The BM-27 Uragan is a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher
Multiple rocket launcher
A multiple rocket launcher is a type of unguided rocket artillery system. Like other rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers are less accurate and have a much lower rate of fire than batteries of traditional artillery guns...

 system designed in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. It began its service with the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main part of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. Previously, it had been known as the Red Army. Informally, Армия referred to all the MOD armed forces, except, in some cases, the Soviet Navy.This article covers the Soviet Ground...

 in the late 1970s, as its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher. This system is capable of launching 220 mm rocket
A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

s from 16 launch tubes mounted on the rear of a ZIL-135
The ZIL-135 is a large, 8 wheeled military transport and self-propelled artillery truck produced in the Cold War by the Soviet Union starting in 1966. Its purpose was to carry and launch an artillery missile, specifically a FROG-7, from surface-to-surface...

 8x8 chassis. This vehicle is extremely similar to that used in the FROG-7
The 9K52 Luna-M is a Soviet short-range ballistic missile complex. The 9M21 missiles are unguided and spin-stabilized. "9K52" is its GRAU designation. Its NATO reporting name is FROG-7....

 free flight rocket system. It has 2 gasoline engines that power its 20 tonnes to a maximum speed of 65 kilometers per hour. One engine drives the 4 wheels on the left of the truck while the other engine drives the 4 wheels on the right. The ZIL-135 has 8 wheel drive, but only the front and rear axles are used for steering. It has a maximum cruising range of 500 kilometers.

The cab of the ZIL-135 is NBC protected, allowing the rockets to be fired without exposing the crew to possible contaminants. The crew of 4 can emplace or displace the system in 3 minutes.

Before firing, stabilizing jacks must be lowered and the blast shield raised to protect the cab and its occupants. Indirect fire aiming is achieved with the use of a PG-1 panoramic telescope. Although there are no night vision
Night vision
Night vision is the ability to see in low light conditions. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range...

 sights, the driver of the launch vehicle is equipped with a night vision device.

The BM-27 can use HE-Frag, chemical
Chemical warfare
Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. This type of warfare is distinct from Nuclear warfare and Biological warfare, which together make up NBC, the military acronym for Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical...

, or scatterable mine (PTM-3 or PFM-1
PFM-1 is a land mine of Soviet production, very similar to BLU-43 US Army landmine...

) submunition
Ammunition is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which embraced all material used for war , but which in time came to refer specifically to gunpowder and artillery. The collective term for all types of ammunition is munitions...

 equipped rockets all of which are detonated by electric timing fuses. Each rocket weighs 280.4 kilograms. The warheads weigh between 90 and 100 kilograms depending on type. A full salvo of 16 rockets can be fired in 20 seconds and can engage targets within a range of 35 kilometers.

Because of the size of the warhead, the range of the rocket and the speed that a salvo can be delivered, the BM-27 is very effective at mine laying. Each 220 mm rocket can scatter 312 anti-personnel PFM-1
PFM-1 is a land mine of Soviet production, very similar to BLU-43 US Army landmine...

 mines. Minefields can be laid behind a retreating enemy or even be used to trap an enemy by encircling them with mines. Tactics such as this were often used by the Soviets in Afghanistan.

Once the rockets have been fired, 9T452 (another ZIL-135 based vehicle) is used to assist in reloading. It carries additional rockets and a crane to transfer the rockets from the reload vehicle to the launcher. The entire reloading procedure takes around 20 minutes.


- 18 (captured guns, not functional) - 84 - 3 - Unknown - 180 - 11 -35 - Unknown - 500-800 - 12 - 48 - 54 - 139 - 49 - 13

See also

  • Katyusha, BM-13, BM-8, and BM-31 multiple rocket launchers of World War II
  • BM-14
    The BM-14 , is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple rocket launcher, fielded by the Soviet Union.The BM-14 can fire rockets fitted with chemical , smoke or high-explosive fragmentation warheads...

     140 mm multiple rocket launcher
  • BM-21
    The BM-21 launch vehicle , a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher, and a M-21OF rocket were developed in the early 1960s. BM stands for boyevaya mashina, ‘combat vehicle’, and the nickname means ‘hail’. The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle and the M-21OF rocket...

    122 mm multiple rocket launcher

External links

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