Diving
Overview
 
Diving is the sport
Sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

 of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard
Springboard
A springboard or diving board is used for diving and is a board that is itself a spring, i.e. a linear flex-spring, of the cantilever type....

, sometimes while performing acrobatics
Acrobatics
Acrobatics is the performance of extraordinary feats of balance, agility and motor coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts, as well as many sports...

. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.

Diving is one of the most popular Olympic
Diving at the Summer Olympics
Diving was first introduced in the official programme of the Summer Olympic Games at the 1904 Games of St. Louis and has been an Olympic sport since. It was known as "fancy diving" for the acrobatic stunts performed by divers during the dive...

 sports with spectators. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts
Gymnastics
Gymnastics is a sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique with each country having its own national governing body...

 and dance
Dance
Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting....

rs, including strength, flexibility, kinaesthetic judgment and air awareness.

China came to prominence several decades ago when the sport was revolutionized by national coach Liang Boxi
Liang Boxi
Liang Boxi is a former Chinese diver and a head coach of the Chinese diving team. He was among the first Chinese athletes to be awarded the title Master of Sport and is credited with revolutionising the sport of diving in China....

 and after intense study of the dominant Louganis.
Encyclopedia
Diving is the sport
Sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

 of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard
Springboard
A springboard or diving board is used for diving and is a board that is itself a spring, i.e. a linear flex-spring, of the cantilever type....

, sometimes while performing acrobatics
Acrobatics
Acrobatics is the performance of extraordinary feats of balance, agility and motor coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts, as well as many sports...

. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.

Diving is one of the most popular Olympic
Diving at the Summer Olympics
Diving was first introduced in the official programme of the Summer Olympic Games at the 1904 Games of St. Louis and has been an Olympic sport since. It was known as "fancy diving" for the acrobatic stunts performed by divers during the dive...

 sports with spectators. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts
Gymnastics
Gymnastics is a sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique with each country having its own national governing body...

 and dance
Dance
Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting....

rs, including strength, flexibility, kinaesthetic judgment and air awareness.

China came to prominence several decades ago when the sport was revolutionized by national coach Liang Boxi
Liang Boxi
Liang Boxi is a former Chinese diver and a head coach of the Chinese diving team. He was among the first Chinese athletes to be awarded the title Master of Sport and is credited with revolutionising the sport of diving in China....

 and after intense study of the dominant Louganis. China has lost few world titles since. The success of Greg Louganis
Greg Louganis
Gregory "Greg" Efthimios Louganis is an American Olympic diver and author.He received the James E. Sullivan Award from the Amateur Athletic Union in 1984 as the most outstanding amateur athlete in the United States....

 has led to American strength in diving internationally. Other noted countries in the sport include Italy, Australia and Canada.

Competitive diving

Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1m and 3m springboards, and the platform. Competitive athletes are divided by gender, and often by age group. In platform events, competitors are allowed to perform their dives on either the five, seven and a half (generally just called seven) or ten meter towers. In major diving meets, including the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 and the World Championships, platform diving is from the 10 meter height.

Divers have to perform a set number of dives according to established requirements, including somersaults and twists. Divers are judged on whether and how well they completed all aspects of the dive, the conformance of their body to the requirements of the dive, and the amount of splash created by their entry to the water. A possible score out of ten is broken down into three points for the takeoff, three for the flight, and three for the entry, with one more available to give the judges flexibility.

The raw score is multiplied by a difficulty factor, derived from the number and combination of movements attempted. The diver with the highest total score after a sequence of dives is declared the winner.

Synchronized diving

Synchronized diving was adopted as an Olympic sport in 2000. Two divers form a team and perform dives simultaneously. The dives are usually identical; however, sometimes the dives may be opposites, in what is called a pinwheel. In these events, the diving is judged both on the quality of execution and the synchronicity – in timing of take-off and entry, height and forward travel.

Scoring the dive

There are rules governing the scoring of a dive. Usually a score considers three elements of the dive: the approach, the flight, and the entry. The primary factors affecting the scoring are:
  • if a hand-stand is required, the length of time and quality of the hold
  • the height of the diver at the apex of the dive, with extra height resulting in a higher score
  • the distance of the diver from the diving apparatus throughout the dive (a diver must not be dangerously close, should not be too far away, but should ideally be within 2 foot (0.6096 m) of the platform)
  • the properly defined body position of the diver according to the dive being performed, including pointed toes and feet touching at all times
  • the proper amounts of rotation and revolution upon completion of the dive and entry into the water
  • angle of entry – a diver should enter the water straight, without any angle. Many judges award divers for the amount of splash created by the diver on entry, with less splash resulting in a higher score.


To reduce the subjectivity of scoring in major meets, panels of five or seven judges are assembled. If five judges then the highest and lowest scores are discarded and the middle three are summed and multiplied by the DD (Degree of Difficulty—determined from a combination of the moves undertaken, in which position and from what height). In major international events, there are seven judges in which case the highest and lowest scores are again discarded and the middle five are summed, then ratioed by 3/5, and multiplied by the DD, so as to provide consistent comparison with 5-judge events. Accordingly, it is extremely difficult for one judge to manipulate scores.

There is a general misconception about scoring and judging. In serious meets, the absolute score is somewhat meaningless. It is the relative score, not the absolute score that wins meets. Accordingly, good judging implies consistent scoring across the dives. Specifically, if a judge consistently gives low scores for all divers, or consistently gives high scores for the same divers, the judging will yield fair relative results and will cause divers to place in the correct order. However, absolute scores have significance to the individual divers. Besides the obvious instances of setting records, absolute scores are also used for rankings and qualifications for higher level meets.

In synchronised diving events, there is a panel of seven or nine judges; two to mark the execution of one diver, two to mark the execution of the other, and three to judge the synchronisation. The execution judges are positioned two on each side of the pool, and they score the diver which is nearer to them.

The score is computed in the same way as for individual events with seven judges (i.e. highest and lowest deleted, then the sum of the remaining five reduced by 3/5, then multiplied by the Degree of Difficulty).

The synchronisation scores are based on:
  • time of take-off
  • height attained
  • synchronisation of rotations and twists
  • time of entry to the water
  • forward travel from the board

Competitive strategy

To win dive meets, divers create a dive list in advance of the meet. To win the meet the diver must accumulate more points than other divers. Often, simple dives with low DDs will look good to spectators but will not win meets. The competitive diver will attempt the highest DD dives possible with which they can achieve consistent, high scores. If divers are scoring 8 or 9 on most dives, it may be a sign of their extreme skill, or it may be a sign that their dive list is not competitive, and they may lose the meet to a diver with higher DDs and lower scores.

