United States Naval Academy
Overview
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in Annapolis, Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

, United States. Established in 1845 under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft
George Bancroft
George Bancroft was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845...

, it is the second-oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 and Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

. The 338 acres (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn
Fort Severn
For the trading post in Canada see Fort Severn First Nation Fort Severn, in present-day Annapolis, Maryland, was built in 1808 on the same site as an earlier American Revolutionary War fort of 1776. Although intended to guard Annapolis harbor from British attack, it never saw action during the War...

 at the confluence of the Severn River
Severn River (Maryland)
The Severn River runs through Anne Arundel County in the U.S. state of Maryland. It is located south of the Magothy River, and north of the South River.-Geography:...

 and Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. It lies off the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by Maryland and Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay's drainage basin covers in the District of Columbia and parts of six states: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West...

, approximately 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C.
Encyclopedia
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in Annapolis, Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

, United States. Established in 1845 under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft
George Bancroft
George Bancroft was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845...

, it is the second-oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 and Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

. The 338 acres (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn
Fort Severn
For the trading post in Canada see Fort Severn First Nation Fort Severn, in present-day Annapolis, Maryland, was built in 1808 on the same site as an earlier American Revolutionary War fort of 1776. Although intended to guard Annapolis harbor from British attack, it never saw action during the War...

 at the confluence of the Severn River
Severn River (Maryland)
The Severn River runs through Anne Arundel County in the U.S. state of Maryland. It is located south of the Magothy River, and north of the South River.-Geography:...

 and Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. It lies off the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by Maryland and Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay's drainage basin covers in the District of Columbia and parts of six states: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West...

, approximately 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

, Maryland. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments.

Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a congressman
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as Midshipmen. Tuition for Midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,300 "plebes" enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer, but only about 1,000 Midshipmen graduate. Graduates are usually commissioned as Ensigns
Ensign (rank)
Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank itself acquired the name....

 in the Navy or Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces.- United Kingdom and Commonwealth :The rank second lieutenant was introduced throughout the British Army in 1871 to replace the rank of ensign , although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal...

s in the Marine Corps, and occasionally as officers in the US Air Force, US Army, and U.S. Coast Guard. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades Midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, and mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the Academy's Honor Concept
Honor Concept
The Honor Concept and Honor Treatise are parts of the United States Naval Academy's Honor Program. Similar to the Cadet Honor Codes of the United States Military Academy and United States Air Force Academy, the Concept formalizes the requirement for midshipmen to demonstrate integrity while...

.

Description

The United States Naval Academy's campus is located in Annapolis
Annapolis, Maryland
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. It had a population of 38,394 at the 2010 census and is situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, south of Baltimore and about east of Washington, D.C. Annapolis is...

, Maryland, at the confluence of the Severn River
Severn River (Maryland)
The Severn River runs through Anne Arundel County in the U.S. state of Maryland. It is located south of the Magothy River, and north of the South River.-Geography:...

 and the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. It lies off the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by Maryland and Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay's drainage basin covers in the District of Columbia and parts of six states: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West...

.

In its most recent report, the 2012 edition of U.S. News & World Report ranked the US Naval Academy as the No. 1 Public Liberal Arts College in the nation, tied for first with the US Military Academy. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is also tied for No. 1 with the US Military Academy and the US Air Force Academy. It also holds the No. 5 spot with the US Air Force Academy for Best Undergraduate Engineering programs. In the same year, Forbes ranked the US Naval Academy as No. 17 overall in nation in its report "America's Top Colleges 2011".

Prospective candidates must be first nominated by a Congressman, Senator, Vice-President, or the President, or be the child of a Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

 recipient. This nomination typically involves an interview with that specific nominating body and/or retired officers within the same jurisdiction. Candidates must also must also pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam prior as a part of the application process. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 in each new class of plebes (freshmen). The U.S. government pays for tuition, room and board. Midshipmen received $974.40 per month in 2011. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, services, and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "Firstie" (senior) year. Midshipmen Fourth-Class (plebes) to Midshipmen Second-Class (juniors) receive $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen First-Class class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses.

