A Diplom is an academic degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

 in the German-speaking countries Germany
Education in Germany
The responsibility for the German education system lies primarily with the states while the federal government plays only a minor role. Optional Kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years of age, after which school attendance is compulsory, in most cases for...

, Austria
Education in Austria
The Republic of Austria has a free and public school system, and nine years of education are mandatory. Schools offer a series of vocational-technical and university preparatory tracks involving one to four additional years of education beyond the minimum mandatory level. The legal basis for...

, and Switzerland
Education in Switzerland
The education system in Switzerland is very diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system mainly to the cantons...

 and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Belarus
Education in Belarus
Education in Belarus is free at all levels except higher education. The government ministry that oversees the running of the school systems is the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus. Each of the regions inside Belarus have oversight of the education systems, and students have the...

, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia
Education in Croatia
Education in Croatia is defined as a constitutional right: the Constitution of Croatia section 65 defines primary education as mandatory and free, while secondary and higher education as equally available to all...

, Estonia
Education in Estonia
The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13–14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded. The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu which was established by the Swedish king...

, Finland
Education in Finland
The Finnish education system is an egalitarian Nordic system, with no tuition fees and with free meals served to full-time students. The present Finnish education system consists of well-funded and carefully thought out daycare programs and a one-year "pre-school" ; a nine-year compulsory basic...

 (only for engineers), Greece
Education in Greece
The Greek educational system is mainly divided into three levels, namely primary, secondary and tertiary, with an additional post-secondary level providing vocational training. Primary education is divided into kindergarten lasting one or two years, and primary school spanning six years...

, Hungary
Education in Hungary
-The social environment of education:The decline of Hungary's population that started in 1981 has also continued in recent years. According to the 2001 census, the population of Hungary was 10,198,000, about half a million less than the figure of twenty years earlier. By 2005 the population dropped...

, Russia
Education in Russia
Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the federal Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of...

, Serbia
Education in Serbia
Education in Serbia is divided in preschool, primary school, secondary school, and higher education . It is regulated by the Ministry of Education.-Current system of education:...

, Macedonia
Education in the Republic of Macedonia
The Constitution mandates free and compulsory primary and secondary education in the Republic of Macedonia, and the Law on Primary Education specifies that all children from 7 to 15 years of age attend school for a compulsory 8 years...

, Slovenia
Education in Slovenia
Education in Slovenia- Primary school :Children first enter primary schooling at about the age of 6 and finish at about the age of 14. Each group of children born in the same year forms one grade or class in primary school which lasts until the end of primary school. Each grade or year is divided...

, and Ukraine
Education in Ukraine
There is nearly 100% literacy in Ukraine.11 years of schooling are mandatory. As a rule, schooling begins at the age of 6..According to Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Volodymyr Lytvyn the amount of budget financing for the sphere of education reached about 6% of Ukraine's GDP in November...

. Also applied in Brazil
Education in Brazil
Education in Brazil is regulated by the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Education, which defines the guiding principles for the organization of education programs...

 for engineers.


The Diplom originates from the French Diplôme (Diplôme de l'ordre impérial de la légion d'honneur ) describing a certificate devised during the Second French Empire
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire or French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.-Rule of Napoleon III:...

 to bestow honours upon outstanding citizens and soldiers of the imperial French army to promote them into the Legion of Honour since 1862. The Magister
Magister (degree)
Magister is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.-Argentina:...

 degree was the original graduate degree at German speaking universities. In Germany the Diplom dates back to the pre-democratic period
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

: In October 1899 the engineering degree Diplom was annonced by a supreme decree of the German emperor Wilhelm II in his function as the King of Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 on the advent of the Centenary of the Prussian Technical College in Berlin. The Diplom was subsequently adopted by the Technische Hochschule
Technische Hochschule
Technische Hochschule is what an Institute of Technology used to be called in German-speaking countries, as well as in the Netherlands, before most of them changed their name to Technische Universität or Technische Universiteit in the 1970s and in the...

(Institutes of Technology) which had received university status following this Prussian decree. Later, all German universities adopted the Diplom as their degree in Science or Engineering.

