Alceste De Ambris
Alceste De Ambris was an Italian
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

Syndicalism is a type of economic system proposed as a replacement for capitalism and an alternative to state socialism, which uses federations of collectivised trade unions or industrial unions...

, the brother of Amilcare De Ambris. De Ambris had a major part to play in the agrarian strike action
Strike action
Strike action, also called labour strike, on strike, greve , or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution, when mass labour became...

s of 1908.


De Ambris was born in Licciana Nardi
Licciana Nardi
Licciana Nardi is a comune in the Province of Massa-Carrara in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 110 km northwest of Florence and about 25 km northwest of Massa.-Geography:...

, province of Massa-Carrara
Province of Massa-Carrara
The Province of Massa and Carrara , until 2009 Province of Massa-Carrara, is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is named after the two main towns in its territory: Carrara and Massa, its capital.-History:...


He engineered the split within the Milanese Syndical Union (USM) through his August 18, 1914 public speech, when he took the side of interventionism
Interventionism may refer to:*Interventionism is a political term for significant activity undertaken by a state to influence something not directly under its control....

 and advocated Italy's entry into World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. As a partisan of syndicalism
Syndicalism is a type of economic system proposed as a replacement for capitalism and an alternative to state socialism, which uses federations of collectivised trade unions or industrial unions...

, he believed the war to represent an opportunity equal to the impact of the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

, and took his supporters (USM and Parma Labor Chamber) out of the Unione Sindacale Italiana
Unione Sindacale Italiana
Unione Sindacale Italiana is an anarcho-syndicalist trade union. It is the Italian section of the International Workers Association , and the name of USI is...

to found the Fasci d'Azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista. The manifesto
A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions, often political in nature. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds. Manifestos may also be life stance-related.-Etymology:...

 of the new movement attracted Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism....

, who led his own movement, the Fasci autonomi d'azione rivoluzionaria, into a merger that gave birth to Fasci autonomi d'azione rivoluzionaria.

With Gabriele D'Annunzio
Gabriele D'Annunzio
Gabriele D'Annunzio or d'Annunzio was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist, and dramatist...

, he coauthored the Charter of Carnaro
Charter of Carnaro
The Charter of Carnaro was the constitution of the Italian Regency of Carnaro, a short-lived government in Fiume , proclaimed by Gabriele D'Annunzio on 8 September 1920...

, a constitution for Fiume. De Ambris provided the legal and political framework for the document while D'Annunzio used his skills as a poet to make the document more impressive; he was also the leader of a nationalist syndicalist union "Unione Italiana del Lavoro."

Although linked to the beginnings of Fascism
Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to rejuvenate their nation based on commitment to the national community as an organic entity, in which individuals are bound together in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood...

 through his attitude in 1914 and the support he gave D'Annunzio, De Ambris became a vocal opponent of Partito Nazionale Fascista and Mussolini's dictatorship. He and D'Annunzio were asked by Fascist supporters to run in the elections of May 15, 1921, but both refused. Before the March on Rome
March on Rome
The March on Rome was a march by which Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party came to power in the Kingdom of Italy...

, De Ambris depicted the Fascist movement as
"a filthy pawn in Mister Giolitti
Giovanni Giolitti
Giovanni Giolitti was an Italian statesman. He was the 19th, 25th, 29th, 32nd and 37th Prime Minister of Italy between 1892 and 1921. A left-wing liberal, Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of...

's game of chess, and made out of the least dignified section of the bourgeoisie
In sociology and political science, bourgeoisie describes a range of groups across history. In the Western world, between the late 18th century and the present day, the bourgeoisie is a social class "characterized by their ownership of capital and their related culture." A member of the...


His citizenship was withdrawn in 1926, and he had to flee for France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. He continued attacking the regime through his writings (published as Lettere dall'esilio - "Letters from exile").

He died at Brive in 1934.
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