Worcestershire sauce
Overview
 
Worcestershire sauce or Worcester sauce (icon ) is a fermented
Fermentation (food)
Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol...

 liquid condiment
Condiment
A condiment is an edible substance, such as sauce or seasoning, added to food to impart a particular flavor, enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish. Many condiments are available packaged in single-serving sachets , like mustard or ketchup, particularly when supplied with...

; primarily used to flavour meat or fish dishes.

First made at 60 Broad Street, Worcester
Worcester
The City of Worcester, commonly known as Worcester, , is a city and county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some southwest of Birmingham and north of Gloucester, and has an approximate population of 94,000 people. The River Severn runs through the...

, England, by two dispensing chemists, John Wheeley Lea
John Wheeley Lea
John Wheeley Lea was born on a farm and had three brothers and four sisters. He had wanted to be chemist since he was a young child, in 1823 when he partnered with a man named William Henry Perrins. He and Perrins opened a drug-store in Worcester...

 and William Henry Perrins
William Henry Perrins
William Henry Perrins was a drug-store chemist who formed a partnership in 1823 with John Wheeley Lea. They went on to create the Lea & Perrins brand of Worcestershire sauce. He lived in Lansdowne Crescent in the parish of Claines, and is buried in St John, Baptist Churchyard, Claines.-References:...

, the Lea & Perrins
Lea & Perrins
Lea & Perrins is a United Kingdom based food division of the H.J. Heinz Company, originating in Worcester, England, with a subsidiary in the United States which manufactures Lea & Perrins in New Jersey...

 brand was commercialised in 1837 and has been produced in the current Midlands Road factory in Worcester since 16 October 1897. It was purchased by H.J. Heinz Company in 2005 who continue to manufacture and market "The Original Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce", under the name Lea & Perrins, as well as Worcestershire sauce under their own name and labelling.
Encyclopedia
Worcestershire sauce or Worcester sauce (icon ) is a fermented
Fermentation (food)
Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol...

 liquid condiment
Condiment
A condiment is an edible substance, such as sauce or seasoning, added to food to impart a particular flavor, enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish. Many condiments are available packaged in single-serving sachets , like mustard or ketchup, particularly when supplied with...

; primarily used to flavour meat or fish dishes.

First made at 60 Broad Street, Worcester
Worcester
The City of Worcester, commonly known as Worcester, , is a city and county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some southwest of Birmingham and north of Gloucester, and has an approximate population of 94,000 people. The River Severn runs through the...

, England, by two dispensing chemists, John Wheeley Lea
John Wheeley Lea
John Wheeley Lea was born on a farm and had three brothers and four sisters. He had wanted to be chemist since he was a young child, in 1823 when he partnered with a man named William Henry Perrins. He and Perrins opened a drug-store in Worcester...

 and William Henry Perrins
William Henry Perrins
William Henry Perrins was a drug-store chemist who formed a partnership in 1823 with John Wheeley Lea. They went on to create the Lea & Perrins brand of Worcestershire sauce. He lived in Lansdowne Crescent in the parish of Claines, and is buried in St John, Baptist Churchyard, Claines.-References:...

, the Lea & Perrins
Lea & Perrins
Lea & Perrins is a United Kingdom based food division of the H.J. Heinz Company, originating in Worcester, England, with a subsidiary in the United States which manufactures Lea & Perrins in New Jersey...

 brand was commercialised in 1837 and has been produced in the current Midlands Road factory in Worcester since 16 October 1897. It was purchased by H.J. Heinz Company in 2005 who continue to manufacture and market "The Original Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce", under the name Lea & Perrins, as well as Worcestershire sauce under their own name and labelling. Other companies manufacture similar products, often also called Worcester sauce, and marketed under different brands. Additionally, in recent years recipes have begun appearing for homemade variations of the British version.

Worcestershire sauce is often an ingredient in Welsh rarebit, Caesar salad
Caesar salad
A Caesar salad is a salad of romaine lettuce and croutons dressed with parmesan cheese, lemon juice, olive oil, egg, Worcestershire sauce, garlic, and black pepper. It may be prepared tableside.-History:...

, Oysters Kirkpatrick
Oysters Kirkpatrick
Oysters Kirkpatrick, also called oysters Kilpatrick, is a classic English recipe involving oysters, cheese, and bacon.-External links:* http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/recipes/oysters-kirkpatrick-748625.html...

