Don River (Russia)
Overview
 
The Don River is one of the major rivers of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk
Novomoskovsk, Russia
Novomoskovsk , called Bobriki before 1934 and Stalinogorsk between 1934 and 1961, is a city in Tula Oblast, Russia, located at the source of the Don and Shat Rivers. Population: 143,000 ; 107,000 ; 76,000 ....

 60 kilometres southeast from Tula
Tula, Russia
Tula is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia. It is located south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: -History:...

, southeast of Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 kilometres (1,220 mi) to the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
The Sea of Azov , known in Classical Antiquity as Lake Maeotis, is a sea on the south of Eastern Europe. It is linked by the narrow Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea to the south and is bounded on the north by Ukraine mainland, on the east by Russia, and on the west by the Ukraine's Crimean...

.

From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh
Voronezh
Voronezh is a city in southwestern Russia, the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast. It is located on both sides of the Voronezh River, away from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway , as well as the center of the Don Highway...

, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov on Don, its main tributary, the Donets.
Paleolithic archaeological layers at Kostenki
Kostenki
Kostenki is a village located on western middle bank of Don River in Voronezh Oblast, Russia. It is known for high concentration of cultural remains of modern humans from beginning of Upper Paleolithic era....

 reveal human histories around 40,000 years ago.
Encyclopedia
The Don River is one of the major rivers of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk
Novomoskovsk, Russia
Novomoskovsk , called Bobriki before 1934 and Stalinogorsk between 1934 and 1961, is a city in Tula Oblast, Russia, located at the source of the Don and Shat Rivers. Population: 143,000 ; 107,000 ; 76,000 ....

 60 kilometres southeast from Tula
Tula, Russia
Tula is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia. It is located south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: -History:...

, southeast of Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 kilometres (1,220 mi) to the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
The Sea of Azov , known in Classical Antiquity as Lake Maeotis, is a sea on the south of Eastern Europe. It is linked by the narrow Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea to the south and is bounded on the north by Ukraine mainland, on the east by Russia, and on the west by the Ukraine's Crimean...

.

From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh
Voronezh
Voronezh is a city in southwestern Russia, the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast. It is located on both sides of the Voronezh River, away from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway , as well as the center of the Don Highway...

, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov on Don, its main tributary, the Donets.

History

Paleolithic archaeological layers at Kostenki
Kostenki
Kostenki is a village located on western middle bank of Don River in Voronezh Oblast, Russia. It is known for high concentration of cultural remains of modern humans from beginning of Upper Paleolithic era....

 reveal human histories around 40,000 years ago. The lithic industry at that time developed the technology to drill stone.

In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers. In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotment of Japheth
Japheth
Japheth is one of the sons of Noah in the Abrahamic tradition...

 to the north and that of Shem
Shem
Shem was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature. He is most popularly regarded as the eldest son, though some traditions regard him as the second son. Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Shem and his brother Japheth, but with sufficient ambiguity in each...

 to the south, sons of Noah
Sons of Noah
The Seventy Nations or Sons of Noah is an extensive list of descendants of Noah appearing in of the Hebrew Bible, representing an ethnology from an Iron Age Levantine perspective...

. During the times of the old Scythia
Scythia
In antiquity, Scythian or Scyths were terms used by the Greeks to refer to certain Iranian groups of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian steppe...

ns, it was known in Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 as the Tanaïs
Tanais
Tanais is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Strabo regarded it as the boundary between Europe and Asia.In antiquity, Tanais was also the name of a city in the Don river delta that reaches into the northeasternmost part of the Sea of Azov, which the Greeks called Lake Maeotis...

, and has been a major trading route ever since.

Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes
Maeotian marshes
In the geography of Antiquity the Maeotian marshes lay where the Don River emptied into the Maeotian Lake near Tanais. The marshes served as a check to the westward migration of nomad peoples from the steppe of Central Asia.The area was named after the Maeotae who lived around the Maeotian Lake....

. The name derives from Scythian (East Iranian)
Eastern Iranian languages
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times .The Avestan language is often classified as early Eastern Iranian. The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto, with some 50 million speakers between the Hindu Kush mountains in...

 Dānu "river", akin to Ossetic
Ossetic language
Ossetian , also sometimes called Ossete, is an East Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus Mountains....

 don "river", and Pashto
Pashto language
Pashto , known as Afghani in Persian and Pathani in Punjabi , is the native language of the indigenous Pashtun people or Afghan people who are found primarily between an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and...

 dand (ډنډ) or dun (depending on dialect) "pond, lake".

The Khazar fortress of Sarkel
Sarkel
Sarkel was a large limestone-and-brick fortress built by the Khazars with Byzantine assistance in the 830s. It was named white-house because of the white limestone bricks they have used to build Sarkel...

 used to dominate this point in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

. This part of the river saw heavy fighting during Operation Uranus
Operation Uranus
Operation Uranus was the codename of the Soviet strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army, the Third and Fourth Romanian armies, and portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army. The operation formed part of the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad, and was...

, one of the turning points of the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

The Don Cossacks
Don Cossacks
Don Cossacks were Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.- Etymology and origins :The Don Cossack Host was a frontier military organization from the end of the 16th until the early 20th century....

, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named for the river. In modern literature, the Don is often featured in the works of Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a writer from the stanitsa
Stanitsa
Stanitsa is a village inside a Cossack host . Stanitsas were the primary unit of Cossack hosts.Historically, the stanitsa was a unit of economic and political organisation of the Cossack peoples primarily in the southern regions of the Russian Empire.Much of the land was held in common by the...

 of Veshenskaya
Veshenskaya
Veshenskaya, or Vyoshenskaya , colloquially known as Vyoshki, is a Cossack stanitsa in the northern, or upper, Don region, on the left bank of the Don. It is the administrative centre of the Sholokhovsky district...

.

Dams and canals

At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, and the Volga-Don Canal
Volga-Don Canal
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points. The length of the waterway is 101 km ....

 (length ca. 105 kilometres (65 mi)), connecting both rivers, is a major waterway. The water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir
Tsimlyansk Reservoir
Tsimlyansk Reservoir or Tsimlyanskoye Reservoir is an artificial lake on the Don River in the territories of Rostov and Volgograd Oblasts at . Completed in 1952, the reservoir is one of the largest in Russia, providing power and irrigation to the Rostov and Volgograd regions...

.

For the next 130 km below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock (Николаевский гидроузел), Konstantinovsk Ship Lock (Константиновский гидроузел), and the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock (Кочетовский гидроузел). The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914-1919 and doubled in 2004-2008, is located 7.5 km below the fall of the Seversky Donets
Seversky Donets
Seversky Donets is a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine and then again through Russia to join the Don River, about from the Sea of Azov...

 into the Don, and 131 km upstream of Rostov-na-Donu, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock (Кочетовский гидроузел) (47°34′07"N 40°51′10"E) is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets
Seversky Donets
Seversky Donets is a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine and then again through Russia to join the Don River, about from the Sea of Azov...

. This is the last lock on the Don; below Kochetovsky lock, the sufficient depth of the navigation waterway is maintained by dredging.

Tributaries

Main Tributaries
Tributary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean...

 from source to mouth:
  • Krasivaya Mecha
    Krasivaya Mecha River
    Krasivaya Mecha is a river in Tula and Lipetsk Oblasts in Russia. It is a right tributary of the Don River, and is 244 km in length, with a drainage basin of 6000 km². The river freezes over in late November and is icebound until early April....

  • Bystraya Sosna
  • Veduga
    Veduga River
    The Veduga River is a tributary of the Don River, flowing through the northwestern corner of Voronezh Oblast in Russia. It is meandering, narrow , and shallow . There are settlements almost continuously along its banks; the nearest large town is Semiluki....

  • Voronezh
    Voronezh River
    Voronezh is a river in Tambov, Lipetsk, and Voronezh Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Don. The Voronezh River is 342 km in length. The area of its drainage basin is 21,600 km². It freezes up in the first half of December and stays under the ice until late March. The lower...

  • Tikhaya Sosna
    Tikhaya Sosna River
    Tikhaya Sosna is a river in Belgorod and Voronezh Oblasts of Russia. It is a right tributary of the Don River. It is 161 km long, with a drainage basin of 4,350 km²....

  • Bityug
    Bityug River
    Bityug River is a river in the Voronezh Oblast in Russia, left tributary of the Don River. The upper reaches of the river are located in the Tambov Oblast. The length of the Bityug is 379 km. The area of its basin is 8,840 km². There are more than 400 lakes in the Bityug basin. The river freezes...

  • Black Kalitva
  • Khopyor
    Khopyor River
    Khopyor is a river in European Russia, the biggest left tributary of the Don River. Length 979 km, watershed: 61,100 km², mouth width: 300m.Navigable up to 323 km...

     (1.010 km)
  • Medveditsa
    Medveditsa River (Don basin)
    Medveditsa is a river in Volgograd and Saratov Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Don River. The name means she-bear, and according to legend alludes to the large population of bears in the area in earlier times...

  • Ilovlya
    Ilovlya River
    Ilovlya is a river in Saratov and Volgograd Oblasts of Russia. It is a left tributary of the Don River, and is 358 km long, with a drainage basin of 9250 km². The average discharge is 9,6 m³/s. The river is frozen over from December to March. In earlier times there were a portage...

  • Chir
    Chir River
    Chir is a river in Rostov and Volgograd Oblasts of Russia. It is a right tributary of the Don River, and is 317 km long, with a drainage basin of 9580 km²....

  • Seversky Donets
    Seversky Donets
    Seversky Donets is a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine and then again through Russia to join the Don River, about from the Sea of Azov...

     (1.053 km)
    • Aidar
      Aidar
      The Aidar is a river of the Lugansk Oblast, Ukraine and Belgorod Oblast, Russia. A left tributary of the Seversky Donets, it flows for 256 km and has a basin area of 7370 km ². The slopes of the valley are partitioned with ravines and gorges. In the spring, snow melt accounts for approximately 70...

       (264 km)
  • Sal
  • Manych
    Manych River
    Manych is a river in the western and central part of the Kuma-Manych Depression in southern Russia.Tributary to the river Don. The river is 219 km long; its source is Lake Manych-Gudilo in the south-westerm part of the Russian republic of Kalmykia...

  • Aksay
  • Temernik
    Temernik River
    Temernik River is a small river in Rostov Oblast of Russia. It is a right tributary of the Don River, and is 35,5 km long, with a drainage basin of 293 km². Temernik is very polluted....

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK