Beer garden
Overview
 
Beer garden is an open-air area where beer, other drinks and local food (see German cuisine
German cuisine
German cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of Germany. It has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region. The southern regions of Germany, including Bavaria and neighbouring Swabia, share many dishes....

) are served. The concept originates from and is most common in Southern Germany
Southern Germany
The term Southern Germany is used to describe a region in the south of Germany. There is no specific boundary to the region, but it usually includes all of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, and the southern part of Hesse...

 (especially Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

). It is usually attached to a drinking establishment such as a public house
Public house
A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

 or a beer hall
Beer hall
A beer hall is a large pub that specializes in beer. Bavaria's capital Munich is the city most associated with beer halls; almost every brewery in Munich operates a beer hall...

.

Beer gardens in Germany developed in the kingdom of Bavaria in the 19th century, during which dark lager beer
Dunkel
Dunkel, or Dunkles, is a dark German beer. Dunkel is the German word meaning dark, and dunkel beers typically range in colour from amber to dark reddish brown. They are characterized by their smooth malty flavour....

 was predominant. According to a decree by King Ludwig I, this had to be brewed during the cold months, since fermentation had to take place at temperatures between 4 and 8 °C.
Encyclopedia
Beer garden is an open-air area where beer, other drinks and local food (see German cuisine
German cuisine
German cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of Germany. It has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region. The southern regions of Germany, including Bavaria and neighbouring Swabia, share many dishes....

) are served. The concept originates from and is most common in Southern Germany
Southern Germany
The term Southern Germany is used to describe a region in the south of Germany. There is no specific boundary to the region, but it usually includes all of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, and the southern part of Hesse...

 (especially Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

). It is usually attached to a drinking establishment such as a public house
Public house
A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

 or a beer hall
Beer hall
A beer hall is a large pub that specializes in beer. Bavaria's capital Munich is the city most associated with beer halls; almost every brewery in Munich operates a beer hall...

.

History

Beer gardens in Germany developed in the kingdom of Bavaria in the 19th century, during which dark lager beer
Dunkel
Dunkel, or Dunkles, is a dark German beer. Dunkel is the German word meaning dark, and dunkel beers typically range in colour from amber to dark reddish brown. They are characterized by their smooth malty flavour....

 was predominant. According to a decree by King Ludwig I, this had to be brewed during the cold months, since fermentation had to take place at temperatures between 4 and 8 °C. To provide this beer during the summer, large breweries dug cellars in the banks of the River Isar
Isar
The Isar is a river in Tyrol, Austria and Bavaria, Germany. Its source is in the Karwendel range of the Alps in Tyrol; it enters Germany near Mittenwald, and flows through Bad Tölz, Munich, and Landshut before reaching the Danube near Deggendorf. At 295 km in length, it is the fourth largest river...

 for the storage of beer, to keep it cool. To further reduce the cellar temperature, they covered the banks in gravel and planted chestnut trees, the leaves of which provided shade in summer.

Soon after, the beer cellars were used not only to store but also to serve the beer. Simple tables and benches were set up among the trees, creating "beer gardens", and soon they were a popular venue for the citizens of Munich. This aggrieved the smaller breweries that remained in Munich. To prevent further loss of customers, they petitioned Ludwig I to forbid the beer cellars surrounding Munich to serve food. Consequently, in riposte, the beer gardens allowed their patrons to bring their own food - and this is still common practice.

This decree is no longer in force, and many beer gardens do serve food today. But according to the Bayerische Biergartenverordnung (Bavarian beer garden decree) beer gardens still have to allow their patrons to bring their own food.

An important part of life for many citizens, the Bavarian Biergärten usually serve common Bavarian cuisine
Bavarian cuisine
Bavarian cuisine is a style of cooking derived from Bavaria.The origins of Bavarian cuisine are rural. The cuisine typically includes many meat and Knödel dishes, and the prominent use of flour....

 such as Radi (radish
Radish
The radish is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe, in pre-Roman times. They are grown and consumed throughout the world. Radishes have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and duration of required cultivation time...

), Breze
Brézé
Brézé is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.-See also:*Communes of the Maine-et-Loire department*Claire-Clémence de Maillé-Brézé, born here in 1628, Princess of Condé...

n
, Obatzda
Obatzda
Obatzda is a Bavarian cheese delicacy. It is prepared by mixing two thirds aged soft cheese, usually Camembert and one third butter....

, halbes Hendl
Hendl
Hendl is the Austro-Bavarian word for "chicken", most commonly in its roasted form.Hendln are traditionally served in Bavarian beer gardens or at festivals such as Oktoberfest, and are generally eaten with a Brezen and/or a Maß of beer...

