite, Philippines. With the public reading of the Act of the Declaration of Independence, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the...

 was read. The act had been prepared and written in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista , also known as Don Bosyong, was a lawyer and author of the Declaration of Philippine Independence document...

, who also read its proclamation.

On 18 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On June 23, another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government, with himself as President.

Presidency

The insurgent
Insurgent
Insurgent, insurgents or insurgency can refer to:* The act of insurgency-Specific insurgencies:* Iraqi insurgency, uprising in Iraq* Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, uprising in India* Insurgency in North-East India...

 First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899 in Malolos
Malolos City
City of Malolos is a 3rd class urban component city in the Republic of the Philippines. Malolos is considered as the 115th city in the country. It is the capital city of the province of Bulacan as the seat of the provincial government...

, Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

 and endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan
Palanan, Isabela
Palanan is a remote 2nd class municipality in the province of Isabela, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 16,254 people in 2,837 households....

, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic.

Aguinaldo appointed two premiers
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

 in his tenure. These were Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899...

 and Pedro Paterno
Pedro Paterno
Pedro Alejandro Paterno y de Vera-Ignacio, also spelled Pedro Alejandro Paterno y Debera Ignacio was a Filipino politician, as well as a poet and novelist.His intervention on behalf of the Spanish led to the signing of the Pact of...

.

Administration and Cabinet

President Aguinaldo had two cabinets in the year 1899. Thereafter, the war situation resulted in his ruling by decree.
OFFICE NAME TERM
President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 
Emilio Aguinaldo 1897–1901
Vice-President  Mariano Trías
Mariano Trías
Mariano Trías y Closas is considered to be the first de facto Philippine Vice President of that revolutionary government established at the Tejeros Convention - an assembly of Philippine revolutionary leaders that elected officials of the revolutionary movement against the colonial government of...

1897
Prime Minister
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

 
Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899...

January 21 – May 7, 1899
Pedro Paterno
Pedro Paterno
Pedro Alejandro Paterno y de Vera-Ignacio, also spelled Pedro Alejandro Paterno y Debera Ignacio was a Filipino politician, as well as a poet and novelist.His intervention on behalf of the Spanish led to the signing of the Pact of...

May 7 – November 13, 1899
Minister of Finance  Mariano Trías
Mariano Trías
Mariano Trías y Closas is considered to be the first de facto Philippine Vice President of that revolutionary government established at the Tejeros Convention - an assembly of Philippine revolutionary leaders that elected officials of the revolutionary movement against the colonial government of...

January 21 – May 7, 1899
Hugo Ilagan May 7 – November 13, 1899
Minister of the Interior  Teodoro Sandico January 21 – May 7, 1899
Severino de las Alas May 7 – November 13, 1899
Minister of War  Baldomero Aguinaldo
Baldomero Aguinaldo
Baldomero Aguinaldo y Baloy was a leader of the Philippine Revolution. He was the first cousin of Emilio Aguinaldo, the first president of the Philippines, as well as the grandfather of Cesar Virata, a former prime minister in the 1980s.-Early life:Baldomero Aguinaldo was born in Kawit, Cavite...

January 21 – May 7, 1899
Mariano Trias
Mariano Trías
Mariano Trías y Closas is considered to be the first de facto Philippine Vice President of that revolutionary government established at the Tejeros Convention - an assembly of Philippine revolutionary leaders that elected officials of the revolutionary movement against the colonial government of...

May 7 – November 13, 1899
Minister of Welfare  Gracio Gonzaga January 21 – May 7, 1899
Minister of Foreign Affairs  Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899...

January 21 – May 7, 1899
Felipe Buencamino May 7 – November 13, 1899
Minister of Public Instruction  Aguedo Velarde 1899
Minister of Public Works and Communications  Máximo Paterno 1899
Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce  León María Guerrero
Leon Maria Guerrero
León María Guerrero y Leogardo was a writer, revolutionary leader, politician, the first licensed pharmacist in the Philippines, and one of the most eminent botanists in the country in his time....

