In law, citizenship denotes a link between an individual and a state.
I do not think that the effect of good environment, of fine buildings, of pleasant homes, upon the character, temperament, will, disposition, and energy of the people sufficiently dawns upon the average citizen. ~ Thomas Adams
This is not a contest between persons. The humblest citizen in all the land, when clad in the armor of a righteous cause, is stronger than all the hosts of error. I come to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty - the cause of humanity. ~ William Jennings Bryan
But without a caring society, without each citizen voluntarily accepting the weight of responsibility, government is destined to grow even larger, taking more of your money, burrowing deeper into your lives. ~ Jeb Bush
It is a remarkable comment on our affairs that the former prime minister of a great sovereign state should thus be received as an honorary citizen of another. ~ Winston Churchill
Voting is the most precious right of every citizen, and we have a moral obligation to ensure the integrity of our voting process. ~ Hillary Clinton
Technology can be an obstacle for immigrants from low-tech countries to obtain US citizenship since the USCIS relies heavily on the internet to distribute information about naturalization.~ Citizenship Coach
Be assured, fellow citizens, that in a democracy it is the laws that guard the person of the citizen and the constitution of the state, whereas the despot and the oligarch find their protection in suspicion and in armed guards. ~ Aeschines
Today, the Iraqi citizen sees that America is coming and wants to occupy his country and kill him, and he is willing to experience for himself what happened in Palestine. ~ Bashar al-Assad
I believe if a private citizen is able to affect public opinion in a constructive way he doesn't have to be an elected public servant to perform a public service. ~ Warren Beatty
My favorite song is "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" because it's become my signature song. I sang it for six American presidents and five command performances... it's made me a world citizen. ~ Tony Bennett
In law, citizenship denotes a link between an individual and a state. Under international law
, citizenship is synonymous to nationality, although the two main have different meanings under national law. A person who does not have citizenship in any state is stateless.
National citizenshipGenerally citizenship is seen as the relationship between an individual and a particular nation. In ancient Greece
, the main political entity was the city-state, and citizens were members of particular city-states. In the past five hundred years, with the rise of the nation-state, citizenship is most closely identified with being a member of a particular nation. To some extent, certain entities cross national boundaries such as trade organizations, non-governmental organizations as well as multi-national corporations, and sometimes the term "citizen of the world
" applies in the sense of people having less ties to a particular nation and more of a sense of belonging to the world in general.
In modern times, citizenship policy is divided between jus sanguinis
("right of blood") and jus soli
("right of soil") nations. A jus sanguinis policy grants citizenship based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common in Europe. A jus soli policy grants citizenship to anyone born on the territory of the state, a policy practiced by many countries in the Americas. Many countries have a hybrid birthright requirement of local nativity and citizenship of at least one parent.
Citizenship can also commonly be obtained through marriage to a person holding the citizenship (jure matrimonii), or through naturalization
International citizenshipIn recent years, some intergovernmental organizations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, where it is applied to the totality of the citizens of their constituent countries combined. Citizenship at this level is a secondary concept, with rights deriving from national citizenship.
Commonwealth citizenshipThe concept of "Commonwealth Citizenship
" has been in place ever since the establishment of the Commonwealth of Nations
. As with the EU, one holds Commonwealth citizenship only by being a citizen of a Commonwealth member state. This form of citizenship offers certain privileges within some Commonwealth countries:
- Some such countries do not require tourist visasVisa (document)A visa is a document showing that a person is authorized to enter the territory for which it was issued, subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry. The authorization may be a document, but more commonly it is a stamp endorsed in the applicant's passport...
of citizens of other Commonwealth countries.
- In some Commonwealth countries resident citizens of other Commonwealth countries are entitled to political rights, e.g., the right to vote in local and national elections and in some cases even the right to stand for election.
- In some instances the right to work in any position (including the civil serviceCivil serviceThe term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....
) is granted, except for certain specific positions (e.g. defense, Governor-GeneralGovernor-GeneralA Governor-General, is a vice-regal person of a monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription. Depending on the political arrangement of the territory, a Governor General can be a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors.- Current uses...
or PresidentPresidentA president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...
, Prime MinisterPrime ministerA prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...
left the Commonwealth in 1949, it is often treated as if it were a member, with references being made in legal documents to 'the Commonwealth and the Republic of Ireland', and its citizens are not classified as foreign nationals, particularly in the United Kingdom
Canada departed from the principle of nationality being defined in terms of allegiance in 1921. In 1935 the Irish Free State
was the first to introduce its own citizenship (However, Irish citizens were still treated as subjects of the Crown
, and they are still not regarded as foreign, even though Ireland is not a member of the Commonwealth; Murray v Parkes  All ER 123). The Canadian Citizenship Act
which came into effect on January 1, 1947 provided for a distinct Canadian Citizenship, automatically conferred upon most individuals born in Canada (with certain exceptions) and defined the conditions under which one could become a naturalized citizen. The concept of Commonwealth citizenship was introduced in 1948 in the British Nationality Act 1948. Other Dominion
s adopted this principle, in New Zealand
, in the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948. Citizenship has replaced allegiance, a more than symbolic change.
