is a series of thematically-related adult
Adult animation
Adult animation is a term used to describe animation that is targeted at adults. Animated films and television shows may be considered adult for a number of reasons. Some productions are noted for experimental storytelling and animation techniques, or sophisticated storytelling...

is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 feature film
Feature film
In the film industry, a feature film is a film production made for initial distribution in theaters and being the main attraction of the screening, rather than a short film screened before it; a full length movie...

s originally conceived and initiated by Osamu Tezuka
Osamu Tezuka
was a Japanese cartoonist, manga artist, animator, producer, activist and medical doctor, although he never practiced medicine. Born in Osaka Prefecture, he is best known as the creator of Astro Boy, Kimba the White Lion and Black Jack...

 and made at his Mushi Production
Mushi Production
Mushi Production , or Mushi Pro for short, is a Japanese animation studio headquartered in Nerima, Tokyo, Japan....

 animation studio from the late 1960s to early 1970s, perhaps intended as animated counterparts to the then-emergent pink films (a direct connection being Shigemi Satoyoshi being the scenarist for Cleopatra).

As well as the erotic themes, they are also defined by mixing more typical traditional animation
Traditional animation
Traditional animation, is an animation technique where each frame is drawn by hand...

 with sequences of UPA
Upa or UPA may refer to:As the word Upa*Upa, central character in the video game Bio Miracle Bokutte Upa *Bridge in Brazilian jiu jitsu, a move designed to dislodge a mounted opponent...

 and Yōji Kuri-influenced experimental use of modern design, limited animation and still paintings akin to Tezuka's experimental short films and like those largely were are all directed, sometimes sharing the billing with Tezuka, by Eiichi Yamamoto
Eiichi Yamamoto
Eiichi Yamamoto is a Japanese film director and screenwriter of Anime. He directed ten films between 1962 and 1986. His 1973 film Kanashimi no Belladonna was entered into the 23rd Berlin International Film Festival....

. The first, A Thousand & One Nights
One Thousand and One Arabian Nights (film)
is a 1969 anime feature film directed by Eiichi Yamamoto, conceived by Osamu Tezuka. The film is part of Mushi Production's Animerama, a series of films aimed at an adult audience....

, was the first erotic animated feature film and, at 130 minutes, remains one of the longest ever animated films. The first two are also notable for for having score
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

s by famed composer and electronic rearranger Isao Tomita
Isao Tomita
, often known simply as Tomita, is a Japanese music composer, regarded as one of the pioneers of electronic music and space music, and as one of the most famous producers of analog synthesizer arrangements...

. The third, Belladonna, made without Tezuka's direct involvement, is more serious than its predecessors and more avant-garde still, telling its story largely through pans over still, panoramic painting
Panoramic painting
Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event. They became especially popular in the 19th Century in Europe and the United States, inciting opposition from writers of Romantic poetry...

s with narration.

The three films in the trilogy are: (1969) (1970) (1973)
All three were released onto DVD-Video
DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD discs, and is currently the dominant consumer video format in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia. Discs using the DVD-Video specification require a DVD drive and a MPEG-2 decoder...

 by the video division of Columbia Music Entertainment
Columbia Music Entertainment
is a Japanese record label founded in 1910 as . It affiliated itself with the Columbia Graphophone Company of the United Kingdom and adopted the standard UK Columbia trademarks in 1931. The company changed its name to Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. in 1946. It used the Nippon Columbia name until...

, both separately and as a box set, in 2004 in Japan and re-released in 2006.

A 1991 original video animation
Original video animation
, abbreviated as media , are animated films and series made specially for release in home-video formats. The term originated in relation to Japanese animation...

 based on part of Ihara Saikaku
Ihara Saikaku
was a Japanese poet and creator of the "floating world" genre of Japanese prose .-Biography:Born the son of the wealthy merchant Hirayama Tōgo in Osaka, he first studied haikai poetry under Matsunaga Teitoku, and later studied under Nishiyama Sōin of the Danrin School of poetry, which emphasized...

's The Life of an Amorous Man (released on VHS
The Video Home System is a consumer-level analog recording videocassette standard developed by Victor Company of Japan ....

 in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

 as The Sensualist
The Sensualist
is a historical drama anime film based on part of the 17th century novel of the same name by Ihara Saikaku.-External links:* at AniPages Daily...

) made at Grouper Production is sometimes considered an unofficial successor to the trilogy, owing to the involvement of Yamamoto as screenwriter
Screenwriters or scriptwriters or scenario writers are people who write/create the short or feature-length screenplays from which mass media such as films, television programs, Comics or video games are based.-Profession:...

and its similarly both erotic and experimental imagery.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.