Students at the Naval Academy are addressed as Midshipman
Midshipman
A midshipman is an officer cadet, or a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Kenya...

, an official military rank and paygrade. As Midshipmen are actually in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice
Uniform Code of Military Justice
The Uniform Code of Military Justice , is the foundation of military law in the United States. It is was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United States Constitution in Article I, Section 8, which provides that "The Congress shall have Power . ....

, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term comprises both males and females. Upon graduation, most Naval Academy Midshipmen are commissioned as Ensigns
Ensign (rank)
Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank itself acquired the name....

 in the Navy or Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces.- United Kingdom and Commonwealth :The rank second lieutenant was introduced throughout the British Army in 1871 to replace the rank of ensign , although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal...

s in the Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning. If they are selected to serve as a pilot (aircraft), they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, and if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries. Since 1959, midshipmen have been able to "cross-commission," or request a commission in the Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 or Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. In 2004, the first of a hand-full of graduates was "cross-commissioned" into the Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

. Every year, a small number of graduates do this- usually 3 or 4, and usually in a one-for-one "trade" with a similarly inclined cadet at one of the other service academies. At the beginning of their second-class year, Midshipmen make this commitment, also known as signing their "2-for-7". Upon graduation, Midshipmen are obligated to serve at minimum 5 years of service after graduation. Those selected for post-graduate education will continue concurrently with their commissioning obligation for officers in the US Navy and consecutively for officers in the US Marine Corps.
Midshipmen who resign or are separated from the academy in their first two years incur no military service obligation. Those who are separated – voluntarily or involuntarily – after that time are required to serve on active duty in an enlisted capacity, usually for two to four years. Alternatively, separated former Midshipmen can reimburse the government for their educational expenses, though the sum is often in excess of $150,000. The decision whether to serve enlisted time or reimburse the government is under the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy.

Other Navy schools

There is no graduate school directly associated with the Naval Academy. Instead, the Navy operates the Naval Postgraduate School
Naval Postgraduate School
The Naval Postgraduate School is an accredited research university operated by the United States Navy. Located in Monterey, California, it grants master's degrees, Engineer's degrees and doctoral degrees...

 and the Naval War College
Naval War College
The Naval War College is an education and research institution of the United States Navy that specializes in developing ideas for naval warfare and passing them along to officers of the Navy. The college is located on the grounds of Naval Station Newport in Newport, Rhode Island...

 separately. The Naval Academy Preparatory School
Naval Academy Preparatory School
The Naval Academy Preparatory School, or NAPS is the preparatory school for the United States Naval Academy. NAPS is located on a hill at Naval Station Newport, RI. The mission of the school is "To enhance Midshipman Candidates' moral, mental, and physical foundations to prepare them for success...

 (NAPS), in Newport, Rhode Island, is the official prep school
University-preparatory school
A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school is a secondary school, usually private, designed to prepare students for a college or university education...

 for the Naval Academy. The Naval Academy Foundation provides Post-Graduate high school education for a year of preparatory school before entering the Academy for a very limited number of applicants. There are several preparatory schools and junior colleges throughout the United States which host this program.

History

Identity

The Academy's motto
Motto
A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

 is Ex Scientia Tridens, Which means "Through Knowledge, Sea Power." It appears on a design devised by the lawyer, writer, editor, encyclopedist and Naval Academy graduate (1867), Park Benjamin, Jr.
Park Benjamin, Jr.
Park Benjamin was an American patent lawyer, physician, and writer. He was born in New York City, graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 1867, resigned from the Navy in 1869, and graduated at the Albany Law School in the following year...

 It was adopted by the Navy Department in 1898 due to the efforts of another graduate (also 1867) and collaborator, Jacob W. Miller. The motto is Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

. Benjamin states:
"The seal or coat-of-arms of the Naval Academy has for its crest a hand grasping a trident, below which is a shield bearing an ancient galley coming into action, bows on, and below that an open book, indicative of education, and finally bears the motto, 'Ex Scientia Tridens' (From knowledge, sea power)."

