Amr ibn Hisham
‘Amr ibn Hishām (died Wednesday, March 17, 624) , better known as Abu al-Hakam, was one of the Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

n pagan Quraysh
The Quraysh or Quraish were a powerful merchant tribe that controlled Mecca and its Kaaba upon the appearance of the religion of Islam.Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe.-Early history:...

 leaders, known for his hostility against and persecution of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 and the early Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s in Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...



He was known as Abū l-Hakam, translated to English as "Father of Wisdom", meaning he was considered a wise man amongst the Quraysh. Abu Jahl was the bitterest opponent against the budding monotheistic religion and thus his belligerent stance earned him the name Abū Jahl , the Father of Ignorance. He was a member of the Banu Makhzum
Banu Makhzum
Banū Makhzūm was one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh, the Arab tribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.Famous individuals of the Banū Makhzūm include*Amr ibn Hishām better known as Abu Al-Hakam or Abu Jahl*Walid ibn al-Mughira...

 clan of the Quraysh and one of the leaders in Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 prior to the city's surrender to Muhammad's army. Abu Jahl had a son, Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl was an important early Muslim leader and companion of Muhammad. As the son of Abu Jahl, Ikrimah was at first, one of the chief Mecca opponents to Muhammad....

, who later converted to Islam. He disliked Muhammad and would at any opportunity rebuke and publicly humiliate him.


‘Amr was among the chieftains that in varying degrees kept a relentless hostility towards the Muslims.

When a Muslim convert was discovered among the hierarchy of a tribe, ‘Amr would reprimand the convert and then ridicule him in front of his fellow tribesmen so that the convert lost their respect.

Traders who converted also suffered at ‘Amr's hands. When he discovered a trader had converted he gave orders that no one should engage in business with him. As a result, the convert trader was unable to sell his wares and became impoverished.

The freemen who suffered most were poor converts who, in the ‘Amr's eyes, were the least important on the social scale. He would beat the converted without mercy and urged others to follow his example.

As for convert slaves belonging to the polytheist Quraysh, they received the harshest punishment. Common punishments included brutal beatings followed by food and water deprivation, but perhaps the most severe punishment was that of being pinned down upon the scorching hot sands of Mecca, left to endure the blistering heat of the sun.

‘Amr beat Harithah bint al-Muammil
Harithah bint al-Muammil
Harithah bint Al-Muammil was among the slaves freed by Abu Bakr.Harithah bint Al-Muammil, the sister of Umm Ubays who was known as Zunairah 'Al-Romiyah, was a slave girl of Umar ibn al-Khattab. Lubaynah was her fellow slave....

, one such slave, for her conversion to such an extent that she lost her eyesight. He also came to Sumayyah bint Khayyāṭ (mother of ‘Ammar ibn Yāsir
Ammar ibn Yasir
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir al-Ansi was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was one of the Muhajirun, and referred to as by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions....

, who later was one of the Sahaba
In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

) and inflicted on her mortal wounds by stabbing her with a spear in her genitals. Summayah was the first woman martyr
A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for refusing to renounce, or accept, a belief or cause, usually religious.-Meaning:...

 for Islam.

Some of the physically weaker converts were unable to endure their prolonged punishment and recanted. However, their recantations were under compulsion. Those who remained undetected would offer their prayers in secret, but there were many who did not have the privilege of privacy and their grief at not being able to offer their prayers was considerable.

Battle of Badr

Prior to the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr , fought Saturday, March 13, 624 AD in the Hejaz region of western Arabia , was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca...

, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh
Sa'd ibn Mua'dh
Sa’d ibn Mu'adh was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe in Medina and later converted to Islam. Sa'd was one of the chief of the Banu Aus, one of the two clans settled in Medina.-Biography:...

 had visited Mecca once to perform his Umrah
The Umrah or is a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. In Arabic, Umrah means "to visit a populated place"...

 with his non-Muslim friend Umayyah ibn Khalaf, when they came across ’Amr. They had an argument, and as it became heated, Sa’d threatened him with stopping the Meccan trade route to Syria and ’Amr informed Umayyah that his life was threatened by Muhammad.

’Amr was fatally wounded in the Battle of Badr by Muawwaz ibn Amr
Muawwaz ibn Amr
Muawwaz ibn Amr was a sahabi of Muhammad. He and his brother, Muaaz ibn Amr, killed Abu Jahl in the Battle of Badr.He was the son of Am’r bin Jamooh but converted to Islam, at first secretly. Before the hijra, Muhammad had appointed Mus`ab ibn `Umair to carry out dawah , which he did excellently...

 and Muaaz ibn Amr
Muaaz ibn Amr
Before the hijra, Muhammad had appointed Masab ibn Umair to carry out Dawah, which he did.Am’r bin Jamooh a devotee of the deity Manah and part of the Banu Salmah tribe of Medina had 3 sons, Muawwaz ibn Amr, Muaaz ibn Amr and Khallad ibn Amr submitted to the will of Allah and embraced Islam...

, and was finally killed by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud.
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