European Union (EU) citizenshipThe Maastricht Treaty
introduced the concept of citizenship of the European Union
. Article 17 (1) of the Treaty on European Union (consolidated version) states that
Citizenship of the Union is hereby established. Every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and not replace national citizenship.
The amended EC Treaty establishes certain minimal rights for EU citizens. Article 12 of the amended EC Treaty guarantees a general right of non-discrimination within the scope of the Treaty. Article 18 provides a limited right to free movement and residence in Member States other than that of which the EU citizen is a national. Articles 18-21 and 225 provide certain political rights.
Union citizens have also extensive rights to move in order to exercise economic activity
in any of the Member States (Articles 39, 43, 49 EC), which predate the introduction of Union citizenship.
Subnational citizenshipCitizenship most usually relates to membership of the nation state, but the term can also apply at subnational level. Subnational entities may impose requirements, of residency or otherwise, which permit citizens to participate in the political life of that entity, or to enjoy benefits provided by the government of that entity. But in such cases, those eligible are also sometimes seen as "citizens" of the relevant state, province, or region. An example of this is how the fundamental basis of Swiss
citizenship is citizenship of an individual commune, from which follows citizenship of a canton and of the Confederation. Another example is Åland where the residents enjoy a special provincial citizenship within Finland
The United States has a system of dual citizenship where one is a citizen of the state of residence as well as a citizen of the United States. State constitutions may grant certain rights above and beyond what are granted under the US Constitution and may impose their own obligations including the sovereign right of taxation and military service (each state maintains at least one military force subject to national militia transfer service, the state's national guard, and some states maintain a second military force not subject to nationalization).
Polis citizenshipThe first form of citizenship was based on the way people lived in the ancient Greek
times, in small-scale organic communities of the polis. In those days citizenship was not seen as a public matter, separated from the private life of the individual person. The obligations of citizenship were deeply connected into one’s everyday life in the polis. To be truly human, one had to be an active citizen to the community, which Aristotle famously expressed: “To take no part in the running of the community's affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” This form of citizenship was based on obligations of citizens towards the community, rather than rights given to the citizens of the community. This was not a problem because they all had a strong affinity with the polis; their own destiny and the destiny of the community were strongly linked. Also, citizens of the polis saw obligations to the community as an opportunity to be virtuous, it was a source of honour and respect. In Athens, citizens were both ruler and ruled, important political and judicial offices were rotated and all citizens had the right to speak and vote in the political assembly.
However, an important aspect of polis citizenship was exclusivity. Citizenship in ancient Greece and Rome, as well as Medieval cities that practiced polis citizenship, was exclusive and inequality of status was widely accepted. Citizens had a much higher status than non-citizens: Women, slaves or ‘barbarians’. For example, women were seen to be irrational and incapable of political participation (although some, most notably Plato
, disagreed). Methods used to determine whether someone could be a citizen or not could be based on wealth (the amount of taxes one paid), political participation, or heritage (both parents had to be born in the polis).
In the Roman Empire
, polis citizenship changed form: Citizenship was expanded from small scale communities to the entire empire. Romans realised that granting citizenship to people from all over the empire legitimized Roman rule over conquered areas. Citizenship in the Roman era was no longer a status of political agency; it had been reduced to a judicial safeguard and the expression of rule and law. (See Civis romanus sum
Medieval and early modern citizenshipDuring European Middle Ages, citizenship was usually associated with cities, see burgher
, Great Burgher
used to have privilege
s above commoner
s (see aristocracy
), but the French Revolution
and other revolutions revoked these privileges and made citizens.
Honorary citizenshipSome countries extend "honorary citizenship" to those whom they consider to be especially admirable or worthy of the distinction.
By act of United States Congress
and presidential assent, honorary United States citizenship
has been awarded to only seven individuals.
Honorary Canadian citizenship requires the unanimous approval of Parliament
. The only people to ever receive honorary Canadian citizenship
are Raoul Wallenberg
posthumously in 1985, Nelson Mandela
in 2001, the 14th Dalai Lama
, Tenzin Gyatso in 2006, Aung San Suu Kyi
in 2007 and Prince Karim Aga Khan
In 2002 South Korea
awarded honorary citizenship to Dutch football (soccer) coach Guus Hiddink
who successfully and unexpectedly took the national team to the semi-finals of the 2002 FIFA World Cup
. Honorary citizenship was also awarded to Hines Ward
, a black Korean American
football player, in 2006 for his efforts to minimize discrimination in Korea against half-Koreans.