The trident
Trident
A trident , also called a trishul or leister or gig, is a three-pronged spear. It is used for spear fishing and was also a military weapon. Tridents are featured widely in mythical, historical and modern culture. The major Hindu god, Shiva the Destroyer and the sea god Poseidon or Neptune are...

, emblem
Emblem
An emblem is a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept — e.g., a moral truth, or an allegory — or that represents a person, such as a king or saint.-Distinction: emblem and symbol:...

 of the Roman god
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

 Neptune
Neptune (mythology)
Neptune was the god of water and the sea in Roman mythology and religion. He is analogous with, but not identical to, the Greek god Poseidon. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of Jupiter and Pluto, each of them presiding over one of the three realms of the universe,...

, represents seapower.

Early years

The institution was founded as the Naval School in 1845 by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft
George Bancroft
George Bancroft was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845...

. The campus was established at Annapolis on the grounds of the former U.S. Army post Fort Severn
Fort Severn
For the trading post in Canada see Fort Severn First Nation Fort Severn, in present-day Annapolis, Maryland, was built in 1808 on the same site as an earlier American Revolutionary War fort of 1776. Although intended to guard Annapolis harbor from British attack, it never saw action during the War...

. The school opened on 10 October with 50 Midshipmen students and seven professors. The decision to establish an academy on land may have been in part a result of the Somers
USS Somers (1842)
The second USS Somers was a brig in the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War, infamous for being the only U.S. Navy ship to undergo a mutiny which led to executions....

 Affair, an alleged mutiny involving the Secretary of War's son that resulted in his execution at sea. Commodore
Commodore (USN)
Commodore was an early title and later a rank in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard and a current honorary title in the U.S. Navy with an intricate history. Because the U.S. Congress was originally unwilling to authorize more than four ranks until 1862, considerable importance...

 Matthew Perry
Matthew Perry (naval officer)
Matthew Calbraith Perry was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy and served commanding a number of US naval ships. He served several wars, most notably in the Mexican-American War and the War of 1812. He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854...

 had a considerable interest in naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was also a vocal proponent of modernization of the Navy.

Originally a course of study for five years was prescribed. Only the first and last were spent at the school with the other three being passed at sea. The present name was adopted when the school was reorganized in 1850 and placed under the supervision of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Under the immediate charge of the superintendent, the course of study was extended to seven years with the first two and the last two to be spent at the school and the intervening three years at sea. The four years of study were made consecutive in 1851 and practice cruises were substituted for the three consecutive years at sea. The first class of Naval Academy students graduated on 10 June 1854.

In 1860, the Tripoli Monument was moved to the academy grounds. Later that year in August, the model of the USS Somers experiment was resurrected when the USS Constitution
USS Constitution
USS Constitution is a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. Named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States of America, she is the world's oldest floating commissioned naval vessel...

, now 60 years old, was pulled out of ordinary and refurbished as a school ship for the fourth-class midshipmen. She was anchored at the yard, and the plebes lived on board the ship to immediately introduce them to shipboard life and experiences.

The American Civil War

The Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 was disruptive to the Naval Academy. Southern sympathy ran high in Maryland. Although riots broke out, Maryland did not declare secession. The United States government planned to move the school, when the sudden outbreak of hostilities forced a quick departure. Almost immediately the three upper classes were detached and ordered to sea, and the remaining elements of the academy were transported to Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

 by the USS Constitution
USS Constitution
USS Constitution is a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. Named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States of America, she is the world's oldest floating commissioned naval vessel...

 in April 1861 and setup in temporary facilities and opened there in May.

The United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 was stressed by the situation as 24% of its officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Navy
Confederate States Navy
The Confederate States Navy was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861. It was responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War...

, including 95 graduates and 59 midshipmen from USNA, as well as many key leaders involved with the founding and establishment of USNA. The first Superintendent, Admiral Franklin Buchanan
Franklin Buchanan
Franklin Buchanan was an officer in the United States Navy who became an admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War, and commanded the ironclad CSS Virginia.-Early life:...

, joined the Confederate States Navy
Confederate States Navy
The Confederate States Navy was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861. It was responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War...

 as its first and primary admiral. Captain Sidney Smith Lee, the second Commandant of Midshipmen, and older brother of Robert E. Lee, left Federal service in 1861 for the Confederate States Navy. Lieutenant William Harwar Parker
William Harwar Parker
William Harwar Parker was an officer in the United States Navy and later in the Confederate States Navy. His auto-biography, entitled Recollections of a Naval Officer 1841-1865, provides a unique insight into the United States Navy of the mid-19th century during an era when the Age of Sail was...

,CSN, class of 1848, and instructor at USNA, joined the Virginia State Navy
Virginia State Navy
A Virginia State Navy existed twice. During the American Revolutionary War, the provisional government of the Virginia Colony authorized the purchase, outfitting, and manning of armed vessels to protect the colony's waters from threats posed it by the Royal Navy.Early in the American Civil War,...

, and then went on to become the Superintendent of the Confederate States Naval Academy. Lieutenant Charles “Savez” Read may have been "anchor man" (graduated last) in the class of 1860, but his later service to the Confederate States Navy included defending New Orleans, service on CSS Arkansas and CSS Florida, and command of a series of captured Union ships that culminated in seizing the US Revenue Cutter Caleb Cushing in Portland, Maine. Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell
James Iredell Waddell
James Iredell Waddell was an officer in the United States Navy and later in the Confederate States Navy.-Biography:...

, CSN, a former instructor at the US Naval Academy commanded the CSS Shenandoah
CSS Shenandoah
CSS Shenandoah, formerly Sea King, was an iron-framed, teak-planked, full rigged ship, with auxiliary steam power, captained by Commander James Waddell, Confederate States Navy, a North Carolinian with twenty years' service in the United States Navy.During 12½ months of 1864–1865 the ship...

. The first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory
United States Naval Observatory
The United States Naval Observatory is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation, and Timing for the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Department of Defense...

, Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Matthew Fontaine Maury , United States Navy was an American astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator....

, advocate of the creation of the United States Naval Academy, after whom Maury Hall is named, similarly served in the Confederate States Navy
Confederate States Navy
The Confederate States Navy was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861. It was responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War...

.

The midshipmen and faculty returned to Annapolis just after the war ended in the summer of 1865.

From the Civil War to World War I

The Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War
The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence...

 of 1898 greatly increased the academy's importance and the campus was almost wholly rebuilt and much enlarged between 1899 and 1906.

In 1912, the Reina Mercedes, sunk at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba
Battle of Santiago de Cuba
The Battle of Santiago de Cuba, fought between Spain and the United States on 3 July 1898, was the largest naval engagement of the Spanish-American War and resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Navy's Caribbean Squadron.-Spanish Fleet:...

, was raised and used as the "brig" ship for the Academy.

In 1914 the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle corps was formed and by 1922 it went defunct. They were revived in 1926.

Many firsts for minorities occurred during this period. In 1877, Kiro Kunitomo, a Japanese citizen, graduated from the academy. And then in 1879, Robert F. Lopez
Robert F. Lopez
Robert Files Lopez was an officer in the United States Navy. He entered Annapolis with the Class of 1879, and he became the first Hispanic-American to graduate from the United States Naval Academy....

 was the first Hispanic-American to graduate from the academy.

In the late 19th century, Congress required the academy to teach a formal course in hygiene, the only course required by Congress of any military academy. Tradition holds that a congressman was particularly disgusted by the appearance of a midshipman returned from cruise.

World War I to World War II

The Navy rowing crew won the gold medal
Rowing at the 1920 Summer Olympics
The Olympic Rowing Events at the 1920 Summer Olympics, the first Olympics after World War I, saw five events. The competitions were held from August 27, 1920 to August 29, 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium....

 at 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium....