In East Germany, the Diplom was the only first degree and was also granted in disciplines such as medicine or law, which at West German
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

 universities were completed with a staatsexamen
The ' is a German government licensing examination that future doctors, teachers, pharmacists, food chemists and jurists have to pass to be allowed to work in their profession. The examination is generally organized by government examination agencies which are under the authority of the...

. Nowadays such diploms are still granted to students of such disciplines, although most universities only grant the diplom status (for example "Magisterjurist" in law) on request. Some universities also grant a master's degree to such students on request.

With the implementation of the Bologna process
Bologna process
The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

, the Diplom and Magister are increasingly being replaced by Bachelor's or Master's degrees. In Germany Bachelor's degrees, rarely called Bakkalaureus, are awarded in most cases after three years of regular studies. Master's degrees are awarded in most cases after five years of study. Master's degrees are sometimes called Magister, like the former German graduate degree, but they differ in structure.

Germany, Austria and Switzerland

Before the introduction of the Bachelor's and Master's degree in Austria and Germany, the standard Science, Engineering or Business degree was the Diplom and could be, in several variations, obtained at several types of institutes of higher education.

Obtained at a university, the degree is simply called a Diplom or rarely a Diplom (Univ.) and took usually between four and six years (240 – 300 ECTS Credits), depending on subject and curriculum.
Obtained at a so called University of Applied Sciences (or Fachhochschule
A Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of tertiary education institution, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas . Fachhochschulen were founded in Germany and later adopted by Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Greece...

), the diploma degree is called a Diplom (FH) and took mostly four years (240 ECTS Credits).
The following text deals with these two kind of degrees. (For further kind of Diploma degrees see the section below.)

The Diplom was usually awarded in the natural sciences, business and in engineering, while students of humanities, arts and languages finished with a Magister
Magister (degree)
Magister is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.-Argentina:...

. The degree in social sciences differed from university to university.

The Diplom used to be the first academic degree many German undergraduate students received. The duration of the programme differed depending on subject and university. An official average duration (Regelstudienzeit) was set by law in each German state, usually being 4 years for a Diplom (FH) and 4 or 4.5 years for a Diplom / Diplom (Univ.). In exceptional cases, universities were allowed to set longer average durations of study for certain subjects (HGRP1995 § 26 (3), NHG2007 § 6 (3), HmbHG2001 §53 (3)). However, due to the curriculum set by most universites in Germany, the 4 or 4.5 years for a Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) were in most cases exceeded.
Although being a first degree, because of its actual duration, the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) was and is in Germany and Austria not considered as an equivalent to a Bachelor's but rather to a Master's degree.

A holder of a Diplom obtained at a university is, depending on subject, for example referred to as "Diplom-Ingenieur" (Diplom-Engineer), "Diplom-Kaufmann" (Diplom-Merchant), "Diplom-Biologe" (Diplom-Biologist) and so on. Sometimes the postfix "(Univ.)" is added. If the Diplom has been obtained at a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule), usually the postfix "(FH)" has to be added.

To obtain a Diplom at a university, students had to complete two separate periods of study. The first one was a two year period of coursework in courses of mainly (but not only) introductory nature, the Grundstudium (meaning basic studying period). After (and during) this period, in addition to exams for passing the modules, students attained a series of usually four intermediate exams to obtain the Vordiplom (meaning pre-diploma).
The second period, the Hauptstudium (meaning main period of study), consisted of two years of coursework in courses of advanced level, an additional period of several months in which a thesis had to be written and eventually a series of usually four final exams. It was not unusual for student to need more than two years for the coursework of the Hauptstudium. An obtained Vordiplom and the completion of the coursework of the Hauptstudium were the requirements to register for working on the thesis and for the final exams. However, access to courses of the Hauptstudium was usually not restricted to students who had already obtained the Vordiplom.
The extend of the final exams and the exams to obtain the Vordiplom was set by each university individually in its regulations. Normally, the content of two different modules of the preceding period of coursework was examined in each of the examinations, which could be oral or less often in writing. Most students needed approximately six months to complete the final exam period.
The thesis which followed an independent (although supervised) research project had officially to be completed in not more than 3 to 9 months (depending on subject and university). However, the actual time students worked on these projects could again exceed the official duration by several months.