In competition, divers must submit their lists beforehand, and once past a deadline (usually when the event is announced or shortly before it begins) they cannot change their dives. If they fail to perform the dive announced, even if they physically cannot execute the dive announced or if they perform a more difficult dive, they will receive a score of zero. Under exceptional circumstances, a redive may be granted, but these are exceedingly rare (usually for very young divers just learning how to compete, or if some event outside the diver's control has caused them to be unable to perform).

In the Olympics or other highly competitive meets, many divers will have nearly the same list of dives as their competitors. The importance for divers competing at this level is not so much the DD, but how they arrange their list. Once the more difficult rounds of dives begin it is important to lead off with a confident dive to build momentum. They also tend to put a very confident dive in front of a very difficult dive to ensure that they will have a good mentality for the difficult dive. Most divers have pre-dive and post-dive rituals that help them either maintain or regain focus. Coaches also play a role in this aspect of the sport. Many divers rely on their coaches to help keep their composure during the meet. In a large meet coaches are rarely allowed on the deck to talk to their athlete so it is common to see coaches using hand gestures to communicate.

There are some American meets which will allow changes of the position of the dive even after the dive has been announced immediately before execution, but these are an exception to the rules generally observed internationally.

Generally, NCAA rules allow for dives to be changed while the diver is on the board, but the diver must request the change directly after the dive is announced. This applies especially in cases where the wrong dive is announced. If the diver pauses during his or her hurdle to ask for a change of dive, it will be declared a balk and the change of dive will not be permitted.

Under FINA law, no dive may be changed after the deadline for the dive-sheet to be submitted (generally a period ranging from one hour to 24 hours, depending on the rulings made by the event organiser.

It is the diver's responsibility to ensure that the dive-sheet is filled in correctly, and also to correct the referee or announcer before the dive if they describe it incorrectly. If a dive is performed which is as submitted but not as (incorrectly) announced, it is declared failed and scores zero according to a strict reading of the FINA law. But in practice, a re-dive would usually be granted in these circumstances.

Governance

The global governing body of diving is FINA
Fina
Fina may refer to:*Fina, a character in the Skies of Arcadia video game*FINA, the International Swimming Federation*FINA, the North American Forum on Integration...

, which also governs swimming
Swimming (sport)
Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

, synchronized swimming
Synchronized swimming
Synchronized swImming is a hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronized routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music....

, water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 and open water swimming
Open water swimming
Open water swimming takes place in outdoor bodies of water such as open oceans, bays, lakes, rivers, canals, and reservoirs.The beginning of the modern age of open water swimming is sometimes taken to be May 3, 1810, when Lord Byron swam several miles to cross the Hellespont from Europe to Asia.In...

. Almost invariably, at national level, diving shares a governing body with the other aquatic sports.

This is frequently a source of political friction as the committees are naturally dominated by swimming officials who do not necessarily share or understand the concerns of the diving community. Divers often feel, for example, that they do not get adequate support over issues like the provision of facilities. Other areas of concern are the selection of personnel for the specialised Diving committees and for coaching and officiating at events, and the team selection for international competitions.

There are sometimes attempts to separate the governing body as a means to resolve these frustrations, but they are rarely successful. For example, in the UK the Great Britain Diving Federation was formed in 1992 with the intention of taking over the governance of Diving from the ASA (Amateur Swimming Association
Amateur Swimming Association
-History:It was the first Governing Body of swimming to be established in the world and today remains the English national governing body for swimming, diving, water polo, open water, and synchronised swimming....

). Although it initially received widespread support from the diving community, the FINA requirement that international competitors had to be registered with their National Governing Body was a major factor in the abandonment of this ambition a few years later.

Since FINA refused to rescind recognition of the ASA as the British governing body for all aquatic sports including diving, this meant that the elite divers had to belong to ASA affiliated clubs in order to be eligible for selection to international competition.

In the United States scholastic diving is almost always part of the school’s swim team. Diving is a separate sport in Olympic and Club Diving. The NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 will separate diving from swimming in special diving competitions after the swim season is completed.

Safety

Despite the apparent risk, the statistical incidence of injury in supervised training and competition is extremely low.

The majority of accidents that are classified as 'diving-related' are incidents caused by individuals jumping from structures such as bridges or piers into water of inadequate depth. Many accidents also occur when divers do not account for rocks and logs in the water. Because of this many beaches and pools prohibit diving in shallow waters or when a lifeguard
Lifeguard
A lifeguard supervises the safety and rescue of swimmers, surfers, and other water sports participants such as in a swimming pool, water park, or beach. Lifeguards are strong swimmers and trained in first aid, certified in water rescue using a variety of aids and equipment depending on...

 is not on duty.

After an incident in Washington state in 1993, most US and other pool builders are reluctant to equip a residential swimming pool
Swimming pool
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is a container filled with water intended for swimming or water-based recreation. There are many standard sizes; the largest is the Olympic-size swimming pool...

 with a diving springboard
Springboard
A springboard or diving board is used for diving and is a board that is itself a spring, i.e. a linear flex-spring, of the cantilever type....

, so home diving pools are much less common these days. In the incident, 14-year-old Shawn Meneely made a "suicide dive" (his hands at his sides – so his head hit the bottom first) in a private swimming pool and was seriously injured (quadriplegic). Family lawyer Fred Zeder successfully sued the diving board manufacturer, the pool builder, and the National Spa and Pool Institute over the inappropriate depth of the pool.
The NSPI had specified a minimum depth of 7 ft 6 in (2.29m) which proved to be insufficient in the above case. The pool into which Meneelly dived was not constructed to the published standards. The standards had changed after the diving board was installed on the non-compliant pool by the homeowner. But the courts held that the pool "was close enough" to the standards to hold NSPI liable. The multi-million dollar lawsuit was eventually settled in 2001 for $6,600,000USD ($US8,000,000 after interest was added) in favor of the plaintiff. The NSPI was held to be liable, and was financially strained by the case. It filed twice for Chapter 11
Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code
Chapter 11 is a chapter of the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. Chapter 11 bankruptcy is available to every business, whether organized as a corporation or sole proprietorship, and to individuals, although it is most...

 bankruptcy protection and was successfully reorganized into a new swimming pool industry association.

Within competitive diving, FINA takes regulatory steps to ensure that athletes are protected from the inherent dangers of the sport. For example, they impose restrictions according to age on the heights of platforms which divers may compete on.
  • Group D (11 & under): 5 m
  • Group C (12/13 year): 5 m & 7.5 m
  • Group B (14/15 year): 5 m, 7.5 m & 10 m
  • Group A (16/18 year): 5 m, 7.5 m & 10 m


Group D divers have only recently been allowed to compete on the tower. In the past, the age group could compete only springboard, in order to discourage children from taking on the greater risks of tower diving. Group D tower was introduced to counteract the phenomenon of coaches pushing young divers to compete in higher age categories, thus putting them at even greater risk.