 Games held in Antwerp, Belgium. In 1923 The Department of Physical Training was established. The Naval Academy football team played the University of Washington
University of Washington
University of Washington is a public research university, founded in 1861 in Seattle, Washington, United States. The UW is the largest university in the Northwest and the oldest public university on the West Coast. The university has three campuses, with its largest campus in the University...

 in the Rose Bowl
Rose Bowl Game
The Rose Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2...

 tying 14–14.
In 1925 the Second-class ring dance was started. In 1925 the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle Corps was formally reestablished. In 1926, "Navy Blue and Gold
Navy Blue and Gold
Navy Blue and Gold is the alma mater of the United States Naval Academy.-History:*Written in 1923 by CDR Roy DeS. Horn, USN and music composed by J.W. Crosley....

", composed by organist and choirmaster J. W. Crosley, was first sung in public. It became a tradition to sing this alma mater song at the end of student and alumni gatherings such as pep rallies and football games, and on Graduation Day. In 1926 Navy won the National Collegiate Football Championship title. In the fall of 1929 the Secretary of the Navy gave his approval for graduates to compete for Rhodes scholarships. Six graduates were selected for that honor that same year. The Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities
The Association of American Universities is an organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education...

. accredited the Naval Academy curriculum 30 October 1930.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

 signed into law an act of Congress
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by government with a legislature named "Congress," such as the United States Congress or the Congress of the Philippines....

 on 25 May 1933 providing for the Bachelor of Science degree for Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. Four years later, Congress authorized the Superintendent to award a Bachelor of Science degree to all living graduates. Reserve officer training was re-established in anticipation of World War II in 1941.

The academy was certified in 1937 by the Middle States Association although with reservations about the academic climate.

In 1939 the first Yard Patrol craft arrived. These were used to train midshipmen in ship handling.

In 1940, the Academy stopped using the Reina Mercedes as a brig for disciplined midshipmen, and restricted them to Bancroft Hall, instead.

In April 1941 superintendent Rear Admiral Russell Wilson refused to allow the school's lacrosse
Lacrosse
Lacrosse is a team sport of Native American origin played using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick, mainly played in the United States and Canada. It is a contact sport which requires padding. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh...

 team to play a visiting team
1941 Harvard–Navy lacrosse game
The Harvard-Navy lacrosse game of 1941 was an intercollegiate lacrosse game between the Harvard University Crimson and the United States Naval Academy Midshipmen on April 4, 1941. The game was played at Navy's campus in Annapolis, Maryland. Before the game, the Naval Academy's superintendent told...

 from Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 because the Harvard team included a black
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

 player. Harvard's athletic director ordered the player home and the game was played on 4 April, as scheduled, which Navy won 12–0.

A total of 3,319 graduates were commissioned during World War II. Dr. Chris Lambertsen
Christian J. Lambertsen
Christian James Lambertsen was an American environmental medicine and diving medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the United States Navy frogmen's rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater warfare...

 held the first closed-circuit oxygen
Rebreather
A rebreather is a type of breathing set that provides a breathing gas containing oxygen and recycled exhaled gas. This recycling reduces the volume of breathing gas used, making a rebreather lighter and more compact than an open-circuit breathing set for the same duration in environments where...

 SCUBA course in the United States for the Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was a predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency...

 maritime unit at the Academy on 17 May 1943. In 1945 A Department of Aviation was established. That year a Vice Admiral, Aubrey W. Fitch, became superintendent. The Naval Academy celebrated its Centennial. During the century of its existence, roughly 18,563 midshipmen had graduated, including the class of 1946.

World War II to present

The Academy and its support facilities became part of the Severn River Naval Command from 1941 to 1962.

An accelerated course was given to midshipmen during the war years which affected classes entering during the war and graduating later. The students studied year around. This affected the class of 1948 most of all. For the first and only time, a class was divided by academic standing. 1948A graduated in June of 1947; the remainder, called 1948B, a year later.

From 1946 to 1961, N3N amphibious biplanes were used at the Academy to introduce midshipmen to flying.

