Andrey Lyapchev
Andrey Tasev Lyapchev (30 November 1866 – 6 November 1933) was a Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

n political figure and Prime Minister in 3 consecutive governments.

Early years

Lyapchev was born in the Macedonian
Macedonia (region)
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time, but nowadays the region is considered to include parts of five Balkan countries: Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, as...

 city of Resen
Resen (city)
Resen is a town in southwestern Macedonia, with just under 9,000 inhabitants. Resen is approximately equidistant between Bitola and Ohrid. The town rises 880 meters above sea level and is situated near Lake Prespa...

, which was at the time a part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, and played a leading role in Macedonian politics. Lyapchev's family is thought to have originated from a certain Dore, a Megleno-Romanian
The Megleno-Romanians or Meglen Vlachs or Moglenite Vlachs, are a small Eastern Romance people, currently inhabiting seven villages in the Moglena region spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Central Macedonia, Greece, and one village, Huma, across the border in the Republic of...

 potter who fled the Islamization of his native Notia
Nótia is a village in the Exaplatanos municipality of the Pella Prefecture, Central Macedonia, Greece. Lying at an altitude of 595 metres in the Upper Karadjova Plain, it was for centuries the largest Meglen Vlach village, and the only one with a regular market.Much of Notia's Meglen Vlach...

 and settled in Resen in the 18th century.

Andrey Lyapchev started his education in Resen but after the April Uprising of 1876 the local school was shut down by Turkish authorities, following the fate of many other Bulgarian schools in Macedonia. He spent the next three years helping his brother Georgi run his shop in Bitola
Bitola is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia. The city is an administrative, cultural, industrial, commercial, and educational centre. It is located in the southern part of the Pelagonia valley, surrounded by the Baba and Nidže mountains, 14 km north of the...

. Georgi was left to take care of the family after the death of their father. In 1879 Lyapchev signed in the Bitola gymnasium and two years later he moved to the newly-established Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki
Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki
The Sts. Cyril and Methodius Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki was the first Bulgarian high school in Macedonia. One of the most influential Bulgarian educational centres in Macedonia and Southern Thrace, it was founded in autumn 1880 in Ottoman Thessaloniki and existed until...

. One of his teacher’s there was his fellow-townsman Trayko Kitanchev, who had a significant influence on the young student. After Kitanchev’s dismissal in 1884 Lyapchev left the school and moves to Plovdiv
Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia with a population of 338,153 inhabitants according to Census 2011. Plovdiv's history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC; it is one of the oldest cities in Europe...

 together with his teacher. At the time Plovdiv was the main city of the Autonomous Province of Eastern Rumelia
Eastern Rumelia
Eastern Rumelia or Eastern Roumelia was an administratively autonomous province in the Ottoman Empire and Principality of Bulgaria from 1878 to 1908. It was under full Bulgarian control from 1885 on, when it willingly united with the tributary Principality of Bulgaria after a bloodless revolution...


Together with other Macedonian students of the Plovdiv gymnasium, like Pere Toshev and Nikola Genadiev, Lyapchev got closer with Zahari Stoyanov
Zahari Stoyanov
Zahari Stoyanov , born Dzhendo Stoyanov Dzhedev , was a Bulgarian revolutionary, writer, and historian. A participant in the April Uprising of 1876, he became its first historiographer with his book Memoirs of the Bulgarian Uprisings...

 and the Bulgarian Secret Central Revolutionary Committee which was preparing the future unification between Eastern Rumelia and the Principality of Bulgaria. He was sent to the Panagyurishte
Panagyurishte is a town in Pazardzhik Province, Southern Bulgaria, situated in a small valley in the Sredna Gora mountains. It is 91 km east of Sofia, 43 km north of Pazardzhik, and 37 km south of Zlatitsa. The town is the administrative centre of the homonymous Panagyurishte...

 committee on September 2 1885, but authorities arrested him on the way. He was let free only after the Unification had been proclaimed on September 6. With the beginning of the Serbo-Bulgarian War
Serbo-Bulgarian War
The Serbo-Bulgarian War was a war between Serbia and Bulgaria that erupted on 14 November 1885 and lasted until 28 November the same year. Final peace was signed on 19 February 1886 in Bucharest...

 on September 2 1885, the whole group signed in the First Volunteer’s Corp. However, by order of Knyaz Aleksander I students were left at the rear of the advancing army. Nevertheless, Lyapchev and the rest managed to reach the captured town of Pirot
Pirot is a town and municipality located in south-eastern Serbia. According to 2011 census, the town has a total population of 38,432, while the population of the municipality is 57,911...