However, some divers may safely dive in higher age categories in order to dive on higher platforms. Usually this occurs when advanced Group C divers wish to compete on the 10 m.

Points on pool depths in connection with safety:
  • most competition pools are 5m deep for 10 m platform and 4m deep for 5m platform or 3m springboard. These are currently the FINA recommended minimum depths. Some are deeper, e.g. 6m for the diving pit at Sheffield, England.
  • diving from 10 m and maintaining a downward streamlined position, results in gliding to a stop at about 4.5 – 5m.
  • high standard competition divers rarely go more than about 2.5m below the surface, as they roll in the direction of the dive's rotation. This is a technique to produce a clean entry.
  • attempting to scoop the trajectory underwater against the rotation is extremely inadvisable as it can cause serious back injuries.
  • hitting the water flat from 10 m brings the diver to rest in about 1 ft. The extreme deceleration causes severe bruising both internal and external, strains to connective tissue securing the organs and possible minor hemorrhage to lungs and other tissue. Very painful and distressing, but not life-threatening.

Dive groups

There are six "groups" into which dives are classified: Forward, Back, Inward, Reverse, Twist, and Armstand. The latter applies only to Platform competitions, whereas the other five apply to both Springboard and Platform.
  • in the Forward Group (Group 1), the diver takes off facing forward and rotates forward
  • in the Back Group (2), the diver takes off with their back to the water and rotates backward
  • in the Reverse Group (3), the diver takes off facing forward and rotates backward
  • in the Inward Group (4), the diver takes off with their back to the water and rotates forward
  • any dive incorporating an axial twisting movement is in the Twist group (5).
  • any dive commencing from a handstand is in the Armstand group (6). (Only on platform)

Dive positions

During the flight of the dive, one of four positions is assumed:
  • straight – with no bend at the knees or hips (the hardest of the three)
  • pike – with knees straight but a tight bend at the hips (the median in difficulty of the three.) The open pike is a variant where the arms are reached to the side, and the legs are brought straight out with a bend in the hips.
  • tuck – body folded up in a tight ball, hands holding the shins and toes pointed.(the easiest of the three)
  • free – indicates a twisting dive, and a combination of other positions. In the transition between two positions the diver may for example bend their legs or curve at the waist, and points will not be deducted for doing so.


These positions are referred to by the letters A, B,C and D respectively.

Additionally, some dives can be started in a flying position. The body is kept straight with the arms extended to the side, and the regular dive position is assumed at about half the dive.

Difficulty is rated according to the Degree of Difficulty of the dives. Some divers may find pike easier in a flip than tuck, and most find straight the easiest in a front/back dive, although it is still rated the most difficult because of the risk of overrotation.

Dive numbers

In competition, the dives are referred to by a schematic system of three- or four-digit numbers. The letter to indicate the position is appended to the end of the number.

The first digit of the number indicates the dive group as defined above.

For groups 1 to 4, the number consists of three digits and a letter of the alphabet. The third digit represents the number of half-somersaults. The second digit is either 0 or 1, with 0 representing a normal somersault, and 1 signifying a "flying" variation of the basic movement (i.e. the first half somersault is performed in the straight position, and then the pike or tuck shape is assumed). No flying dive has been competed at a high level competition for many years.

For example:
  • 101A – forward Dive Straight
  • 203C – back one-and-a-half somersaults, tuck
  • 305C – reverse two-and-a-half somersaults, tuck
  • 113B – flying forward one-and-a-half somersaults, pike


For Group 5, the dive number has 4 digits. The first digit indicates that it is a twisting dive. The second digit indicates the group (1–4) of the underlying movement; the third digit indicates the number of half-somersaults, and the fourth indicates the number of half-twists.

For example:
  • 5211A – back dive, half twist, straight position.
  • 5337D – reverse one and a half somersaults with three and a half twists, in the Free position.


For Group 6 – Armstand – the dive number has either three, four or five digits: Three digits for dives without twist and four for dives with twists.

In non-twisting armstand dives, the second digit indicates the direction of rotation (0 = no rotation, 1 = forward, 2 = backward, 3 = reverse, 4 = inward) and the third digit indicates the number of half-somersaults. Inward-rotating armstand dives have never been performed, and are generally regarded as physically impossible.

For example:
  • 600A – armstand dive straight
  • 612B – armstand forward somersault pike
  • 624C – armstand back double somersault tuck


For twisting Armstand dives, the dive number again has 4 digits, but rather than beginning with the number 5, the number 6 remains as the first digit, indicating that the "twister" will be performed from an Armstand. The second digit indicates the direction of rotation – as above, the third is the number of half-somersaults, and the fourth is the number of half-twists:

e.g. 6243D – armstand back double-somersault with one and a half twists in the free position

All of these dives come with DD (degree of difficulty) this is an indication of how difficult/complex a dive is. The score that the dive receives is multiplied by the DD (also known as tariff) to give the dive a final score. Before a diver competes they must decide on a "list" this is a number of optional dives and compulsory dives. The optionals come with a DD limit. this means that a diver must select X number of dives and the combined DD limit must be no more than the limit set by the competition/organisation etc.

Until the mid 1990s the tariff was decided by the FINA diving committee, and divers could only select from the range of dives in the published tariff table. Since then, the tariff is calculated by a formula based on various factors such as the number of twist and somersaults, the height, the group etc., and divers are free to submit new combinations. This change was implemented because new dives were being invented too frequently for an annual meeting to accommodate the progress of the sport.

Mechanics of diving

At the moment of take-off, two critical aspects of the dive are determined, and cannot subsequently be altered during the execution. One is the trajectory of the dive, and the other is the magnitude of the angular momentum.

The speed of rotation – and therefore the total amount of rotation – may be varied from moment to moment by changing the shape of the body, in accordance with the law of conservation of angular momentum.

The center of mass of the diver follows a parabolic path in free-fall under the influence of gravity (ignoring the effects of air resistance, which are negligible at the speeds involved).

Trajectory

Since the parabola is symmetrical, the travel away from the board as the diver passes it is twice the amount of the forward travel at the peak of the flight. Excessive forward distance to the entry point is penalized when scoring a dive, but obviously an adequate clearance from the diving board is essential on safety grounds.

The greatest possible height that can be achieved is desirable for several reasons:
  • the height attained is itself one of the factors that the judges will reward.
  • a greater height gives a longer flight time and therefore more time to execute maneuvers.
  • for any given clearance when passing the board, the forward travel distance to the entry point will be less for a higher trajectory.