On 3 June 1949 Wesley A. Brown
Wesley A. Brown
Wesley Anthony Brown was the first African American graduate of the U.S Naval Academy , in Annapolis, Maryland. He served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War and served in the U.S Navy from May 2, 1944–June 30, 1969.-Early life:He graduated from Dunbar High School, where he was Cadet Corps...

 became the first African-American to graduate. The Navy eight-man rowing crew won the gold medal
Rowing at the 1952 Summer Olympics
Rowing at the 1952 Summer Olympics featured 7 events, for men only. The competitions were held from July 20, 1952 to July 23, 1952.-Medal summary:-Medal table:-References:*...

 at 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland in 1952. Helsinki had been earlier given the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II...

 in Helsinki, Finland. They were also named National Intercollegiate Champions. In 1955, the tradition of greasing Herndon Monument
Herndon Monument
The Herndon Monument on the grounds of the U.S. Naval Academy is a tall grey obelisk. It was erected in memory of Captain William Lewis Herndon who courageously decided to go down with his ship, SS Central America, and the men left aboard rather than save himself on September 12, 1857...

 for plebes to climb to exchange their plebe "dixie cup" covers (hats) for a midshipman's cover started.

In 1957, the Reina Mercedes, ruined by a hurricane, was scrapped.

The Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium
Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium
Navy – Marine Corps Memorial Stadium is an outdoor athletic stadium near the campus of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. It is the home field of the Navy Midshipmen football team, the men's lacrosse team, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks lacrosse team....

, funded by donations, was dedicated 26 September 1959.

Joe Bellino
Joe Bellino
Joseph Michael Bellino is a former American football halfback in the American Football League for the Boston Patriots. He won the Heisman Trophy in 1960.-Early life:...

 (class of 1961) was awarded the Heisman Trophy
Heisman Trophy
The Heisman Memorial Trophy Award , is awarded annually to the player deemed the most outstanding player in collegiate football. It was created in 1935 as the Downtown Athletic Club trophy and renamed in 1936 following the death of the Club's athletic director, John Heisman The Heisman Memorial...

 on 22 June 1960. In 1961 the Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference was started. The Department of the Interior designated the U.S. Naval Academy a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 on 21 August 1961. In 1963, Roger Staubach
Roger Staubach
Roger Thomas Staubach is a businessman, Heisman Trophy winner and legendary Hall of Fame former quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys from 1969 until 1979. Staubach was instrumental in developing the Cowboys into becoming one of the best teams of the 1970s and led the team to nine of the Cowboys'...

, class of 1965, was awarded the Heisman Trophy.

In 1963, the Academy changed from a marking system based on 4.0 to a letter grade. Midshipmen began referring to the statue of Tecumseh as the "god of 2.0" instead of "the god of 2.5", the former failing mark.

The Academy started the Trident Scholar Program in 1963. From 3 to 16 juniors are selected for independent study during their final year.

Professor Samuel Massie became the first African-American faculty member in 1966. On 4 June 1969 the first designated engineering degrees were granted to qualified graduates of the class of 1969. During the period 1968 to 1972, the academy moved beyond engineering to include more than 20 majors. In 1970, the James Forrestal Lecture was created. This has resulted in various leaders speaking to midshipmen, including Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
Heinz Alfred "Henry" Kissinger is a German-born American academic, political scientist, diplomat, and businessman. He is a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and...

, football coach Dick Vermeil
Dick Vermeil
Richard Albert "Dick" Vermeil is a former American head coach for the National Football League's Philadelphia Eagles , St. Louis Rams and Kansas City Chiefs...

, and Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia
Antonin Scalia
Antonin Gregory Scalia is an American jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. As the longest-serving justice on the Court, Scalia is the Senior Associate Justice...

.

The 1970s brought change. In 1972 Lieutenant Commander
Lieutenant Commander
Lieutenant Commander is a commissioned officer rank in many navies. The rank is superior to a lieutenant and subordinate to a commander...

