Alexius Frederick Christian, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
Alexius Frederick Christian of Anhalt-Bernburg (Ballenstedt
Ballenstedt is a town in the Harz district, in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is situated at the northern rim of the Harz mountain range, about 10 km southeast of Quedlinburg. The municipality includes the villages of Badeborn and Oppenrode...

, 12 June 1767 – Ballenstedt, 24 March 1834), was a German prince of the House of Ascania, ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg
Anhalt-Bernburg was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and a duchy of the German Confederation ruled by the House of Ascania with its residence at Bernburg in present-day Saxony-Anhalt...

, and from 1807 the first "Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg."

He was the only son of Frederick Albert, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg
Frederick Albert, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg
Frederick Albert of Anhalt-Bernburg , was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg....

, by his wife Louise Albertine, daughter of Frederick Carl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön
Friedrich Carl, Duke of Holstein-Plön
Frederick Charles of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön , also known as "Friedrich Karl" or "Friedrik Carl"of Holstein-Plön, was a member of a cadet branch of the Danish royal family and the last duke of the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön , a Danish royal prince, and a knight...



From early childhood, he and his sister Pauline received an excellent education. After the death of his father in 1796, Alexius Frederick Christian inherited Anhalt-Bernburg.

The territories of Anhalt-Bernburg were augmented one year later with the formal division of Anhalt-Zerbst
Anhalt-Zerbst was a district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is bounded by the districts Potsdam-Mittelmark and Wittenberg, the city of Dessau and the districts of Köthen, Schönebeck and Jerichower Land.- History :...

 in 1797; Alexius Frederick Christian received the towns of Coswig
Coswig can refer to two towns in Germany, both on the river Elbe:*Coswig, Saxony, in the district of Meißen, Saxony*Coswig, Anhalt, in the district of Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt...

 and Mühlingen
Mühlingen is a town in the district of Konstanz in Baden-Württemberg in Germany....

, which represented 1/3 of the defunct principality. In 1812, with the extinction of the Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym was a German principality and member of the Holy Roman Empire. The death of Prince Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg in 1718, resulted in the partition of his land with his second son Lebrecht inheriting what was originally known as Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym.The name of the...

 branch of the House of Ascania, he inherited Hoym
Hoym is a town and former municipality in the district of Salzlandkreis in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 15 July 2009, it is part of the town Seeland. Hoym is located on the river Selke, between the towns Aschersleben and Quedlinburg. One of the main features of the town is Schloss Hoym,...

 and some Prussian enclaves.

Alexius improved education with the building and enlargement of many churches and schools. He demonstrated a special interest in expanding the road network, especially in the newly-acquired areas of his principality. The mining and metallurgical industry also benefited from his attention. Alexius Frederick Christian initiated several major construction projects, such as the Saalebrücke in Bernburg (Saale
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale and Thuringian Saale , is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. It is not to be confused with the smaller Franconian Saale, a right-bank tributary of the Main, or the Saale in Lower Saxony, a tributary of the Leine.-Course:The Saale...

), which was later destroyed. In 1810 he founded the Alexisbad
Alexisbad is a small spa town of Germany, in the municipality of Harzgerode, and the district of Harz, Saxony-Anhalt, lying in the outskirts of the Harz Mountains, 1000 ft. above sea level. It has its own station on the narrow-gauge steam railway from Gernrode to Harzgerode...

in Selketal and later, in the Prussian area of Gernrode
Gernrode is a town and a former municipality in Germany, in the district of Harz, Saxony-Anhalt. The town was first mentioned in 961 and became a city in 1539. Since 1 January 2011, it is part of the town Quedlinburg...

, he created the Beringer Bad.

In matters of religion, he was tolerant and enlightened; in 1820 he finally declared the Reformist and Lutheran faiths to be the official co-religions of his state. In 1826 he joined the German Zollverein
thumb|upright=1.2|The German Zollverein 1834–1919blue = Prussia in 1834 grey= Included region until 1866yellow= Excluded after 1866red = Borders of the German Union of 1828 pink= Relevant others until 1834...

 and in 1829 created a civil fund for orphans, widows, and servants.