Control of rotation

The magnitude of angular momentum
Angular momentum
In physics, angular momentum, moment of momentum, or rotational momentum is a conserved vector quantity that can be used to describe the overall state of a physical system...

 remains constant throughout the dive, but since
angular momentum = rotational velocity × moment of inertia
Moment of inertia
In classical mechanics, moment of inertia, also called mass moment of inertia, rotational inertia, polar moment of inertia of mass, or the angular mass, is a measure of an object's resistance to changes to its rotation. It is the inertia of a rotating body with respect to its rotation...

,


and the moment of inertia is larger when the body has an increased radius, the speed of rotation may be increased by moving the body into a compact shape, and reduced by opening out into a straight position.

Since the tucked shape is the most compact, it gives the most control over rotational speed, and dives in this position are easier to perform. Dives in the straight position are hardest, since there is almost no scope for altering the speed, so the angular momentum must be created at take-off with a very high degree of accuracy. (A small amount of control is available by moving the position of the arms and by a slight hollowing of the back).

The opening of the body for the entry does not stop the rotation, but merely slows it down. The vertical entry achieved by expert divers is largely an illusion created by starting the entry slightly short of vertical, so that the legs are vertical as they disappear beneath the surface. A small amount of additional tuning is available by 'entry save' techniques, whereby underwater movements of the upper body and arms against the viscosity of the water affect the position of the legs.

Twisting

Dives with multiple twists and somersaults are some of the most spectacular movements, as well as the most challenging to perform.

The rules state that twisting 'must not be generated manifestly on take-off'. Consequently, divers must use some of the somersaulting angular momentum to generate twisting movements. The physics of twisting can be explained by looking at the components of the angular momentum
Angular momentum
In physics, angular momentum, moment of momentum, or rotational momentum is a conserved vector quantity that can be used to describe the overall state of a physical system...

 vector.

As the diver leaves the board, the total angular momentum vector is horizontal, pointing directly to the left for a forward dive for example. For twisting rotation to exist, it is necessary to tilt the body sideways after takeoff, so that there is now a small component of this horizontal angular momentum vector along the body's long axis. The tilt can be seen in the photo.

The tilting is done by the arms, which are outstretched to the sides just before the twist. When one arm is moved up and the other is moved down (like turning a big steering wheel), the body reacts by tilting to the side, which then begins the twisting rotation. At the completion of the required number of twist rotations, the arm motion is reversed (the steering wheel is turned back), which removes the body's tilt and stops the twisting rotation.

An alternative explanation is that the moving arms have precession
Precession
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotation axis of a rotating body. It can be defined as a change in direction of the rotation axis in which the second Euler angle is constant...

 torque
Torque
Torque, moment or moment of force , is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist....

 on them which set the body into twisting rotation. Moving the arms back produces opposite torque which stops the twisting rotation.

Entry

The rules state that the body should be vertical, or nearly so, for entry. Strictly speaking, it is physically impossible to achieve a literally vertical position throughout the entry as there will inevitably still be some rotational momentum while the body is entering the water. Divers therefore attempt to create the illusion of being vertical, especially when performing rapidly rotating multiple somersault movements. One technique is to allow the upper body to enter slightly short of vertical so that the continuing rotation leaves the final impression of the legs entering vertically. Another is to use "entry save" movements of scooping the upper body underwater in the direction of rotation so as to counteract the rotation of the legs.

The arms must be beside the body for feet-first dives, which are typically competed only on the 1m springboard and only at fairly low levels of competition, and extended forwards in line for "head-first" dives, which are much more common competitively. It used to be common for the hands to be interlocked with the fingers extended towards the water, but a different technique has become favoured during the last few decades. Now the usual practice is for one hand to grasp the other with palms down to strike the water with a flat surface. This creates a vacuum between the hands, arms and head which, with a vertical entry, will pull down and under any splash until deep enough to have minimal effect on the surface of the water (the so-called "rip entry").

Once a diver is completely under the water they may choose to roll or scoop in the same direction their dive was rotating to pull their legs into a more vertical position.

Summer diving

In the United States, summer diving is usually limited to one meter diving at community or country club pools. Some pools organize to form intra-pool competitions. These competitions are usually designed to accommodate all school-age children. One of the largest and oldest summer leagues in the United States is found in the Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia consists of several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in a widespread region generally radiating southerly and westward from Washington, D.C...

 area where teams from 47 pools compete against each other every summer. NVSL-Dive annually holds the Wally Martin 3-Meter Championship and concludes the season with its Individual All Stars Championship. In addition, NVSL-Dive annually hosts the largest one-day dive meet in the world, with over 350 developmental divers in NVSL
Northern Virginia Swim League
The Northern Virginia Swim League, or NVSL, is a summer swim league and a separate dive league in Northern Virginia in the United States. The stated goal of both NVSL and NVSL-Dive is "...to develop in the children participating in this program--a love for the sport, advanced aquatic skills, and...

's "Cracker Jack" Invitational! Champions from each of these events have gone on to compete at the collegiate and Olympic levels.

High school diving

In the United States scholastic diving at the high school level is usually limited to one meter diving (but some schools use three meter springboards.). Scores from those one meter dives contribute to the swim team's overall score. High school diving and swimming both conclude their seasons with a state competition. Depending on the state and the amount of athletes competing in the state there are qualifications that must be achieved before competing in the state’s championship meet. There are often regional championships and district championships which are necessary to compete in before reaching the state meet to narrow the field to only the most competitive athletes. Most state championship meets consist of eleven dives. Those eleven dives are usually split up between two categories. There are five required dives and six optional dives.

Club diving

In the United States, pre-college divers interested in three meter or tower diving should consider a club sanctioned by USA Diving
USA Diving
USA Diving, Inc. is the national governing body of diving in the United States as recognized by the U.S. Olympic Committee and is a member of United States Aquatic Sports Inc., the United States' member of FINA ....

 or AAU Diving
Amateur Athletic Union
The Amateur Athletic Union is one of the largest non-profit volunteer sports organizations in the United States. A multi-sport organization, the AAU is dedicated exclusively to the promotion and development of amateur sports and physical fitness programs.-History:The AAU was founded in 1888 to...

. There is a group called Future Championship. Top club divers are usually called "junior Olympic", or JO divers. JO divers compete for spots on national teams. Divers over the age of 19 years of age cannot compete in these events as a JO diver.

USA Diving sanctions one East-West one and three meter event in the winter time with an Eastern champion and Western champion determined. In the summer USA Diving sanctions a national event with tower competitions offered. USA Diving is sanctioned by the United States Olympic Committee
United States Olympic Committee
The United States Olympic Committee is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various...

 for selecting team representatives for international diving competitions including the Olympic Games.

AAU Diving sanctions one national event per year in the summer. AAU competes on the one, three, and tower to determine the All-American team.