, and sometimes added to chili con carne
Chili con carne
Chili con carne is a spicy stew. The name of the dish derives from the Spanish chile con carne, "chili pepper with meat". Traditional versions are made, minimally, from chili peppers, garlic, onions, and cumin, along with chopped or ground beef. Beans and tomatoes are frequently included...

. Worcestershire sauce is also used to flavour cocktails such as a Bloody Mary
Bloody Mary (cocktail)
A Bloody Mary is a popular cocktail containing vodka, tomato juice, and usually other spices or flavorings such as Worcestershire sauce, Peri-Peri Sauce, Tabasco sauce, beef consomme or bouillon, horseradish, celery, olive, salt, black pepper, cayenne pepper, lemon juice, and celery salt...

 or Caesar
Caesar (cocktail)
A Caesar or Bloody Caesar is a cocktail created and primarily consumed in Canada. It typically contains vodka, Clamato , hot sauce and Worcestershire sauce, and is served with ice in a large, celery salt-rimmed glass, typically garnished with a stalk of celery and wedge of lime.It was invented in...

. Known as salsa inglesa (English sauce) in Spanish, it is also an ingredient in Michelada
Michelada
Michelada is a Mexican cerveza preparada made with beer, lime juice, tomato juice , and assorted sauces, spices, and peppers can be added for a Chelada . It is served in a chilled, salt-rimmed glass. There are numerous variations of this beverage throughout Mexico and Latin America.In Mexico,...

, the Mexican beer cocktail
Beer cocktail
A beer cocktail is a cocktail that is made by mixing beer with a distilled beverage.In this type of cocktail, the primary ingredient is beer...

.

History

A fermented fish sauce called garum
Garum
Garum, similar to liquamen, was a type of fermented fish sauce condiment that was an essential flavour in Ancient Roman cooking, the supreme condiment....

was a staple of Greco-Roman cuisine and of the Mediterranean economy of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, as the first-century encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder writes in Historia Naturalis and the fourth/fifth-century connoisseur Apicius
Apicius
Apicius is the title of a collection of Roman cookery recipes, usually thought to have been compiled in the late 4th or early 5th century AD and written in a language that is in many ways closer to Vulgar than to Classical Latin....

 relates in his collection of recipes. The use of similar fermented anchovy sauces in Europe can be traced back to the 17th century. The Worcestershire variety became popular in the 1840s and is a legacy of the British rule of the Indian subcontinent. Theories vary concerning its invention.

It may be that a "Lord Marcus Sandys, ex-Governor of Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

" encountered it while in India under the Honourable East India Company in the 1830s, and commissioned the local apothecaries
Apothecary
Apothecary is a historical name for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist and some caregivers....

 to recreate it. However, author Brian Keogh concluded in his privately published history of the Lea & Perrins firm on the 100th anniversary of the Midland Road plant, that "No Lord Sandys was ever governor of Bengal, or as far as any records show, ever in India."

The lord in question, whose identity was veiled by Messrs Lea and Perrins (who used to assert on the bottle's paper wrapping that the sauce came "from the recipe of a nobleman in the county") was Arthur Moyses William Sandys, 2nd Baron Sandys
Baron Sandys
Baron Sandys is a title that has been created three times, once in the Peerage of England, once in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom....

 (1792–1860) of Ombersley
Ombersley
The village of Ombersley is in the Wychavon District Council area of Worcestershire.The first known reference to the village was the granting of a Charter to Abbot Egwin, later Saint Egwin, of Evesham Abbey in 706 AD. This was the Charter of King Æthelweard of the Hwicce, which granted twelve...

 Court, Worcestershire, Lieutenant-General and politician, a member of the House of Commons
British House of Commons
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords . Both Commons and Lords meet in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 650 members , who are known as Members...

 at the time of the legend. His given name was confused for that of his brother and heir, Arthur Marcus Cecil Sandys, 3rd Baron Sandys (1798–1863), in the story. The latter did not succeed to the title, however, until 1860, when the sauce was already established on the British market. The barony in the Sandys family ˈ ("sands") had been revived in 1802 for the second baron's mother, Mary Sandys Hill, so at the date of the legend, in the 1830s, "Lord" Sandys was actually a Lady. No identifiable reference to her could possibly appear on a commercially bottled sauce without a serious breach of decorum.

A version was published by Thomas Smith:
We quote the following history of the well-known Worcester sauce, as given in the World. The label shows it is prepared "from the recipe of a nobleman in the county." The nobleman may be Lord Sandys. Many years ago, Mrs. Grey, author of The Gambler's Wife and other novels, was on a visit at Ombersley Court, when Lady Sandys chanced to remark that she wished she could get some very good curry powder
Curry powder
Curry powder is a mixture of spices of widely varying composition based on South Asian cuisine. Curry powder, and the contemporary English use of the word curry are Western inventions and do not reflect any specific Indian food, though a similar mixture of spices used in north India is called...

