: grève), or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievance
s. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution
, when mass labour
became important in factories
. In most countries, they were quickly made illegal, as factory owners had far more political power than workers.
1892 The Homestead Strike, a strike by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers against the Carnegie Steel Company, begins.
1892 3,800 striking steelworkers engage in a day-long battle with Pinkerton agents during the Homestead Strike, leaving 10 dead and dozens wounded.
1892 The New Orleans general strike begins, uniting black and white American trade unionists in a successful four-day general strike action for the first time.
1894 In New York City, 12,000 tailors strike against sweatshop working conditions.
1902 In the United States, a five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1917 The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.
1927 Columbine Mine Massacre: Striking coal miners are allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes.
1934 The U.S. Auto-Lite Strike begins, culminating in a five-day melee between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.
1952 U.S. President Harry Truman calls for the seizure of all domestic steel mills to prevent a nationwide strike.
1981 Ronald Reagan fires 11,359 striking air-traffic controllers who ignored his order for them to return to work.