College diving

In the United States scholastic diving at the college level requires one and three meter diving. Scores from the one and three meter competition contribute to the swim team's overall meet score. College divers interested in tower diving may compete in the NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 separate from swim team events. NCAA Divisions II and III do not usually compete platform; if a diver wishes to compete platform in college, he or she must attend a Division I school.

Each divisions also has rules on the number of dives in each competition. Division II schools compete with 10 dives in competition whereas Division III schools compete with 11. Division I schools only compete with 6 dives in competition. These 6 dives consist of either 5 optionals and 1 voluntary, or 6 optionals. If the meet is a 5 optional meet, then the divers will perform 1 optional from each category (Front, Back, Inward, Reverse, and Twister) and then 1 voluntary from the category of their choice. The voluntary in this type of meet is always worth a DD (Degree of Difficulty) of 2.0 even if the real DD is worth more or less on a DD sheet. In a 6 optional meet, the divers will yet again perform one dive from each category, but this time they will perform a 6th optional from the category of their choosing, which is worth its actual DD from the DD sheet.

The highest level of collegiate competition is the NCAA Division 1 Swimming and Diving Championship. Events at the championship include 1 meter springboard, 3 meter springboard, and platform, as well as various swimming individual and relay events. The points scored by swimmers and divers are combined to determine a team swimming & diving champion. To qualify for a diving event at the NCAA championships, a competitor must first finish in the top three at one of five zone championships, which are held after the various conference championship meets. A diver who scores at least 310 points on the 3 meter springboard and 300 points on the 1 meter springboard in a 6 optional meet can participate in the particular zone championship corresponding to the geographic region within which his or her school lies.

A number of colleges and universities offer scholarships to men and women who have competitive diving skills. These scholarships are usually offered to divers with age-group or club diving experience.

The NCAA limits the number of years a college student can represent any school in competitions. The limit is four years, but could be less under certain circumstances.

Master Diving

In the United States divers who continue diving past their college years can compete in Master Diving programs. Master diving programs are frequently offered by college or club programs.

Masters' Diving events are normally conducted in age-groups of 5 or 10 years, and attract competitors of a wide range of ages and experience (many, indeed, are newcomers to the sport); the oldest competitor in a Masters' Diving Championship was Viola Krahn, who at the age of 101 was the first person in any sport, male or female, anywhere in the world, to compete in an age-group of 100+ years in a nationally organized competition.

British diving

In Britain, diving competitions on all boards run throughout the year. National Masters' Championships are held two or three times per year.

Irish Diving

In the Republic of Ireland facilities are limited to one pool at the National Aquatic Centre in Dublin. Dublin Diving Club runs out of this facility.

National Championships

National Championships take place late in the year, usually during November. The competition is held at the National Aquatic Centre in Dublin and consists of four different events:
  • Irish Open Age Group Championships
  • Irish Open Senior Diving Championships
  • Novice Competition (8-16yrs)
  • Novice Masters Competition (25yrs +)

Canadian diving

In Canada, elite competitive diving is regulated by DPC (Diving Plongeon Canada), although the individual provinces also have organizational bodies. The main competitive season runs from February to July, although some competitions may be held in January or December, and many divers (particularly international level athletes) will train and compete year round.

Most provincial level competitions consist of events for 6 different age groups (Groups A, B, C, D, E, and Open) for both genders on each of the three board levels. These age groups roughly correspond to those standardized by FINA, with the addition of a youngest age group for divers 9 and younger, Group E, which does not compete nationally and does not have a tower event (although divers of this age may choose to compete in Group D). The age group Open is so called because divers of any age, including those over 18, may compete in these events, so long as their dives meet a minimum standard of difficulty.

Although Canada is internationally a fairly strong country in diving, the vast majority of Canadian high schools and universities do not have diving teams, and many Canadian divers accept athletic scholarships from American colleges.

Adult divers who are not competitive at an elite level may compete in masters diving. Typically, masters are either adults who never practiced the sport as children or teenagers, or former elite athletes who have retired but still seek a way to be involved in the sport. Many diving clubs have masters teams in addition to their primary competitive ones, and while some masters dive only for fun and fitness, there are also masters competitions, which range from the local to world championship level.

National Championships

Divers can qualify to compete at the age group national championships, or junior national championships, in their age groups as assigned by FINA up to the age of 18. This competition is held annually in July. Qualification is based on achieving minimum scores at earlier competitions in the season, although athletes who place very highly at a national championship will be automatically qualified to compete at the next. Divers must qualify at two different competitions, at least one of which must be a level 1 competition, i.e. a competition with fairly strict judging patterns. Such competitions include the Polar Bear Invitational in Winnipeg, the Sting in Victoria, and the Alberta Provincial Championships in Edmonton or Calgary. The qualifying scores are determined by DPC according to the results of the preceding year's national competition, and typically do not have much variation from year to year.

Divers older than 18, or advanced divers of younger ages, can qualify for the senior national championships, which are held twice each year, once roughly in March and once in June or July. Once again, qualification is based on achieving minimum scores at earlier competitions (in this case, within the 12 months preceding the national championships, and in an Open age group event), or high placements in previous national championships or international competitions. It is no longer the case that divers may use results from age group events to qualify for senior nationals, or results from Open events to qualify for age group nationals.

Famous divers

  • Australia: Matthew Mitcham
    Matthew Mitcham
    Matthew Mitcham, is an Australian diver. He is the 2008 Olympic champion in the 10 m platform, having received the highest single-dive score in Olympic history...

    , Mathew Helm
    Mathew Helm
    Mathew Helm is an Australian diver who won the silver medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in the men's 10 metre platform. He was in first place at the end of the preliminary round and the semi-finals, but was passed by Chinese diver Hu Jia in the finals...

    , Chantelle Newbery
    Chantelle Newbery
    Chantelle Lee Newbery is an Australian diver, and olympic champion. Her first international success was at the 1998 World Aquatics Championships in Perth, Australia, where she won a bronze medal in the 3m Springboard event...

    , Robert Newbery
    Robert Newbery
    Robert Frederick Newbery is an Australian diver, who won a bronze medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics and two bronze medals in the 2004 Summer Olympics, one with synchronised springboard diving partner Steven Barnett.His wife, Chantelle Newbery, has also won an Olympic medal in diving...

    , Dean Pullar
    Dean Pullar
    Dean Lester Pullar is an Australian diver, who won a bronze medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics alongside Robert Newbery.-References:*...

    , Melissa Wu
    Melissa Wu (diver)
    Melissa Paige Wu is an Australian diver who has won silver medals at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships, the 2006 Commonwealth Games and the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Her father is of Chinese descent.Wu began diving only in 2003...