, which elicited from Mrs. Grey that she had in her desk an excellent recipe, which her uncle, Sir Charles, Chief Justice of India, had brought thence, and given her. Lady Sandys said that there were some clever chemists in Worcester, who perhaps might be able to make up the powder. Messrs. Lea and Perrins looked at the recipe, doubted if they could procure all the ingredients, but said they would do their best, and in due time forwarded a packet of the powder. Subsequently the happy thought struck someone in the business that the powder might, in solution, make a good sauce. The profits now amount to thousands of pounds a year.


The resulting product was so strong that it was considered inedible, and a barrel of the sauce was exiled to the basement of Lea & Perrins' premises. Looking to make space in the storage area a few years later, the chemists decided to try it again, discovering that the sauce had fermented and mellowed and was now palatable. In 1838 the first bottles of "Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce" were released to the general public.

According to historian and Herald for Wales, Major Francis Jones, 1908–1993, the introduction of the recipe can be attributed to Captain Henry Lewis Edwardes 1788–1866. Edwardes, originally of Rhyd-y-gors
Rhyd-y-gors
The name Rhyd-y-gors or Rhydygors has been associated with two historic sites near the market town of Carmarthen in Southwest Wales. The first was the Norman Rhyd-y-gors Castle and the other was Rhyd-y-gors Mansion, home of the Edwardes family....

, Carmarthenshire, was a veteran of the Napoleonic wars and held the position of Deputy-Lieutenant of Carmarthenshire. He is believed to have brought the recipe home after travels in India. The article does not say how the recipe found its way to Messrs Lea and Perrins.

Messrs Lea and Perrins, being John Wheeley Lea (research and product development) and William Perrins (finance), from their building in Broad Street, Worcester
Worcester
The City of Worcester, commonly known as Worcester, , is a city and county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some southwest of Birmingham and north of Gloucester, and has an approximate population of 94,000 people. The River Severn runs through the...

, ran by far the most important and successful chemist and druggist business in the county. They made their fortunes from manufacturing and selling the sauce. They built a new factory with railway access in Midland Road, Worcester and made various charitable donations to the city such as Perrins Hall in a Worcester School.

Lea & Perrins original recipe

The ingredients of a traditional bottle of Worcestershire sauce sold in the UK as "The Original & Genuine Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce" are malt vinegar (from barley), spirit vinegar, molasses, sugar, salt, anchovies
Anchovy
Anchovies are a family of small, common salt-water forage fish. There are 144 species in 17 genera, found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Anchovies are usually classified as an oily fish.-Description:...

, tamarind
Tamarind
Tamarind is a tree in the family Fabaceae. The genus Tamarindus is monotypic .-Origin:...

 extract, onions, garlic, spice, and flavouring. The "spice, and flavouring" is believed to include cloves, soy sauce
Soy sauce
Soy sauce is a condiment produced by fermenting soybeans with Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds, along with water and salt...

, lemons, pickles and peppers. Notes from the 1800s were found by company accountant Brian Keogh dumped in a skip
Skip (container)
A rubbish skip is usually called merely a skip or waste bin. A skip is a large open-topped container designed for loading onto a special type of lorry. Differing from dumpster, instead of being emptied into a waste vehicle onsite, a skip is replaced by an empty skip and then tipped at a landfill...

, which he rescued. The documents are to be placed on display at the Worcestershire Museum. Apart from distribution for its home market, Lea & Perrins supplies this recipe in concentrate form to be bottled abroad.

Nutritional information

A teaspoon
Teaspoon
A teaspoon, an item of cutlery, is a small spoon, commonly part of a silverware place setting, suitable for stirring and sipping the contents of a cup of tea or coffee...

 of low-sodium
Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

 Worcestershire sauce has:
  • 5 calorie
    Calorie
    The calorie is a pre-SI metric unit of energy. It was first defined by Nicolas Clément in 1824 as a unit of heat, entering French and English dictionaries between 1841 and 1867. In most fields its use is archaic, having been replaced by the SI unit of energy, the joule...

    s
  • 0 gram
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

    s of fat
    Fat
    Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and generally insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are triglycerides, triesters of glycerol and any of several fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature, depending on their structure...

  • 0 gram
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

    s of saturated fat
    Saturated fat
    Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen atoms...