The curriculum for a Diplom (FH) degree, obtained at a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule) used to be more application-oriented, in comparison to what was expected for a Univ. Diplom degree. The programme was slightly shorter and often one semester was spent by the students doing an internship.

The Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) is usually a prerequisite for preparing a doctorate (Doktorarbeit). However, under certain conditions, holders of a Diplom (FH) are also eligible for doctoral studies. In German speaking countries and countries, which Germany has bilateral agreements with—regarding the recognition of academic qualifications, the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) is usually accepted as admission into doctorate programs.

In Switzerland, the Diplom was the typical first degree at the two federal institutes of technology
Institute of technology
Institute of technology is a designation employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable levels of the educational system...

 and at the Swiss universities of applied sciences. Since 2004, these Swiss degrees are no longer offered since they are replaced by Bologna style Bachelor's and Master's degrees.

Further kinds of Diploma (Germany)

While the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) and the Diplom (FH) were the most common Diplom degrees in Germany, further Diploma did and do exist. Those are:
  • Diplom (BA) - The Diplom (BA) was not an academic degree, but instead a qualification designation which students received after completing a three year programme at a so called University of Cooperative Education
    Cooperative education
    Cooperative education is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic credit for structured job experience...

     (Berufsakademie). These colleges combined coursework with apprenticeships.
  • Diplom (DH) - In the German state of Baden-Württemberg
    Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

    , the Universities of Cooperative Education were transfered into the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University
    Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University
    The Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University is an undergraduate college with several campuses throughout the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It offers dual education degree programs in cooperation with industry and non-profit institutions in the areas of engineering, business...

     (Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg) in 2009. Former students of a University of Cooperative Education can transfer their qualification designation Diplom (BA) into the academic degree Diplom (DH)
  • Diplom I - The University of Kassel
    University of Kassel
    The University of Kassel, founded in 1970, is one of the newer universities in the state of Hesse. The university is in Kassel, and as of September 2010 has about 18,113 students...

     used to offer this academic degree, which is basically a minor Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) obtained after a shortened programme of study.
  • Diplom II - The equivalent to a Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) obtained from the University of Kassel
    University of Kassel
    The University of Kassel, founded in 1970, is one of the newer universities in the state of Hesse. The university is in Kassel, and as of September 2010 has about 18,113 students...


International Comparison

Acceptance of the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) and the Diplom (FH) varies from country to country and from university to university. Usually holders of any of the both degrees are considered for admission to postgraduate (not necessarily doctoral) studies.
  • A bilateral agreement between Germany and France sets the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) as equivalent to the French Maîtrise.
  • In the Netherlands the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) is usually accepted as equivalent to the Dutch doctorandus
    Doctorandus is a Dutch academic title according to the pre-bachelor-master system. The title is acquired by passing the doctoraalexamen, traditionally a matriculation exam for admission to study at doctoral level....

     or the Dutch Master's degree.
  • In the United States, the Department of Education
    United States Department of Education
    The United States Department of Education, also referred to as ED or the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government...

     calls the German Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) an equivalent to the Master's degree. Evaluations by U.S. universities vary. For example, for admission to graduate studies, the University of Arizona
    University of Arizona
    The University of Arizona is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. The University of Arizona was the first university in the state of Arizona, founded in 1885...