(half a grilled chicken), Hax'n (knuckle of pork) and Steckerlfisch
Steckerlfisch
Steckerlfisch is a fish grilled on a stick which is considered a speciality of Upper Austria and the foothills of the Alps in Bavaria...

(grilled fish).

Beer gardens around the world

The term "beer garden" (Biergarten) has become a generic term for open-air establishments where beer is served. Many countries have such establishments. The characteristics of a traditional beer garden include trees (no sun umbrellas), wooden benches (no plastic garden chairs), gravel bed (no street pavement), and solid meals (no fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

).

The largest traditional beer garden in the world is the Hirschgarten in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, which seats 8,000.

Austria

In Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, the beer garden is called Gastgarten (guest garden).
They serve food such as "ein Paar Würstel" (a pair of the German Bratwurst
Bratwurst
A bratwurst is a sausage usually composed of veal, pork or beef. The plural in German is Bratwürste....

) or "Schweinsbraten" (German pot roasted pork Schweinebraten). When ordering beer the choices are usually a "Pfiff " (0.2 liter), a "Seidel" (0.3 liter), a "Krügerl" (1/2 liter).

Germany

The Hirschgarten is a restaurant in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 that is noted for its beer garden, which is possibly the largest in the world. It has seating for over 8000 people.

The restaurant dates back to 1791.

Japan

Beer gardens are popular in Japan. Many are located on the roofs of department stores and hotels.

United Kingdom

In the UK, a beer garden is normally an outdoor area joined onto a pub. They became popular during the warmer summer months after smoking became illegal in indoor public areas, and have usually a covered area to accommodate smokers during less desirable weather. They are characterized by cheap lawn furniture, and retain none of the traditional elements of German Biergartens.

United States

In the United States one of the earliest, and most popular, beer gardens was Castle Garden at The Battery
Battery Park
Battery Park is a 25-acre public park located at the Battery, the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City, facing New York Harbor. The Battery is named for artillery batteries that were positioned there in the city's early years in order to protect the settlement behind them...

 on the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York. It had previously been a fort, and subsequently became a theater, the first immigration station (predating Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Ellis Island in New York Harbor was the gateway for millions of immigrants to the United States. It was the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 until 1954. The island was greatly expanded with landfill between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the...

), a very popular public aquarium, and finally a national monument
U.S. National Monument
A National Monument in the United States is a protected area that is similar to a National Park except that the President of the United States can quickly declare an area of the United States to be a National Monument without the approval of Congress. National monuments receive less funding and...

.

Completed in 1919, the Beer Garden at Bohemian Hall is the oldest beer garden in New York City. Located on 24th Avenue in Astoria, Queens
Astoria, Queens
Astoria is a neighborhood in the northwestern corner of the borough of Queens in New York City. Located in Community Board 1, Astoria is bounded by the East River and is adjacent to three other Queens neighborhoods: Long Island City, Sunnyside , and Woodside...

, it is operated as part of the Bohemian Citizens' Benevolent Society
Bohemian Citizens' Benevolent Society
The Bohemian Citizens' Benevolent Society is a private benevolent society founded in 1892 in Astoria, Queens to support Czech and Slovak immigrants to the area, as well as people of Czech and Slovak ancestry...

, along with a bar and catering hall. The Beer Garden at Bohemian Hall officially seats 800, though often entertains more during festivals and other events.

See also

  • Hofbräuhaus am Platzl
    Hofbräuhaus am Platzl
    The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl is a beer hall in the city center of Munich, Germany. The inn originally built in 1598 by Bavarian Duke Maximilian I. It was built as an extension of the original Hofbräu brewery, but for Weissbier . The general public was admitted only in 1828 by then king Ludwig I...

  • Hofbräukeller
    Hofbräukeller
    The Hofbräukeller is a restaurant in Haidhausen, Munich, Germany.It is a traditional Bavarian restaurant in a cellar with a beer garden, owned by Hofbräuhaus brewery. It is not a tourist spot like the Hofbräuhaus am Platzl. It is a part of the Wiener Platz, which it shares with the Wiener Markt...

  • Public house
    Public house
    A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

  • Rathskeller
    Rathskeller
    Ratskeller is a name in German-speaking countries for a bar or restaurant located in the basement of a city hall or nearby...

  • Schanigarten
    Schanigarten
    Schanigarten is the Austrian term for the outside tables set up on the sidewalk in front of a coffeehouse or other establishment. Originally, the term referred only to Viennese coffeehouses, but now the expression is used in other parts of Austria and for other types of establishments like bars and...

  • Sidewalk cafe
    Sidewalk cafe
    A sidewalk cafe is an outdoor part of a coffeehouse or cafe. This is an area where customers go to relax, dine, and socialize...


External links

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