 Georgia Clark became the first woman officer instructor, and Dr. Rae Jean Goodman was appointed to the faculty as the first civilian woman. Later in 1972, a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia terminated compulsory chapel attendance, which had been in effect since 1853. In September 1973, the library facility complex was completed and named for Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz class of 1905.
On 8 August 1975, Congress authorized women to attend service academies. The class of 1980 was inducted with 81 women midshipmen. In 1980 the academy included "Hispanic
Hispanic
Hispanic is a term that originally denoted a relationship to Hispania, which is to say the Iberian Peninsula: Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal and Spain. During the Modern Era, Hispanic sometimes takes on a more limited meaning, particularly in the United States, where the term means a person of ...

/Latino" as a racial category for demographic purposes; four women identified themselves as Hispanic in the class of 1981, and these women become the first Hispanic females to graduate from the academy: Carmel Gilliland (who had the highest class rank), Lilia Ramirez (who retired with the rank of commander
Commander
Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.-Commander as a naval...

), Ina Marie Gomez, and Trinora Pinto. In 1979 "June Week" was renamed "Commissioning Week" because graduation had moved to May.

In May 1980, Elizabeth Anne Belzer (later Rowe) became the first woman graduate. On 23 May 1984, Kristine Holderied became the first woman to graduate at the head of the class. In addition, the class of 1984 included the first naturalized Korean-American graduates, all choosing commissions in the U.S. Navy. The four Korean-American ensigns were Walter Lee, Thomas Kymn, Andrew Kim, and Se-Hun Oh.

On 30 July 1987, the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (CSAB) granted accreditation for the Computer Science program. In 1991, Midshipman Juliane Gallina, class of 1992, became the first woman brigade commander. On 29 January 1994, the first genderless service assignment was held. All billets were opened equally to men and women with the exception of special warfare and submarine duty.

On 12 March 1995, Lieutenant Commander Wendy B. Lawrence
Wendy B. Lawrence
Wendy Barrien Lawrence is a retired U.S. Navy Captain, former helicopter pilot, an engineer, and a former NASA astronaut. She was the first female graduate of the US Naval Academy to fly in space and she has also visited the Russian Space Station Mir. She was a mission specialist on STS-114, the...

, class of 1981, became a mission specialist in the space shuttle Endeavor. She is the first woman USNA graduate to fly in space. A postage stamp commemorating the Naval Academy's founding was issued on 10 October 1995. Freedom 7, America's first space capsule, was placed on display at the visitor center as the centerpiece of the "Grads in Space" exhibit on 23 September 1998. The late Rear Admiral Alan Shepard
Alan Shepard
Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. was an American naval aviator, test pilot, flag officer, and NASA astronaut who in 1961 became the second person, and the first American, in space. This Mercury flight was designed to enter space, but not to achieve orbit...

, class of 1945, had flown Freedom 7 116.5 miles (187.5 km) into space on 5 May 1961. His historic flight marked America's first step in the space race
Space Race
The Space Race was a mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union and the United States for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national...

.

On 11 September 2001, the Academy lost 14 alumni in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center
World Trade Center
The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new...

 and The Pentagon
The Pentagon
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. As a symbol of the U.S. military, "the Pentagon" is often used metonymically to refer to the Department of Defense rather than the building itself.Designed by the American architect...

. The Academy was placed under unprecedented high security.

In August 2007, Superintendent Vice Admiral Jeffrey Fowler changed academy policy to limit liberty, required more squad interaction to emphasize that "we are a nation at war."

On 3 November 2007, the Navy football team defeated long-time rival Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a Catholic research university located in Notre Dame, an unincorporated community north of the city of South Bend, in St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States...

 for the first time in 43 years – 46–44 in triple overtime. The two teams have met every year since 1926 and continue a rivalry that became amicable when Notre Dame volunteered to open its facilities for training of naval officers in World War II. The Navy was credited with saving the University of Notre Dame after its enrollment fell during World War II to about 250 students. The Navy trained 12,000 men to become officers.

In November 2007, Memorial Hall was the venue for a 50-nation Annapolis Conference
Annapolis Conference
-Attendees:U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice organized and hosted the conference. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, and U.S. President George W. Bush attended the meeting...

 on a Palestinian-Israeli peace process.