    , the University of Central Florida
    University of Central Florida
    The University of Central Florida, commonly referred to as UCF, is a metropolitan public research university located in Orlando, Florida, United States...

     and the University of Wisconsin-Madison require (at least) the Vordiplom plus an additional year of study. The Oregon State University
    Oregon State University
    Oregon State University is a coeducational, public research university located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. The university offers undergraduate, graduate and doctoral degrees and a multitude of research opportunities. There are more than 200 academic degree programs offered through the...

     and the University of Southern California
    University of Southern California
    The University of Southern California is a private, not-for-profit, nonsectarian, research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. USC was founded in 1880, making it California's oldest private research university...

     consider holders of a Diplom (not differing between (FH) and (Univ.)) for admission to graduate studies. In contrast to this, the University of California, Los Angeles
    University of California, Los Angeles
    The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university located in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, USA. It was founded in 1919 as the "Southern Branch" of the University of California and is the second oldest of the ten campuses...

     requires the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) and considers the Vordiplom, the Diplom (FH) or a German Bachelor's degree as not sufficient.
  • In Canada the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) is at most universities the prerequisite to enter a Canadian Master's program, and corresponds to a Canadian Bachelor's/Bachelier degree.
  • In Denmark the Diplom (FH) awarded after 4 years of tuition is considered as being equivalent to a Danish Bachelor's degree, whereas the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) awarded after at least 4½ years of tuition merits a Kandidatuddannelse. The German Diplom must not be confused with a Danish Diplomuddannelse which is equivalent to a Bachelor's degree.
  • In the United Kingdom the University of Aberystwyth, the University College London
    University College London
    University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

     and the University of Sheffield
    University of Sheffield
    The University of Sheffield is a research university based in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It is one of the original 'red brick' universities and is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities...

     consider both the Diplom (FH) and the Diplom (Univ.) as being equivalent to a Bachelor's degree, while the University of Edinburgh
    University of Edinburgh
    The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a public research university located in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university...

     only states that it considers both degrees as sufficient to enter postgraduate programmes.
  • In the Republic of Ireland, both the Diplom (FH) and the Diplom are recognized as being equivalent to a Bachelor's Honours degree.
  • In Norway, the Norwegian Statistical Office classifies the Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) as being equivalent to a Norwegian Master's degree.
  • In Sweden, the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education
    Swedish National Agency for Higher Education
    The Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, or Högskoleverket is a Swedish government agency. It is in charge of inspecting and promoting higher education sector activities, through follow-up and evalutation of higher education, quality assessment, initiatives for updating teaching methods...

     considers a German Diplom as sufficient for the admission to a Swedish Master's program. On the Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate Conference
    The CDIO™ INITIATIVE is an innovative educational framework for producing the next generation of engineers. The framework provides students with an education stressing engineering fundamentals set in the context of Conceiving — Designing — Implementing — Operating real-world systems and products...

     in 2005 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Malmqvist et al. stated that, the Swedish Civilingenjör engineering degree programs "are 4½ year integrated engineering programs roughly equivalent to Master of Science
    Master of Science
    A Master of Science is a postgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is typically studied for in the sciences including the social sciences.-Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay:...

     or Diplom-Ingenieur degrees".

Comparison between Diplom and Bologna Degrees in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

Current German legislation states that the old degrees Diplom / Diplom (Univ.) and Magister provide the same qualification as the newly introduced German Master's degree, while the Diplom (FH) provides the same qualification as the German Bachelor's degree. The following chart illustrates a comparison when the old degree (Diplom, Diplom (FH)) and the new European degrees (Bachelor/Master) are obtained with some sample durations of studies.

It should also be noted for comparison purposes that at the time of the Bologna process, schools in most German states
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 started changing from 13 school years to 12 years. (An exception are the states of Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

 and Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states....

, where Gymnasium
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

 has always lasted only 12 years ever since the German Reunification
German reunification
German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany , and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23. The start of this process is commonly referred by Germans as die...

.) Most of the students going for a Diplom therefore spent 13 years in school before starting their university studies, while the younger Bachelor students nowadays may start one year earlier. (However, in some states, such as Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has an area of and about four million inhabitants. The capital is Mainz. English speakers also commonly refer to the state by its German name, Rheinland-Pfalz ....

 or Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the sixteen states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig...

