Work permit
Work permit is a generic term for a legal authorization which allows a person to take employment.
It is most often used in reference to instances where a person is given permission to work in a country where one does not hold citizenship
Citizenship is the state of being a citizen of a particular social, political, national, or human resource community. Citizenship status, under social contract theory, carries with it both rights and responsibilities...

, but is also used in reference to minors, who in some jurisdictions require a permit in order to legally work due to Child Labor
Child labor
Child labour refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries...


Work Permits under European Union law

Currently, every EU country has a different process for granting work permits to nationals of non-EU countries. To address this issue,
the European Commission began work in 1999 on developing an EU-wide process for the entry of non-EU nationals into the work force. In October 2007, they adopted a proposal to introduce a work permit similar to the United States' "Green Card" program, called the "Blue Card". It is similar to the UK's Highly Skilled Migrant Programme
Highly Skilled Migrant Programme
The Highly Skilled Migrant Programme was a scheme, which has now been phased out, that was designed to allow highly skilled people to immigrate into the United Kingdom to look for work or self-employment opportunities. It was different from the standard UK work permit scheme in that applicants did...

, with the exception that it will require an employment contract in place prior to migration. After two years in the first country, the migrant will be allowed to move and work in another EU country, and can sum the number of years spent in the EU for purposes of residency. This new card will abolish work permits across the EU and centralize the issuing from Brussels.

Work Permit in France

The procedure to get a work permit is quite elaborate since the applicant should prove that no French jobseeker fitted the position.

Work Permits in the United Kingdom

There are seven standard ways to apply for a work permit in the United Kingdom: the Business and Commercial Arrangements, the Training and Work Experience Arrangements, the Sports people and Entertainers Arrangements, Student Internships, GATS, Ancestry Visa and the Sectors Based Scheme. Each of these involves its own application process, and generally requires a job offer from a UK employer. The UK has stopped accepting work permits in many other categories.

There is also a scheme for nationals of select countries to work in the UK as Au Pairs. This scheme is only for nationals of European Economic Area countries don't need a permit to au pair in the UK.

The UK work permit system is currently being replaced by a new points-based immigration system
Points-based immigration system (United Kingdom)
The points-based immigration system is the means of regulating immigration to the United Kingdom from outside the European Economic Area . The scheme was phased in between 2008 and 2010. It is composed of five "tiers" which replaced all the previous work permits and entry schemes, including...


Work Permits in Singapore

In Singapore, the work permit process is managed by the Ministry of Manpower. There are several kinds of work permit, and the type awarded generally depends on the salary range of the job. The "R Pass," or "Work Permit," is for foreigners who make less than $1,800/month. To employ a work permit holder, the employers are subjected to work permit conditions and the employment of foreign manpower act.

In ensuring an efficient process, the Ministry of Manpower has introduced an internet platform for work permit transactions. With the internet portal, the Ministry is able to process the work permit applications within one working day.

The "S Pass" is for foreigners who make more than $1,800/month. To be eligible, the applicant must achieve a minimum score on a points-based application. It takes into account salary, skills (including education), work experience, and the type of job being applied for.

The Q Pass is for foreigners making $2,500 or more per month, with recognized qualifications or work experience.
The P2 Pass is for foreigners making $3,500 to $7,000 per month and possesses recognised qualification, and foreigners making more than $7,000 per month are eligible for the P1 Pass.

Employment permits for minors

In states of the US, a work permit must be obtained by a teenager wishing to procure employment. Similar to national work permits, the idea is that someone has a limited right to work.

In some states, for example New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

, permits are only required for minors 14 and 15 years old, while others such as Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 require, at least in theory, work permits for all minors up until they turn 18 years of age. In states that require permits for 16 and 17 year olds, enforcement is not always strict, although sometimes it is. Permits are usually issued through the school system the minor attends, and typically at a minimum, enrollment in high school with regular attendance (no chronic absenteeism, tardiness, or truancy) is required as a condition for obtaining the permit. Some states such as New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 and Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

 require high school students with part time jobs to maintain a certain grade point average. Minors who are working are usually restricted in the number of hours each day or week they are permitted to work as well as the types of jobs they may hold.

External links

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