  • 0 gram
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

    s of monounsaturated fat
    Monounsaturated fat
    In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fats or MUFA are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain and all of the remainder of the carbon atoms in the chain are single-bonded...

  • 0 gram
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

    s of protein
    Protein
    Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of...

  • 1 gram
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

     of carbohydrate
    Carbohydrate
    A carbohydrate is an organic compound with the empirical formula ; that is, consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 . However, there are exceptions to this. One common example would be deoxyribose, a component of DNA, which has the empirical...

    s
  • 20 milligrams of sodium
    Sodium
    Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

  • 0 milligrams of cholesterol
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol is a complex isoprenoid. Specifically, it is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines. It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes...


Britain

There are other manufacturers of Worcestershire sauce in Britain. A Kentish variety, for example, is produced by George Watkins at Aylesford. It uses a similar recipe to the more famous Lea & Perrins variety, but has a slightly more acidic taste.

Australia

In Australia the best-selling brand of Worcestershire sauce is Holbrooks, holding over half the market share in black sauce. Historically there were several manufacturers of Worcestershire sauce in Australia, e.g. Lionel Brand from Taringa in Brisbane. Also made in Australia is Crockershire brand Worcestershire sauce made in Harden NSW. Crockershire also makes a Coeliac version.

North America

In Canada, Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce is identical to the standard British version. It is imported from England and has the same bottle. The label is similar to the British version, but modified to include French text.

Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce sold in the USA differs from the British recipe. Its ingredients are listed as: vinegar, molasses, sugar, anchovies, water, onions, salt, garlic, tamarind concentrate, cloves, natural flavourings and chili pepper
Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper.Chili peppers originated in the Americas...

 extract. The main differences are the use of distilled white vinegar in place of malt vinegar. Nonetheless, the American version tastes almost exactly the same as the British recipe, although some people claim the American version is slightly sweeter, less spicy, and has less depth. A thicker variety is also sold for the American market. The American version is packaged differently from the British version, coming in a dark bottle with a beige label and wrapped in paper. Lea & Perrins USA claims this practice is a vestige of shipping practices from the 19th century, when the product was imported from England, as a measure of protection for the bottles. The recipe for a long time contained High fructose corn syrup
High fructose corn syrup
High-fructose corn syrup  — also called glucose-fructose syrup in the UK, glucose/fructose in Canada, and high-fructose maize syrup in other countries — comprises any of a group of corn syrups that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose to produce...

 which was replaced with sugar in early 2011.

Japan

A thick sauce is manufactured in Japan under brand names such as 'Bulldog', which reflect its English origins, but this is a brown sauce more similar to HP Sauce
HP Sauce
HP Sauce is a popular brown sauce originally produced by HP Foods in the UK, now produced by H.J. Heinz in the Netherlands.It is the best-known brand of brown sauce in the United Kingdom and Canada as well as the best selling, with 71% of the UK market....

 rather than any type of Worcestershire Sauce. A thicker variety of the sauce, although labelled Worcestershire in katakana
Katakana
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet . The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana scripts are derived from components of more complex kanji. Each kana represents one mora...

, is commonly known as tonkatsu
Tonkatsu
Tonkatsu , invented in the late 19th century, is a popular dish in Japan. It consists of a breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet one to two centimeters thick and sliced into bite-sized pieces, generally served with shredded cabbage and/or miso soup...

 sauce and most often used as a condiment for fried, breaded pork cutlets. Both the dish and the sauce are thought to have derived from English cuisine imported in to Japan in the 19th century.

Japanese Worcestershire sauce is made from purees of fruits and vegetables such as apples and tomatoes, with sugar, salt, spices, starch and caramel. It commonly accompanies western-influenced yoshoku
Yoshoku
In Japanese cuisine, refers to a style of Western-influenced cooking which originated during the Meiji Restoration. These are primarily Japanized forms of European dishes, often featuring Western names, and usually written in katakana.- History :...

dishes such as the aforementioned tonkatsu
Tonkatsu
Tonkatsu , invented in the late 19th century, is a popular dish in Japan. It consists of a breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet one to two centimeters thick and sliced into bite-sized pieces, generally served with shredded cabbage and/or miso soup...

 and korokke
Korokke
Korokke is the Japanese name for a deep fried dish originally related to a French dish, the croquette. It was introduced in the early 1900s. This dish is also popular in South Korea where it is typically sold in bakeries....