. There they were eventually de-mobilised in December, returning to Plovdiv afterwards.

In the summer of 1886 Russia organised a coup d’état which resulted in the disposal of Knyaz Aleksandar I and in a drastic interference of Russian generals in the internal affairs of Bulgaria. These events made Lyapchev even more sympathetic to the cause of the extreme nationalists led by Zahari Stoyanov, Dimitar Petkov
Dimitar Petkov
Dimitar Nikolov Petkov was a leading member of the Bulgarian People's Liberal Party and the country's Prime Minister from November 5, 1906 until he was assassinated in Sofia the following year....

 and Dimitar Rizov
Dimitar Rizov
Dimitar Hristov Rizov or Rizoff is Bulgarian revolutionary, publicist, politician, journalist and diplomat.- Life :Rizov was born in 1862 in Bitola, Macedonia . At first he studied in his native town and then he continued study in Plovdiv. In 1881 he opened a book store in Bitola, and a year later...

. The latter was a prominent figure among Macedonian emigrants at the time. Lyapchev even went on to lead a group of nationalists that beat up conservative politician Todor Burmov
Todor Burmov
Todor Stoyanov Burmov was a leading Bulgarian Conservative Party politician and the first Prime Minister of an independent Bulgaria....

, a deed that Lyapchev himself later dismissed.

In the following months relations between Lyapchev, on one side, and the Stambolovist government and Zahari Stoyanov, on the other, grew colder and Lyapchev got closer with Dimitar Rizov. Tensions between authorities and the Macedonian emigration intensified even further after Kosta Panitsa was jailed and sentenced to death over allegations of organising a coup d’état. In the summer of 1888 Rizov published articles critical to the Prime Minister Stambolov and was also sentenced to two years in jail. A warranty was issued with Lyapchev’s name on it, but he managed to ;eave the country.

Political Career

He entered the Bulgarian parliament in 1908 and before long rose to ministerial rank. In this role he signed the 1908 treaty that established Bulgarian independence as well as the 1918 Armistice
An armistice is a situation in a war where the warring parties agree to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, but may be just a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace...

. After the First World War he became the first civilian to hold the post of Minister of War. He fell out of favour under Aleksandar Stamboliyski
Aleksandar Stamboliyski
Aleksandar Stamboliyski was the prime minister of Bulgaria from 1919 until 1923. Stamboliyski was a member of the Agrarian Union, an agrarian peasant movement which was not allied to the monarchy, and edited their newspaper...

 and was imprisoned between 1922 and the military coup of 1923
Bulgarian coup d'état of 1923
The Bulgarian coup d'état of 1923, also known as the 9 June coup d'état , was a coup d'état in Bulgaria implemented by armed forces under General Ivan Valkov's Military Union on the eve of 9 June 1923...


Lyapchev became Prime Minister on 4 January 1926 at the head of a coalition between the Democratic Alliance
Democratic Alliance (Bulgaria)
The Democratic Alliance was a Bulgarian party that existed between 1923 and 1934 when all parties were banned. During most of that period it was the ruling party in the country making it the third longest-ruling party in the country after the Bulgarian Communist Party and the People's Liberal...

 and the National Liberal Party. Lyapchev generally pursued a more moderate line than his predecessor Aleksandar Tsankov
Aleksandar Tsankov
Aleksander Tsolov Tsankov was a leading Bulgarian right wing politician between the two World Wars.-Biography:...

, declaring an amnesty for Communist prisoners (although the Communist Party
Bulgarian Communist Party
The Bulgarian Communist Party was the communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1990 when the country ceased to be a communist state...

 officially remained banned). He also secured two loans from the League of Nations
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace...

 to help bolster the economy, although economic problems were exacerbated by an earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

 in Plovdiv
Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia with a population of 338,153 inhabitants according to Census 2011. Plovdiv's history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC; it is one of the oldest cities in Europe...

. He was, however, criticized for his toleration of the activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization which strained relations with Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

 and Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....


Despite his more moderate stance Bulgaria struggled to cope with the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 and so he lost the 1931 election. He died in Sofia
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

two years later.
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