    , Rebecca Gilmore
    Rebecca Gilmore
    Rebecca Ellen Gilmore is an Australian diver who competed in the 2000 Summer Olympics with Loudy Tourky. She also placed 18th in the 3 m springboard competition, and 11th in the 10 m platform....

    , and Loudy Tourky
    Loudy Tourky
    Loudy Wiggins is an Australian diver.She was born in Haifa, Israel and is of a Palestinian background. She was born to Butros and Afaf Tourky. They came to Australia when Loudy was three. Loudy has commented, "I will always have a bond with Palestine...

  • Canada: Myriam Boileau
    Myriam Boileau
    Myriam Boileau is a Canadian diver. She began diving at the age of ten, and studied at the Université de Montréal....

    , Philippe Comtois
    Philippe Comtois
    Philippe Comtois is a Canadian diver. He was born in Montreal, Quebec. He began diving at age 9 and stopped diving in 2005. He finished his studies in accountancy at the Université du Québec à Montréal in April 2008....

    , Alexandre Despatie
    Alexandre Despatie
    Alexandre Despatie is a Canadian diver from Laval, Quebec. He was the World champion at the 1 and 3 m springboards from 2005 to 2007 and is the first, and so far only, diver to have been World champion in the three categories . He is also a 36-time Canadian senior diving champion...

    , Arturo Miranda
    Arturo Miranda
    Arturo Miranda is a Canadian diver and former vice-champion of the world in the synchronized springboard.Miranda finished in 5th in the synchronized 3m springboard event at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing with former world champion Alexandre Despatie. He was born in Havana, Cuba.- External...

    , Blythe Hartley
    Blythe Hartley
    Blythe Hartley is a Canadian Olympic diver. She was born in Edmonton, Alberta and began diving at age 12. She went to the National Sport School in Calgary, Alberta with many other top Canadian athletes...

    , Émilie Heymans
    Émilie Heymans
    Émilie-Joane Heymans is a Canadian diver. Born in Brussels, Belgium and raised in Greenfield Park , a suburb of Montreal, she started diving in 1993, at age 11...

    , Anne Montminy
    Anne Montminy
    Anne Katherine Montminy is a former competitive diver and, now, a lawyer.- Diving career :...

    , Beverly Boys
    Beverly Boys
    Beverly Boys is a retired diver from Canada, who represented her native country in three consecutive Summer Olympics, starting in 1968....

    , and Irene MacDonald
    Irene MacDonald
    Irene Margaret MacDonald, OBC was a Canadian athlete, sports executive and broadcaster from Hamilton, Ontario...

  • China: Fu Mingxia
    Fu Mingxia
    Fu Mingxia . She is a top female diver, multiple Olympic gold medalist and world champion. She is about 1.58m tall .-Early life and career:...

    , Gao Min, Guo Jingjing
    Guo Jingjing
    Guo Jingjing is a Chinese female diver from the People's Republic of China. She has won more Olympic medals than any other female diver and has won the 3m springboard event at five consecutive World Championships. She announced her retirement in 2011....

    , Hu Jia
    Hu Jia (diver)
    Hu Jia is a male Chinese diver who won the gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in the men's 10 metre platform. He was in sixth place at the end of the preliminary round, and fourth place after the semi-finals, but put in an excellent performance in the finals to take first place.Hu also won two...

    , Lao Lishi
    Lao Lishi
    Lao Lishi is a female diver from the People's Republic of China.Lao represented China at the 2004 Summer Olympics, earning a silver medal in the 10 meter women's platform and a gold medal in women's 10 meter synchronized platform along with Li Ting.-References:...

    , Li Na, Li Ting
    Li Ting (diver)
    Li Ting is a female diver from the People's Republic of China. She is a member of the Dong Chinese ethnic minority.Li started training in 1993 the second Chengguan primary school. She joined Guangxi Divers' School in 1994, and became a member of the provincial squad a year later...

    , Wu Minxia
    Wu Minxia
    Wu Minxia is a female diver from the People's Republic of China.Wu represented China at the 2004 Summer Olympics, earning a gold medal in the 3 metre women's synchronized springboard along with Guo Jingjing before winning a silver medal in the 3 metre women's springboard, coming in second place...

    , Peng Bo
    Peng Bo
    Peng Bo is a Chinese diver who competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics and won the men's 3m springboard diving event with a score of 787.38....

    , Sang Xue, Tian Liang, Xiao Hailiang, Xiong Ni, He Chong
    He Chong
    He Chong is a Chinese diver. He is the 2008 Olympic Champion in the 3m springboard.He split with partner Wang Feng after they won a gold medal in the 3m synchronised springboard event at the 2005 World Championships...

    , Chen Ruolin
    Chen Ruolin
    Chen Ruolin is a Chinese diver. She won the gold medals in women's 10m platform and 10m synchronized platform at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing for Team China.-References:*...

    , Huo Liang
    Huo Liang
    Huo Liang is a Chinese athlete who competes in diving. In addition to his gold medal in the 10m Platform Sync. event at the 2008 Summer Olympics, he dove for 10m Platform event, placing 4th in the final round.-References:...

    , Wang Xin
    Wang Xin
    Wang Xin ; birth name Wang Ruoxue , born in Wuhan, Hubei) is a Chinese athlete who competes in diving.She initially trained atTsinghua University with controversial diving coach Yu Fen before moving to the national team in 2006....

    , Yang Jinghui
    Yang Jinghui
    Yang Jinghui is a male Chinese diver who competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics.He won the gold medal in the synchronized 10 metre platform competition together with Tian Liang.-References:*...

    , and Liang Boxi
    Liang Boxi
    Liang Boxi is a former Chinese diver and a head coach of the Chinese diving team. He was among the first Chinese athletes to be awarded the title Master of Sport and is credited with revolutionising the sport of diving in China....

  • Germany: Jan Hempel
    Jan Hempel
    Jan Hempel is a German diver who competed at the 1988, 1992, 1996, and the 2000 Summer Olympics, winning two Olympic medals. Hempel won a silver in 10 m Platform and a bronze medal in 10 m synchronized platform...

    , Patrick Hausding
    Patrick Hausding
    Patrick Hausding is a German diver. Competing in the 2008 Summer Olympics, he won a silver medal in the men's synchronized 10 metre platform with teammate Sascha Klein.-External links:*...

    , Sascha Klein
    Sascha Klein
    Sascha Klein is a German diver. Competing in the 2008 Summer Olympics, he won a silver medal in the men's synchronized 10 metre platform with teammate Patrick Hausding.-External links:*...

  • Italy: Klaus Dibiasi
    Klaus Dibiasi
    Klaus Dibiasi is a former diver from Italy, who competed in four consecutive Summer Olympics for his native country, starting in 1964...