. Yakisoba
Yakisoba
', literally "fried noodles", is a dish often sold at festivals in Japan, but originates in China. The dish was derived by the Chinese from the traditional chow mein, but has been more heavily integrated into Japanese cuisine like ramen...

 sauce, and okonomiyaki
Okonomiyaki
is a Japanese dish containing a variety of ingredients. The name is derived from the word okonomi, meaning "what you like" or "what you want", and yaki meaning "grilled" or "cooked" . Okonomiyaki is mainly associated with Kansai or Hiroshima areas of Japan, but is widely available throughout the...

 sauce are also variants of Worcestershire sauce, often thicker and sweeter than the original.

China

Worcestershire sauce plays a part in the cuisine of Asian regions following exposure to Western cuisine.

In Cantonese cuisine
Cantonese cuisine
Cantonese cuisine comes from Guangdong Province in southern China and is one of 8 superdivisions of Chinese cuisine. Its prominence outside China is due to the great numbers of early emigrants from Guangdong. Cantonese chefs are highly sought after throughout the country...

, Worcestershire sauce was introduced in the 19th century via Hong Kong and is today used in dim sum
Dim sum
Dim sum refers to a style of Chinese food prepared as small bite-sized or individual portions of food traditionally served in small steamer baskets or on small plates...

 items such as steamed beef meatballs
Steamed meatball
Steamed meatball is a Cantonese dim sum dish. It is popular in Hong Kong and most overseas Chinatowns. The meatball is made of beef, and usually has a tofu skin layer in the bottom, garnished with some vegetables like scallions. It is served with the standardized non-Chinese worcestershire sauce...

 and spring rolls. The Cantonese name for this sauce is gip-jap . It is also used in a variety of Hong Kong-style
Cuisine of Hong Kong
Hong Kong cuisine is influenced by Cantonese cuisine and parts of non-Cantonese-speaking China , Western world, Japan, and Southeast Asia, due to Hong Kong's past as a British colony and long history of being an international city of commerce...

 Chinese and "Western" dishes.

In Shanghainese cuisine, the use of Worcestershire sauce spread from European-style restaurants in the 19th and 20th centuries to its use as an ingredient in ubiquitous, Eastern European-inspired dishes, such as Shanghai-style borscht
Borscht
Borscht is a soup of Ukrainian origin that is popular in many Eastern and Central European countries. In most of these countries, it is made with beetroot as the main ingredient, giving it a deep reddish-purple color...

, and as a dipping sauce in Western fusion foods, such as Shanghai-style breaded pork cutlets. It is used for Chinese foods such as the shengjian mantou
Shengjian mantou
Shengjian mantou are a type of small, pan-fried baozi which is a specialty of Shanghai. It is usually filled with pork and gelatin that melts into soup/liquid when cooked. Shengjian mantou has been one of the most common breakfast items in Shanghai for the last century...

, which are small, pan-fried pork buns. In Shanghai, Worcestershire sauce is called la jiangyou . As imported Worcestershire sauce became scarce in Shanghai after 1949, a variety of local brands appeared. These are now in turn exported around the world for use in Shanghai-style dishes. Lea & Perrins has in recent years established a plant in Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

, China, thus increasing availability of the original variety in China. However, it does not have a dominant market share compared to the native-grown varieties.

Elsewhere

In Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, the Lea & Perrins Original Worcestershire sauce on sale is, according to its label, imported from England.

In Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, the name for Worcestershire sauce is kecap inggris meaning "English sauce".

Special diets

Worcestershire sauce is generally not suitable for vegetarians, as it contains anchovies. However, several brands sell anchovy-free varieties, often labelled as vegetarian or vegan. Alternatively, Henderson's Relish
Henderson's Relish
Henderson's Relish, known locally as Hendo's, 'Hendies' 'Enderson's or simply "Relish", is a spicy and fruity condiment, similar in appearance to Worcestershire sauce, but as it contains no anchovies, it is vegan. Produced in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, some adherents favour it due to its unique...

 can be used as a vegan substitute for Worcestershire sauce.

Some varieties (such as the British Lea & Perrins) contain gluten
Gluten
Gluten is a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grain species, including barley and rye...

 in the form of malt vinegar from barley, and hence are not suitable for coeliacs. Others (such as the US Lea & Perrins) use spirit vinegar in place of malt vinegar, and are naturally gluten-free. Several brands are specifically labelled as being gluten free.

Orthodox Jews refrain from eating fish and meat in the same dish, so cannot use traditional Worcestershire sauce to flavour meat. However, certain brands are certified to contain less than 1/60th of the fish product and can be used with meat.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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