May 7 – November 13, 1899


Fiscal Reform

The Malolos Congress continued its sessions and accomplished certain positive tasks. The Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 fiscal
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

 system was provisionally retained. The same was done with the existing taxes, save those upon cockfighting and other amusements. War taxes were levied and voluntary contributions were solicited. Customs duties were established. A national loan was launched.

Education Initiative

President Aguinaldo ordered schools open. Elementary education was made compulsory and free. The Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 educator, Enrique Mendiola, founded the "Instituto de Burgos" and were appointed by the Director of Public Instruction. It offered courses in agriculture, surveying, and commerce, as well as a complete A.B course.

On October 1898, a government decree fixed the opening date of the "Universidad Literia". Couses offered were Medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, Surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

, Pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

, and Notary Public
Notary public
A notary public in the common law world is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business...

. The President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 appointed the professors thereof. They, in turn, chose the University rector
Rector
The word rector has a number of different meanings; it is widely used to refer to an academic, religious or political administrator...

. The first to occupy this position was Joaquín Gonzales. Later, he was succeeded by León María Guererro.

Local government reorganization

Acceding to Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899...

's advice, President Aguinaldo first issued two decreed, dated 18th and 20th June, reorganizing the provincial
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 and municipal
Municipalities of the Philippines
A municipality is a local government unit in the Philippines. Municipalities are also called towns . They are distinct from cities, which are a different category of local government unit...

 governments. In these documents, Aguinaldo made it clear that although was circumstances had forced him to become a dictator
Dictator
A dictator is a ruler who assumes sole and absolute power but without hereditary ascension such as an absolute monarch. When other states call the head of state of a particular state a dictator, that state is called a dictatorship...

, his constant desire was to surround himself with the most representative men of every province and who, by their conduct, should merit the confidence in their province-mates, in order that, knowing, through them, the needs of every one of these places, he might adopt the best measures to attend ti them.

By virtue of these decrees, the municipal government was to established along these lines: all 21-year old residents were entitled to elect a Popular Council composed of a President, Vice-President, barrio chiefs, delegate of justice and civil registry, delegate of police and internal order, and delegate of taxes and properties. These offices were to be confirmed in their positions by the National Government. In regard to the provincial governments, the officers to be elected by the Presidents and confirmed in the same manner as the municipal counterparts, were: a Governor and three councilors, to compose, together with the municipal resident of the provincial capital, the Provincial Council. Also, provincial military commanders were provided for each to take charge of recruiting soldiers for the national army.

Constitutional Amendments

Realizing the unpopularity, as well as the inconvenience, occasioned by Article Five of the Malolos Constitution
Malolos Constitution
The Malolos Constitution was enacted on January 20, 1899 by the Philippine Malolos Congress, and established the First Philippine Republic. The original was written in Spanish, which became the first official language of the Philippines....

 providing the separation of Church and State, Prime Minister
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

 Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan was a Filipino political philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899...

, statesmanlike, proposed an amendment, temporary in character, providing for the suspension of said article until a regular constitutional assembly shall have been convened. In the mean time the municipalities that might need the spiritual ministry of a Filipino priest, were to provide funds for his necessary support. The proposal was accented on 23rd December and became Transitory Article No. 100 of the national constitution.

Visayan Federation

Emphasizing the solid unity of the new Republic, Raymundo Melliza was appointed as President of the Visayan Federation for two years, after having sworn allegiance to the Philippine Republic and recognizing Aguinaldo as the nation's President.

Spanish Prisoners

Upon the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
The Philippine Republic , more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic was a short-lived insurgent revolutionary government in the Philippines...

, President Emilio Aguinaldo granted executive clemency to all Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 civilians being held prisoners. He also granted permission for all foreigners, including Spaniards, to freely engage in business in the Philippines.

Philippine American War

On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War
Philippine-American War
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection , was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following...

, and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another.

Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans, then retreated to northern Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

 with the Americans on his trail. On June 2, 1899, a telegram from Aguinaldo was received by Gen. Antonio Luna, a disciplinarian and brilliant general and looming rival in the military hierarchy, asking him to proceed to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. However, treachery was afoot. Three days later (June 5), when Luna arrived, he learned Aguinaldo was not at the appointed place. As Luna was about to depart, he was shot, then stabbed to death by Aguinaldo's men. Luna was later buried in the churchyard; no investigation was made, and Luna's assassins were never punished.

After Luna's assassination, Aguinaldo assumed command of the Filipino forces. Without Luna's military expertise, Filipino forces encountered disaster everywhere. In November 1899, Aguinaldo and his staff fled northwards from the advancing Americans, to Palanan, Isabela
Palanan, Isabela
Palanan is a remote 2nd class municipality in the province of Isabela, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 16,254 people in 2,837 households....

, where he established a new headquarters. A picked force of 60 men under General Gregorio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio was one of the youngest generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He is most known for his role and death at the Battle of Tirad Pass...

 fought a heroic battle at Tirad Pass
Battle of Tirad Pass
The Battle of Tirad Pass, sometimes referred to as the "Philippine Thermopylae", was a battle in the Philippine-American War fought on December 2, 1899, in northern Luzon in the Philippines, in which a 60-man Filipino rearguard commanded by Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar succumbed to 500...

 against a much larger American force to delay the American advance to ensure Emilio Aguinaldo's escape. Del Pilar was killed in the battle along with 52 others of the defending force.

Less than two years later, on March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was captured at his headquarters in Paanan by U.S. General Frederick Funston
Frederick Funston
Frederick N. Funston also known as Fred Funston, was a General in the United States Army, best known for his role in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War...

, with the help of Macabebe trackers. The American task force gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by pretending to be captured prisoners. Aguinaldo was confined at Malacanang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

 in what is today's State Dining Room. On April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. After Aguinaldo's surrender, some Filipino commanders continued the revolution. On July 30, 1901, General Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar y Carpio was a Filipino commander who served during the Philippine Revolution and subsequently during the Philippine–American War. He assumed command of the Philippine revolutionary forces during the latter conflict following the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901...

 issued a manifesto saying, "Forward, without ever turning back. ... All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests!" General Malvar surrendered to U.S forces in Lipa, Batangas on April 16, 1902. The war was formally ended by a unilateral proclamation of general amnesty by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States . He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity...

 on July 4, 1902.

U.S. Territorial Period

During the American occupation, Aguinaldo supported groups that advocated immediate independence, and helped veterans of the struggle. He organized the Asociación de los Veteranos de la Revolución (Association of Veterans of the Revolution), which worked to secure pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government.

The display of the Philippine flag was declared illegal by the Sedition Act of 1907. This law was repealed on October 30, 1919. Following this, Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag, the revolution and the declaration of Independence. , his home still stands and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine
Aguinaldo Shrine
The Aguinaldo Shrine is the national shrine located in Kawit, Cavite in the Republic of the Philippines, where the independence of the Philippines from Spain was declared on June 12, 1898. To commemorate the event, now known as Araw ng Kalayaan or Independence Day, a national holiday, the...

.

Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president in the Philippine presidential election, 1935
Philippine presidential election, 1935
Presidential elections, National Assembly elections and local elections were held on September 15, 1935 in the Philippines. This was the first election since the enactment of the Tydings-McDuffie Act that paved the way for a transitory government. Senate President Manuel Luis Quezon won against...

, but lost by a landslide to fiery Spanish mestizo Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

. The two men formally reconciled in 1941, when President Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence.
During the Japanese occupation, he cooperated with the Japanese, making speeches, issuing articles and infamous radio addresses in support of the Japanese—including a radio appeal to Gen. Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the...

 on Corregidor
Corregidor
Corregidor Island, locally called Isla ng Corregidor, is a lofty island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in southwestern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Due to this location, Corregidor was fortified with several coastal artillery and ammunition magazines to defend the entrance of...

 to surrender in order to "spare the innocence of the Filipino youth."

