Viktor Dousmanis
Viktor Dousmanis was a Greek
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 military officer, who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

. He distinguished himself as a staff officer during the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
The Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place in the Balkans in south-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913.By the early 20th century, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia, the countries of the Balkan League, had achieved their independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large parts of their ethnic...

 and became a leading royalst during the National Schism, serving three terms as Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff
Hellenic Army General Staff
The Hellenic Army General Staff is the general staff of the Hellenic Army, the terrestrial component of the Greek Armed Forces. It was established in 1906 as the Army Staff Service . Since 1950, the HAGS is subordinated to the Hellenic National Defense General Staff...



A descendant of the Dushmani family
Dushmani family
The Dushmani family was an Albanian feudal family, which ruled during the 14th and 15th centuries a territory in northern Albania, from Zadrima plain to Albanian Alps.- History :...

 he was born in Corfu
Corfu is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the edge of the northwestern frontier of Greece. The island is part of the Corfu regional unit, and is administered as a single municipality. The...

 in 1861; he is the elder brother of Sofoklis Dousmanis
Sofoklis Dousmanis
Sofoklis Dousmanis was a Greek naval officer. Distinguished in the Balkan Wars, he became twice the chief of the Greek Navy General Staff, and occupied the post of Navy Minister in 1935....

. He entered the Hellenic Army Academy, from which he graduated in 1883 as an Engineer 2nd Lieutenant. Promoted to Lieutenant in 1886 and Captain in 1890, he participated in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 as an officer in the staff of the Greek Commander-in-Chief, Crown Prince Constantine
Constantine I of Greece
Constantine I was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece won Thessaloniki and doubled in...

. In 1899–1904, he served as head of the Staff Service of the Greek Ministry of Military Affairs, and in 1904, with the foundation of the Army General Staff, he was transferred to the General Staff Corps. He was promoted to Major in 1906 and Lt Colonel in 1909. During the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, pitted the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success...

 of 1912–1913, he was Chief of Operations for the main Greek force, the Army of Thessaly, again under Crown Prince Constantine. In the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 29 June 1913. Bulgaria had a prewar agreement about the division of region of Macedonia...

 against Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 in the summer of 1913, he served as chief of staff to the field army, again under Constantine, who had by now become King. In the same year, he was promoted to Colonel and then to Major General.

In early 1914 he was appointed Chief of the General Staff Service, but resigned in November after a quarrel with Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos
Eleftherios Venizelos
Eleftherios Venizelos was an eminent Greek revolutionary, a prominent and illustrious statesman as well as a charismatic leader in the early 20th century. Elected several times as Prime Minister of Greece and served from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1932...

 over the issue of Greece's entry into World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. Venizelos favoured siding with the Entente
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

 Powers, especially Britain, for the upcoming Gallipoli Campaign while Dousmanis, a believer in the victory of Germany
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

, advocated neutrality. In the following February however, Venizelos was forced to resign over the same issue by King Constantine, and Dousmanis resumed his post, which he held until mid-August 1916. Having sided with Constantine during the National Schism, in June 1917, when Venizelos assumed the governance of the country and led it to war on the side of the Entente, Dousmanis, along with other prominent royalists, was deported to Corsica
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of Italy, southeast of the French mainland, and north of the island of Sardinia....

. Returning to Greece after the end of the war, in 1919 he was sentenced by a Venizelist court martial to life imprisonment for alleged high treason.

Following Venizelos' downfall in the November 1920 elections
Greek legislative election, 1920
The legislative elections of 1920 were probably the most crucial elections in the modern history of Greece, influencing not only the few years afterwards, including Greece's defeat by Kemal Atatürk's reformed Turkish army in 1922, but setting the stage for Greece's political landscape for most of...

, he was released from prison, and, promoted to Lt General, he was re-appointed as Chief of the General Staff in April 1921, during the Asia Minor Campaign against Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. He held this post until October 1921, and again from 22 August 1922, when the Greek front in Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

collapsed in the face of the Turkish offensive, until 15 September, when he was forced to resign along with the government by a Venizelist-led revolt in the defeated Greek military. He was permanently discharged on 2 November 1922, and dedicated his last years to writing on military and historical issues. He died in 1949.


  • Γεωδαισία ("Geodesy")
  • Στρατηγικαί τακτικαί οδηγίαι ("Strategic tactical instructions")
  • Ιστορία του πολέμου του 1913 ("History of the War of 1913")
  • Iστορία και Γεωγραφία της Θεσσαλίας ("History and Geography of Thessaly")
  • Η Εσωτερική Όψις της Μικρασιατικής Εκστρατείας ("The Inner View of the Asia Minor Campaign")
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