1556 Philip II becomes King of Spain.
1566 Two-hundred Dutch noblemen, led by Hendrik van Brederode, force themselves into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise, denouncing the Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands. The Inquisition is suspended and a delegation is sent to Spain to petition Philip II.
1570 King Philip II of Spain bans foreign Dutch students.
1580 Philip II of Spain declares William the Silent to be an outlaw.
1581 Plakkaat van Verlatinghe (Act of Abjuration): the northern Low Countries declare their independence from the Spanish king, Philip II.
1586 Mary, Queen of Scots, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir and successor.
1594 Philip II recognizes the rights and privileges of the local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, which paves way to the creation of the Principalía (an elite ruling class of native nobility in Spanish Philippines).