After the Americans retook the Philippines, Aguinaldo was arrested along with several others accused of collaboration with the Japanese, and briefly jailed. He was released by presidential amnesty.

Aguinaldo was 77 when the United States Government fully recognized Philippine independence in the Treaty of Manila
Treaty of Manila (1946)
The Treaty of Manila is a treaty of general relations signed on July 4, 1946 in Manila, capital of the Philippines. Parties to the treaty were the governments of the United States and the Republic of the Philippines...

, in accordance with the Tydings-McDuffie Act
Tydings-McDuffie Act
The Tydings-McDuffie Act approved on March 24, 1934 was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence after a period of ten years. It was authored by Maryland Senator Millard E...

 of 1934.

Post-American era

In 1950, President Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

 appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Council of State, where he served a full term. He returned to retirement soon after, dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers' "interests and welfare."

He was made an honorary Doctor of Laws, Honoris Causa, by the University of the Philippines in 1953.

In 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

 changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. Aguinaldo rose from his sickbed to attend the celebration of independence 64 years after he declared it.

Death

Aguinaldo died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on February 6, 1964, at the Veterans Memorial
Hospital in Quezon City. A year before his death, he had donated his lot and his mansion to
the government. This property now serves as a shrine to "perpetuate the spirit of the
Revolution of 1896."

In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas and commonly abbreviated as BSP is the central bank of the Philippines. It was rechartered on July 3, 1993, pursuant to the provision of the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the New Central Bank Act of 1993...

 made a new 5-peso bill
Philippine peso bills
Banknotes of the Philippine peso are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas for circulation in the Philippines. The smallest amount of legal tender in wide circulation is 20 peso and the largest is 1000 peso...

 depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front of the bill. The back of the bill features the declaration of the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898.

See also

  • Tagalog people
    Tagalog people
    The Tagalog people are an ethnic group in the Philippines. The name Tagalog comes from either the native term tagá-ilog, meaning 'people living along the river', or another native term, tagá-alog, meaning 'people living along the ford', a ford being a shallow part of a river or stream where people,...

  • Tejeros Convention
    Tejeros Convention
    The Tejeros Convention was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite on March 22, 1897...

  • Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

  • Flag of the Philippines
    Flag of the Philippines
    The national flag of the Philippines is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and scarlet red, and with a white equilateral triangle at the hoist; in the center of the triangle is a golden yellow sun with eight primary rays, each containing three individual rays, which represent...

     (designed by Aguinaldo)
  • History of the Philippines
    History of the Philippines
    The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. The first recorded visit from the West is the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, who sighted Samar on March 16, 1521 and landed on Homonhon Island southeast of Samar...

  • Philippine Revolution
    Philippine Revolution
    The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

  • Katipunan
    Katipunan
    The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night...

  • Hilaria Aguinaldo
    Hilaria Aguinaldo
    Hilaria del Rosario was the first wife of General Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the Philippines . Emilio Aguinaldo married her on New Year's Day, 1896, the very same day he joined the Katipunan, the secret society that would initiate the Philippine Revolution...

  • Spanish-American War
    Spanish-American War
    The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence...

  • Philippine-American War
    Philippine-American War
    The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection , was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following...

  • President of the Philippines
    President of the Philippines
    The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

  • Aguinaldo Shrine
    Aguinaldo Shrine
    The Aguinaldo Shrine is the national shrine located in Kawit, Cavite in the Republic of the Philippines, where the independence of the Philippines from Spain was declared on June 12, 1898. To commemorate the event, now known as Araw ng Kalayaan or Independence Day, a national holiday, the...

  • Cesar Virata
    Cesar Virata
    Cesar Enrique Aguinaldo Virata is a former Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981-1986 under the Interim Batasang Pambansa and the Regular Batasang Pambansa. One of the Philippines' business leaders and leading technocrats, he served as Finance Minister from 1970 during the Marcos regime and...

  • List of Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines

External links

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