, the first class which completes school after 12 years will graduate as late as 2016.) Regarding international comparison, one may argue that British, Irish and French high school students have school also in the afternoons which could compensate with the (former) additional year of school attendance in Germany.
1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year 6th year 7th year 8th year 9th year
Vordiplom Diplom (FH) with excellent grades additional coursework Doctorate
Vordiplom Diplom (FH) 2 Sem. Master Doctorate
Vordiplom Diplom (Universität) Doctorate
Bachelors (Bologna only) Masters Doctorate

Note: For the Diplom (FH) a student has to spend one to two obligatory semesters during his studies in a company where he/she does not study. These semesters are included in the table. The study time is therefore one to two semesters shorter. Bachelor studies have them included in the table too. For the Diplom (Universität) those semesters are sometimes not included in the table.

Also note: In Germany, a Diplom (Universität) student can enter a doctoral program directly (if the student meets the admission requirements). A Diplom (FH) student has to have excellent grades to directly enter a doctorate program. With the Higher Education Act of the Land Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the sixteen states of Germany...

 as of August 2010, outstanding Bachelor graduates can commence their Doctorate at the Universities of this German state. In addition, a few German graduate schools, such as the Saarbrücken Graduate School of Computer Science or the Berlin Mathematical School
Berlin Mathematical School
The Berlin Mathematical School is a joint graduate school of the three renowned math departments of the public research universities in Berlin: Freie Universität, Technische Universität Berlin, and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin....

 also admit students with a Bachelor's degree and excellent grades to their doctorate programms.


In Greece, a diploma is a 5-year (10-semester) (diplom uni) (300E.C.T.S – I.S.C.E.D. 5A) degree, formatted similarly to the German Diplom, awarded to students of the Greek Engineering Schools and Departments (called Polytechinc in Greece – not to be confused though with the polytechnics of the UK).

While every institution has its own individual approaches, the curriculum usually consists of general knowledge and essential background subjects in the first five semesters. After the end of the fifth semester, students select their academic area of interest and pursue a set of specialised courses for the next four semesters. The last semester is devoted to the preparation of a thesis on the student's chosen area of interest, which is presented before a three-member panel.

Diplomas are considered equivalent to master's degrees (MEng)and allow the holder to sit in the Technical Chamber of Greece
Technical Chamber of Greece
The Technical Chamber of Greece is the Greek professional organization that serves as the official technical advisor of the Greek state and is responsible for awarding professional licences to all practicing engineers in Greece. It is a public legal entity with elected administration, supervised...

 exams without any prerequisite. It also allows the engineer to be considered for doctorate studies without taking any additional classes.

Since adoption of the 2001 Higher Education Reform Act (Ν. 2916/2001 – Ν. 3549/2007) the higher technological institutes (Ανώτατα Τεχνολογικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα – Α.T.E.I) constitute a parallel, equivalent, and complementary part of public higher education in Greece. They confer a 4-year bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 formatted similarly to the German Diplom (FH) (240E.C.T.S – I.S.C.E.D. 5A).

Grades range between 0 and 10, 5 being the passing mark. However, since grading practice differs amongst awarding institutions, a descriptive mark is used, which is more or less universal throughout Greece. For example, in the National Technical University of Athens, a grade in the diploma between 5 and 6.99 is "good" (καλώς), a grade between 7.00 and 8.99 is "very good" (λίαν καλώς) and a grade of 9.00 or more is "excellent" (άριστα). In the University of Patras the ranges are from 5 to 6.49 (good), from 6.5 to 8.49 (very good) and from 8.5 to 10 (excellent).

See also

  • Diploma
    A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to...

  • Magister
    Magister (degree)
    Magister is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.-Argentina:...

  • DEA (former French degree)
    DEA (former French degree)
    A Master of Advanced Studies is a non-consecutive postgraduate degree awarded predominantly in European countries. A MAS program offers comprehensive training in a specific field and can either give access to higher qualification in one's profession or lead to a new profession...

  • Specialist (degree), an analogous degree in Russia and CIS
    CIS usually refers to the Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern political entity consisting of eleven former Soviet Union republics.The acronym CIS may also refer to:-Organizations:...

     (former USSR)
  • German Academic Exchange Service
    German Academic Exchange Service
    The German Academic Exchange Service or DAAD is the largest German support organisation in the field of international academic co-operation....

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