    , Giorgio Cagnotto
    Giorgio Cagnotto
    Franco Giorgio Cagnotto is a former diver from Italy, who competed in five consecutive Summer Olympics for his native country, starting in 1964....

    , Tania Cagnotto
    Tania Cagnotto
    Tania Cagnotto is an Italian diver. She is the first Italian female diver to win a medal in a World Championship. A member of the sporting federation Sport Federation Federazione Italiana Nuoto, she is sponsored by the GN Fiamme Gialle – Bolzano Nuoto.She was born in Bolzano, the daughter of...

  • Mexico: Joaquín Capilla
    Joaquín Capilla
    Joaquín Capilla Pérez born in Mexico City was a Mexican diver. He won the bronze medal in the platform diving event at the 1948 Olympic Games in London, England, the silver medal in the platform diving event again at the 1952 Olympic games in Helsinki, and the gold in the platform and the bronze...

    , Carlos Girón
    Carlos Girón
    Carlos Armando Girón Gutiérrez is a Mexican diver. He competed in four consecutive Summer Olympics, winning one medal....

    , Rommel Pacheco
    Rommel Pacheco
    Rommel Pacheco is a Mexican diver. He was the gold medalist in the 10-meter platform at the 2003 Pan American Games. In the 2004 Summer Olympics he finished in 10th place in the 10-meter platform and 3-meter springboard. In the 2008 Summer Olympics he finished in 8th place in the 10-meter...

    , Fernando Platas
    Fernando Platas
    Fernando Platas is a Mexican diver. He began diving since he was a young boy. In 1990 he won in Germany two tests of 2 and 10 metres, and in that same year he won three gold medals in the Central American Games which took place in Mexico City.In 1992, he represented Mexico in the 1992 Summer...

    , Paola Espinosa
    Paola Espinosa
    Paola Milagros Espinosa Sánchez is an athlete from Mexico. She competes in diving and represented Mexico at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens and again at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, being her national team's flagbearer in the latter...

    , Yahel Castillo
    Yahel Castillo
    Yahel Ernesto Castillo Huerta is a Mexican diver.-References:...

  • The Netherlands: Edwin Jongejans
    Edwin Jongejans
    Edwin Jongejans is a retired diver from the Netherlands, who represented his native country at two consecutive Summer Olympics: 1988 and 1992....

  • Russia: Alexander Dobroskok
    Alexander Dobroskok
    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Dobroskok is a Russian diver who competed in the 2000 Summer Olympics and in the 2004 Summer Olympics.He won a silver medal in the 3 m Springboard Synchronized event at the 2000 Summer Olympics with his partner Dmitri Sautin.In the 2003 World Championships in Barcelona, he...

    , Gleb Galperin
    Gleb Galperin
    Gleb Sergeyevich Galperin is a Russian diver. Competing in the 2008 Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the men's synchronized 10 metre platform with teammate Dmitriy Dobroskok, and also a bronze medal in the men's 10 metre platform event alone. He also competed in the 2004 Summer...

    , Vera Ilina
    Vera Ilina
    Vera Sergeyevna Ilyina is a Russian diver who competed in the 1992 Summer Olympics, 1996 Summer Olympics, 2000 Summer Olympics and 2004 Summer Olympics....

    , Igor Lukashin
    Igor Lukashin
    Igor Vladimirovich Lukashin is Russian diver who, along with Dmitri Sautin, won the gold medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics in the men's 10 m platform synchronized event.-References:*...

    , Ioulia Pakhalina
    Ioulia Pakhalina
    Yuliya Vladimirovna Pakhalina is a Russian diver. She won the gold medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics in the 3m Synchronized Springboard with partner Vera Ilyina.Pakhalina was born in Penza...

    , and Dmitri Sautin
    Dmitri Sautin
    Dmitri Ivanovich Sautin is a Russian diver who has won more medals than any other Olympic diver. He was born in Voronezh.Sautin started diving at age seven; however, his diving career almost ended in 1991 when he was stabbed multiple times in an attack. After spending two months in the hospital,...

  • Sweden: Anna Lindberg
    Anna Lindberg
    Anna Lindberg Anna Lindberg Anna Lindberg (born November 16, 1981 in Karlskoga, Sweden, is a Swedish diver. She won the 1m and 3m Springboard events at the 2006 European Aquatics Championships. She is daughter to former Swedish divers Ulrika Knape and Mathz Lindberg....

    , Ulrika Knape
    Ulrika Knape
    Ulrika Margareta Knape Lindberg is a Swedish diver, who is married to fellow Swedish diver Mathz Lindberg. She's mother to the Swedish diver Anna Lindberg....

  • United Kingdom: Leon Taylor
    Leon Taylor
    Leon Taylor is a British former competitive diver.He was hyperactive as a child and his parents were advised to channel his energies and enthusiasm into sport. He was a swimmer and gymnast from the age of two and only took up competitive diving when he was eight...

    , Peter Waterfield
    Peter Waterfield
    Peter Graham Waterfield is a British diver. His specialism is the 10 metre platform event, both as solo competitor and in the synchronised event with his former partner Leon Taylor...

    , Jason Statham
    Jason Statham
    Jason Statham born 12 September1967) is an English actor and former diver, known for his roles in the Guy Ritchie crime films Revolver, Snatch and Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels...

    , Tom Daley
    Tom Daley (diver)
    Thomas Robert "Tom" Daley is an English diver who specialises in the 10 metre platform event and was the 2009 FINA World Champion in the individual event at the age of 15. He started diving at the age of seven and is a member of Plymouth Diving Club. He has made an impact in national and...

    , Brian Phelps
    Brian Phelps (diver)
    Brian Phelps is an English former diver.He won the 10 metre platform Gold Medal at the 1958 European Championships in Budapest, Hungary at the age of 14 and again in 1962 at age 18....

  • United States: Hobie Billingsley
    Hobie Billingsley
    Hobie Billingsley is an American diving champion and honoree of the International Swimming Hall of Fame. Considered one of the highlights of his career was during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, when Billingsley was honored by his nation with the opportunity to conduct the Judge's Oath by...

    , Lesley Bush
    Lesley Bush
    Lesley Leigh Bush is a diver from the United States and Olympic champion. She represented the USA at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, where she received a gold medal in Platform Diving. Lesley performed with the 1968 Olympic diving team as well.Bush was inducted into the International Swimming...

    , Jennifer Chandler
    Jennifer Chandler
    Jennifer Kay Chandler was a diver from the United States and Olympic champion. She represented US at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, where she received a gold medal....

    , Mary Ellen Clark
    Mary Ellen Clark
    Mary Ellen Clark is an American diver who won Olympic bronze medals in diving at the 1992 and 1996 Summer Olympics.-Background:...