The Emperor Francis II elevated him to the rank of Duke in 1807. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Alexius Frederick Christian, with his kinsmans the Dukes of Anhalt-Dessau
Anhalt-Dessau was a principality and later a duchy located in Germany. It was created in 1396 following the partition of the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst. The capital of the state was Dessau. Anhalt-Dessau experienced a number of partitions throughout its existence with Anhalt-Köthen being...

 and Anhalt-Köthen
Anhalt-Köthen has existed on two separate occasions. The first state was created in 1396 when the Anhalt-Zerbst was partitioned between Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen. The first creation lasted until 1552 when it was inherited by Anhalt-Dessau....

, joined the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
The Confederation of the Rhine was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria's Francis II and Russia's Alexander I in the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the...

. Some of his troops fought for Napoleon in Tyrol
County of Tyrol
The County of Tyrol, Princely County from 1504, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1814 a province of the Austrian Empire and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary...

, Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

, and Kulm. On 13 December 1813 he resigned from the Confederation of the Rhine and sent his troops with his allies in 1814 and 1815 to Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 and France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. On 8 June 1815 he joined the German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...


Marriages and Issue

In Kassel
Kassel is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants.- History :...

 on 29 November 1794 Alexius Frederick Christian married Maria Fredericka
Marie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel
Marie Frederike of Hesse-Kassel was a German noblewoman. She was a daughter of William I, Elector of Hesse and his wife Princess Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark...

 (b. Hanau
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction.- Geography :...

, 14 September 1768 - d. Hanau, 17 April 1839), daughter of William I, Elector of Hesse
William I, Elector of Hesse
William I, Elector of Hesse was the eldest surviving son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, the daughter of George II.-Early life:...

. They had four children:
  1. Katharine Wilhelmine (b. Kassel, 1 January 1796 - d. Kassel, 24 February 1796).
  2. Wilhelmine Louise (b. Ballenstedt, 30 October 1799 - d. Schloss Eller, 9 December 1882), married on 21 November 1817 to Prince Frederick William Louis of Prussia
    Prince Frederick of Prussia (1794–1863)
    Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig of Prussia , known in English as Frederick, was a Prussian prince, general of the royal cavalry, and division commander.- Family :...

    , grandson of King Frederick William II of Prussia
    Frederick William II of Prussia
    Frederick William II was the King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg and the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel.-Early life:...

     and uterine half-brother of King George V of Hanover
    George V of Hanover
    George V was King of Hanover, the only child of Ernest Augustus I, and a grandchild of King George III of the United Kingdom. In the peerage of Great Britain, he was 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 2nd Earl of Armagh...

    . She was the mother of Prince George of Prussia
    Prince George of Prussia
    Prince Frederick William George Ernest of Prussia was a member of the House of Hohenzollern....

  3. Frederick Amadeus, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (b. Ballenstedt, 19 April 1801 - d. Ballenstedt, 24 May 1801).
  4. Alexander Karl, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
    Alexander Karl, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
    Alexander Karl, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg , was a German prince of the House of Ascania and the last ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg....

     (b. Ballenstedt, 2 March 1805 - d. Hoym, 19 August 1863).

The union was completely unhappy and the couple divorced in 1817.

In Ballenstedt
Ballenstedt is a town in the Harz district, in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is situated at the northern rim of the Harz mountain range, about 10 km southeast of Quedlinburg. The municipality includes the villages of Badeborn and Oppenrode...

 on 11 January 1818, Alexius Frederick Christian married secondly and morganatically with Dorothea Fredericka of Sonnenberg (b. Bernburg, 23 January 1781 - d. Ballenstedt, 23 May 1818), who shortly after the wedding was ennobled and created Baroness of Hoym (German: Frau von Hoym). The union only lasted four months until Dorothea's death.

In Bernburg
Bernburg is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, capital of the district of Salzlandkreis. It is situated on the river Saale, approx. 30 km downstream from Halle. The town is dominated by its huge Renaissance castle featuring a museum as well as a popular, recently updated bear pit in its...

 on 2 May 1819 Alexius Frederick Christian married thirdly and again morganatically with Ernestine Charlotte of Sonnenberg (b. Bernburg, 19 February 1789 - d. Ballenstedt, 28 September 1845), sister of his second wife. As she, Ernestine was created Baroness of Hoym shortly after the wedding. This marriage was childless.
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