Archbishop of Riga
The Archbishopric of Riga was an archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

ric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

. It was established in 1186 as the bishopric of Livonia
Livonia is a historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. It was once the land of the Finnic Livonians inhabiting the principal ancient Livonian County Metsepole with its center at Turaida...

 at Üxküll
Ikšķile is a town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Ikšķile municipality. It was the first capital of the catholic bishopric of Livonia, known by the German name of Üxküll. Saint Meinhard, known from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, was the first bishop of Üxküll. In 1197 Berthold of...

, then after moving to Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

 it became the bishopric of Riga in 1202 and was elevated to an archbishopric in 1255.

Archbishops of Riga

The archbishops of Riga were also the secular rulers of Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

 until 1561 when during the reformation
- Movements :* Protestant Reformation, an attempt by Martin Luther to reform the Roman Catholic Church that resulted in a schism, and grew into a wider movement...

 the territory converted from Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

 to Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

 and all church territories were secularized. The see
See or SEE may refer to:*The act of visual perception*The term "See:" as a form of citation signal*Episcopal see, domain of authority of a bishop*Holy See, the central government of the Roman Catholic Church*See District, Fribourg, Switzerland...

 was restored as a diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

 of the Catholic Church in 1918 and raised into an archdiocese in 1923.

Bishops and Archbishops of Riga

Bishopric of Livonia, 1186–1255
1186–1196 Saint Meinhard
Saint Meinhard
Saint Meinhard was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia. His life was described in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. His body rests in the now-Lutheran Riga Cathedral....

1196–1198 Berthold of Hanover
Berthold of Hanover
Berthold of Hanover was a German Cistercian and Bishop of Livonia, who met his death in a crusade against the pagan Livonians.-Life:...

1199–1229 Albert of Riga
1229–1253 Nikolaus of Nauen
Archbishopric of Riga, 1255–1561
1245–1273 Albert Suerbeer
Albert Suerbeer
Albert Suerbeer was the first Archbishop of Riga in Livonia.Suerbeer was an aggressive supporter of papal power and tried to take over the whole eastern Baltic area for the Holy See. His efforts failed, however, and he was forced to submit to the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights.- Biography...

1273–1284 Johannes I of Lune
1285–1294 Johannes II of Vechten
1294–1300 Johannes III of Schwerin
1300–1302 Isarnus Tacconi of Fontiès-d'Aude
1303–1310 Jens Grand
Jens Grand
Dr. Jens Grand, the Firebug was a Danish archbishop of Lund , titular Archbishop of Riga and Terra Mariana , and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen , known as the central figure of the second ecclesiastical struggle in Denmark in the late 13th century...

titular, never came to Riga
1304–1341 Friedrich von Pernstein
1341–1347 Engelbert von Dolen
1348–1369 Bromhold von Vyffhusen
1370–1374 Siegfried Blomberg
1374–1393 Johannes IV von Sinten
1393–1418 Johannes V von Wallenrodt
1418–1424 Johannes VI Ambundi
Johannes Ambundii
Johannes VI Ambundii, Archbishopric of Riga 1418-1424, secular name Johannes Ambundii de Swan, also Abundi, Ambundij, Habundi, Habendi, Habindi, Almanni and ~ von Schwan was a German ecclesiastic. Ambundii is thought to be born in the area of Stettin in Pomerania...

1424–1448 Henning Scharpenberg
1448–1479 Silvester Stodewescher
1479–1484 Sede vacante
Sede vacante
Sede vacante is an expression, used in the Canon Law of the Catholic Church, that refers to the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church...

 (empty seat)
1484–1509 Michael Hildebrand
1509–1524 Jasper Linde
1524–1527 Johannes VII Blankenfeld
1528–1539 Thomas Schöning
1539–1563 Wilhelm von Brandenburg

A new Bishopric of Livonia
Diocese of Inflanty
The Diocese of Inflanty was a territorial division of the Roman Catholic Church established after 1621 in Latgalia during the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was formed after Vidzeme and present-day Estonia were conquered by Swedish king Gustav II Adolf...

 was established in Latgalia in 1621 during the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dualistic state of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th- and 17th‑century Europe with some and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century...



The Archbishops of Riga were innovators in the field of minting
Mint (coin)
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins for currency.The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins. One difference is that the history of the mint is usually closely tied to the political situation of an era...

 currency, reviving techniques abandoned since the collapse of Rome. The names of individual archbishops after 1418, as well as the years of their respective reigns, are stamped on Livonian pennies
A penny is a coin or a type of currency used in several English-speaking countries. It is often the smallest denomination within a currency system.-Etymology:...

 excavated at archaeological sites. In many cases, this is the only biographical data available. No Livonian pennies before 1418 have been found.

See also

  • Bishopric of Courland
    Bishopric of Courland
    The Bishopric of Courland was the second smallest ecclesiastical state in the Livonian Confederation founded in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade...

  • Bishopric of Dorpat
    Bishopric of Dorpat
    The Bishopric of Dorpat was a medieval principality and a catholic diocese which existed from 1224 to 1558, generally encompassing what are now Tartu, Põlva, Võru and Jõgeva counties in Estonia. The Bishopric was part of Livonian Confederation...

  • Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek
    Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek
    The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek was a semi-independent Roman Catholic prince-bishopric in what is now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.The bishopric was created as a state of Holy Roman Empire on 1 October 1228, by Henry, King of the Romans...

  • Bishopric of Reval
    Bishopric of Reval
    The Bishopric of Reval was created in Duchy of Estonia by Valdemar II of Denmark in 1240. Contradictory to canon law Valdemar II reserved the right to appoint the bishops of Reval to himself and his successor kings of Denmark. The decision to simply nominate the holy see of Reval was unique in the...

  • Livonian Crusade
    Livonian Crusade
    The Livonian Crusade refers to the German and Danish conquest and colonization of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia, during the Northern Crusades...

  • Livonian Brothers of the Sword
    Livonian Brothers of the Sword
    The Livonian Brothers of the Sword were a military order founded by Bishop Albert of Riga in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks"...

  • Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights
    Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights
    The State of the Teutonic Order, , also Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights or Ordensstaat , was formed in 1224 during the Northern Crusades, the Teutonic Knights' conquest of the pagan West-Baltic Old Prussians in the 13th century....

External links

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