    , Scott Donie
    Scott Donie
    Scott Richard Donie is an American diver. He captured the silver medal in the 1992 Summer Olympics on the 10 m platform, and then placed 4th in the 3 m springboard at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta....

    , Troy Dumais
    Troy Dumais
    Troy Matthew Dumais is an Olympic diver from California. Dumais represented the United States in the 2000 Olympic Games, 2004 Olympic Games, and 2008 Olympic Games...

    , Michael Galitzen
    Michael Galitzen
    Michael Riley Galitzen, also known as Mickey Riley was an American diver who won four total medals, one gold, at the 1928 Summer Olympics and 1932 Summer Olympics....

    , Barbara Gilders
    Barbara Gilders-Dudeck
    19-year old Detroit native and Mackenzie High School graduate, Barbara Sue Gilders represented the United States in the sport of springboard diving at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, Australia....

    , Fletcher Gilders
    Fletcher Gilders
    Fletcher Gilders was a Detroit native who won fame as a talented multi-sport athlete for the Colts of Northwestern High School and the Buckeyes of Ohio State University...

    , Bruce Kimball
    Bruce Kimball
    Bruce D. Kimball is an American diver and coach. He won a silver medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics....

    , Micki King
    Micki King
    Maxine Joyce King is a former competitive diver and diving coach. She was a gold medal winner at the 1972 Summer Olympics in the three meter springboard event....

    , Dana Kunze
    Dana Kunze
    Dana Kunze is a champion high-diver. He has held the world records for the highest dives. Dana Kunze began his professional high diving career in 1974 at the age of 13. He won his first world championship 1977 and maintained a winning streak for seven years. Dana now maintains a company that...

    , Beatrice Kyle
    Beatrice Kyle
    Beatrice Kyle was known as Bee Kyle and was a world famous high diver. She would jump into an tank of water from a height of or more....

    , Sammy Lee
    Sammy Lee (diver)
    Dr. Samuel Lee is the first Asian American to win an Olympic gold medal for the United States and the first man to win back-to-back gold medals in Olympic platform diving...

    , Mark Lenzi
    Mark Lenzi
    Mark Edward Lenzi is a former American Olympic diver and diving coach. Lenzi is known for his Olympic gold medal in the 1992 Olympic Games, and his Olympic bronze medal in the 1996 Olympic Games on the 3m springboard....

    , Greg Louganis
    Greg Louganis
    Gregory "Greg" Efthimios Louganis is an American Olympic diver and author.He received the James E. Sullivan Award from the Amateur Athletic Union in 1984 as the most outstanding amateur athlete in the United States....

    , Pat McCormick
    Pat McCormick (diver)
    Patricia Joan McCormick is a retired female diver from the United States, who won a total number of four gold medals by winning both diving events at two consecutive Summer Olympics ....

    , Cynthia Potter
    Cynthia Potter
    Cynthia Ann Potter is a former American Olympic diver and diving color commentator. She was a member of three Olympic diving teams, winning a bronze medal in the Women's 3m springboard competition in 1976....

    , Aileen Riggin
    Aileen Riggin
    Aileen Riggin Soule was an American swimmer and diver.Born in Newport, Rhode Island, she learned to swim at the age of 6, in Manila Bay, and she first started diving in 1919...

    , Jeanne Stunyo
    Jeanne Stunyo
    Jeanne Georgette Stunyo is a former world-class diver who earned a silver medal on the three-meter springboard at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, Australia....

    , Laura Wilkinson
    Laura Wilkinson
    Laura Ann Wilkinson is a former American diver.- Background :As a child, Wilkinson was a gymnast, but had to give up on the sport after a growth spurt during puberty made her too tall to continue. It was then that she turned to diving. Wilkinson is a 2001 graduate of the University of Texas, where...

    , Wendy Wyland
    Wendy Wyland
    Janna Wendy Wyland was a female diver from the United States. More commonly known as Wendy Wyland, she represented her native country at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California, winning the bronze medal in the Women's 10m Platform competition...

  • Venezuela: Jhonmar Castillo
    Jhonmar Castillo
    Jhonmar R. Castillo Bello is an Olympic Diver from Venezuela now a U.S. citizen competing for the USA. he represented Venezuela in more than 14 international diving competitions in the 10mtr platform event, and partcipant at the 1988 Summer Olympics.He returned to the sport of diving as a U.S...


Non-competitive diving

Diving is also popular as a non-competitive activity. Such diving usually emphasizes the airborne experience, and the height of the dive, but does not emphasize what goes on once the diver enters the water. The ability to dive underwater can be a useful emergency skill, and is an important part of watersport and navy safety training. Entering water from a height is an enjoyable leisure activity, as is underwater swimming.

Such non-competitive diving can occur indoors and outdoors. Outdoor diving typically takes place from cliffs or other rock formations either into fresh or salt water. However, man-made diving platforms are sometimes constructed in popular swimming destinations. Outdoor diving requires knowledge of the water depth and currents as conditions can be dangerous.

See also

  • Acrobatics
    Acrobatics
    Acrobatics is the performance of extraordinary feats of balance, agility and motor coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts, as well as many sports...

  • Aquatic timing system
    Aquatic timing system
    Aquatic timing systems are designed to automate the process of timing, judging, and scoring in competitive swimming and other aquatic sports, including diving, water polo, and synchronised swimming...

  • Diving at the Summer Olympics
    Diving at the Summer Olympics
    Diving was first introduced in the official programme of the Summer Olympic Games at the 1904 Games of St. Louis and has been an Olympic sport since. It was known as "fancy diving" for the acrobatic stunts performed by divers during the dive...

  • La Quebrada Cliff Divers
    La Quebrada Cliff Divers
    The La Quebrada Cliff Divers are a group of professional high divers, based in Acapulco, Mexico. They perform daily shows for the public, which involve diving 35 metres from the cliffs of La Quebrada into the sea below. The depth of water in the "Gulch" can vary from 6 to 16 feet depending on the...

  • List of Olympic medalists in diving
  • Synchronized diving
    Synchronized diving
    Synchronized diving is an Olympic sport. First brought to the Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia in 2000, the event features two divers who attempt to perform identical or mirrored dives...

  • Swimming
    Swimming (sport)
    Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

  • Shallow Diving
    Shallow diving
    Shallow Diving is an Extreme Sport, whereby enthusiasts attempt to dive from the greatest height into the shallowest depth of water, without sustaining injury. It is typically associated with travelling circuses along with the Strong man, performing animals, clowns and other such...

  • Waterproof digital camera
    Waterproof digital camera
    Waterproof digital cameras are digital cameras that can make pictures underwater. Waterproof housings have long been made but they cost almost as the cameras...


External links

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