(1)   A piece of metal covered by leather with a flexible handle; used for hitting people
(2)   A person who lacks good judgment
(3)   A watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through the vascular system of a plant


(4)   Excavate the earth beneath
(5)   Deplete
"Exhaust one's savings"
"We quickly played out our strength"

Etymology 1

From , from West . Cognate with German , Dutch , Icelandic ; of uncertain ultimate origin, perhaps compare Latin , ; see also , .


  1. The juice of plants of any kind, especially the ascending and descending juices or circulating fluid essential to nutrition.
  2. The sap-wood, or alburnum, of a tree.
  3. A simpleton; a saphead; a milksop; a naive person.


  1. A short wooden club; a leather-covered hand weapon; a blackjack.


  1. To strike with a sap (with a blackjack).

Etymology 3

From (compare Spanish and Italian ) from , from .


  1. A narrow ditch or trench made from the foremost parallel toward the glacis or covert way of a besieged place by digging under cover of gabions, etc.


  1. To subvert by digging or wearing away; to mine; to undermine; to destroy the foundation of.
    • John Dryden
      Nor safe their dwellings were, for sapped by floods, / Their houses fell upon their household gods.
  2. To pierce with saps.
  3. To make unstable or infirm; to unsettle; to weaken.
  4. To gradually weaken.
    • to sap one’s conscience
  5. To proceed by mining, or by secretly undermining; to execute saps — 12
    • The Tatler
      Both assaults carried on by sapping.