American actress Angelina Jolie
received an honorary Cambodia
n citizenship in 2005 due to her humanitarian efforts.
Cricketers Matthew Hayden
and Herschelle Gibbs
were awarded honorary citizenship of St. Kitts and Nevis in March 2007 due to their record-breaking innings in the 2007 Cricket World Cup
the honorary citizenship is awarded by cities, towns and sometimes federal states. The honorary citizenship ends with the death of the honoured, or, in exceptional cases, when it is taken away by the council or parliament of the city, town, or state. In the case of war criminals, all such honours were taken away by "Article VIII, section II, letter i of the directive 38 of the Allied Control Council for Germany" on October 12, 1946. In some cases, honorary citizenship was taken away from members of the former GDR regime, e.g. Erich Honecker
, after the collapse of the GDR in 1989/90.
In Ireland, "honorary citizenship" bestowed on a foreigner is in fact full legal citizenship including the right to reside in Ireland, to vote etc.
According to the Chapter II, Article 29, Paragraph 'e)' of the Cuban Constitution, Cuban citizens by birth are those foreigners who, by virtue of their exceptional merits won in the struggles for Cuba’s liberation, were considered Cuban citizens by birth. Che Guevara
was made an honorary citizen of Cuba
by Fidel Castro
for his part in the Cuban Revolution
, of which Guevara later renounced in his well known farewell letter.
Historically, many states limited citizenship to only a proportion of their population, thereby creating a citizen class with political rights superior to other sections of the population, but equal with each other. The classical example of a limited citizenry was Athens
where slaves, women, and resident foreigners (called metic
s) were excluded from political rights. The Roman Republic
forms another example (see Roman citizenship
), and, more recently, the nobility
of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
had some of the same characteristics.
Citizenship education"Active citizenship
" is the philosophy that citizens should work towards the betterment of their community through economic participation, public, volunteer work, and other such efforts to improve life for all citizens. In this vein, school
s in some countries provide citizenship education
United KingdomCitizenship is offered as a General Certificate of Secondary Education
(GCSE) course in many schools in the United Kingdom
. As well as teaching knowledge about democracy
, parliament, government, the justice system, human rights
and the UK's relations with the wider world, students participate in active citizenship, often involving a social action or social enterprise in their local community.
- Citizenship is a compulsory subject of the National Curriculum in state schools in EnglandEnglandEngland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...
for all pupils aged 11–16. Some schools offer a qualification in this subject at GCSE and A level. All state schools have a statutory requirement to teach the subject, assess pupil attainment and report student's progress in citizenship to parents.
- In WalesWalesWales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...
the model used is Personal and Social EducationPersonal and Social EducationPersonal and Social Education is a component of the state school curriculum in Wales. PSE became a statutory requirement in schools in September 2003, and is compulsory for all students at Key Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 , and shares some similar elements with Personal, Social and Health Education and...
- Citizenship is not taught as a subject in ScottishScotlandScotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...
schools, however they do teach a subject called "Modern Studies" which covers the social, political and economic study of local, national and international issues.
IrelandIt is taught in the Republic of Ireland
as an exam subject for the Junior Certificate. It is known as Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE).
Nova ScotiaCitizenship is taught as a unit as part of the curriculum in Grade 8 Social Studies in Nova Scotia
Responsibilities or duties of citizenshipThe legally enforceable duties of citizenship vary depending on one's country, and may include such items as:
- conscriptionConscriptionConscription is the compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of national service, most often military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names...
(or volunteer in fighting in the armed forcesArmed forcesThe armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their governing body, and to defend that body and the nation it represents from external aggressors. In some countries paramilitary...
, in countries without a conscription)
- paying taxTaxTo tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities...
- serving on a juryJuryA jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment. Modern juries tend to be found in courts to ascertain the guilt, or lack thereof, in a crime. In Anglophone jurisdictions, the verdict may be guilty,...
- votingVotingVoting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion—often following discussions, debates, or election campaigns. It is often found in democracies and republics.- Reasons for voting :...
- obeying the criminal lawLawLaw is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...
s enacted by one's government, even while abroad
- for children and teens, attending schoolSchoolA school is an institution designed for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools...
; per law by compulsory educationCompulsory educationCompulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all persons.-Antiquity to Medieval Era:Although Plato's The Republic is credited with having popularized the concept of compulsory education in Western intellectual thought, every parent in Judea since Moses's Covenant with...