Rank structure

The student body is known as the Brigade of Midshipmen. Midshipmen at the Academy wear service dress uniforms similar to those of U.S. Navy officers, with shoulder-board and sleeve insignia varying by school year or officer rank.

Students attending the U.S. Naval Academy are appointed to the rank of Midshipman and serve on active duty in that rank. A Naval Academy midshipman is classified as an officer of the line, though their exercise of authority is limited by their training status. Legally, midshipmen are a special grade of officer that ranks between Warrant Officer (W-1) and the lowest grade of Chief Warrant Officer (W-2).

Midshipmen are classified not as freshmen
Freshman
A freshman or fresher is a first-year student in secondary school, high school, or college. The term first year can also be used as a noun, to describe the students themselves A freshman (US) or fresher (UK, India) (or sometimes fish, freshie, fresher; slang plural frosh or freshmeat) is a...

, sophomore
Sophomore
Sophomore is a term used in the United States to describe a student in the second year of study at high school or university.The word is also used as a synonym for "second", for the second album or EP released by a musician or group, the second movie of a director, or the second season of a...

s, juniors, and seniors, but as fourth class, third class, second class, and first class.
A member of the entering class—the Fourth Class, the lowest rank of midshipman—is also known as a "plebe" (plural, "plebes"), from the word plebeian (Latin, "plebeius
Plebs
The plebs was the general body of free land-owning Roman citizens in Ancient Rome. They were distinct from the higher order of the patricians. A member of the plebs was known as a plebeian...

"), the lowest class of Roman citizen. Because the first year at the Academy is one of transformation from a civilian into a military officer, plebes must conform to a number of rules and regulations not placed on their seniors—the upper three classes of Midshipmen—and have additional tasks and responsibilities that disappear upon promotion to Midshipman Third Class.

Third Class Midshipmen have been assimilated into the Brigade and are treated with more respect because they are upperclassmen. They are commonly called "Youngsters". Because of their new stature and rank, the youngsters are allowed such privileges as watching television, listening to music, watching movies, and napping.

Second Class Midshipmen are charged with training plebes. They report directly to the first class, and issue orders as necessary to carry out their responsibilities. Second Class Midshipmen are allowed to drive their own cars (but may not park them on campus) and are allowed to enter or exit the Yard (campus) in civilian attire (weekends only).

First Class Midshipmen have more freedoms and liberty in the Brigade, and the most challenging responsibilities. While they must maintain mandatory sports, activities, and academics, they are also charged with the leadership of the Brigade. They are commonly called "Firsties". Firsties are allowed to park their cars on campus, and have greater leave and liberties than any other class.

The Brigade is divided into two regiments of three battalion
Battalion
A battalion is a military unit of around 300–1,200 soldiers usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel...

s each. Five companies make up each battalion, for a total of 30 companies. The midshipmen command structure is headed by a first class midshipman known as the Brigade Commander, chosen for outstanding leadership performance. He or she is responsible for much of the brigade's day-to-day activities as well as the professional training of midshipmen. Overseeing all brigade activities is the Commandant of Midshipmen, an active-duty Navy Captain or Marine Corps Colonel
Colonel (United States)
In the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, colonel is a senior field grade military officer rank just above the rank of lieutenant colonel and just below the rank of brigadier general...

. Working for the commandant, experienced Navy and Marine Corps officers are assigned as company and battalion officers.

Uniforms

Midshipmen at the Academy wear service dress uniforms similar to those of U.S. Navy officers, with shoulder-board and sleeve insignia varying by school year or midshipmen officer rank. All wear gold anchor insignia on both lapel collars of the service dress blue jacket. Shoulder boards have a gold anchor and a number of slanted stripes indicating year, except for midshipman officers, whose shoulder boards have a small gold star and horizontal stripes indicating their rank.

On the winter and summer working uniform shirt, a freshman
Freshman
A freshman or fresher is a first-year student in secondary school, high school, or college. The term first year can also be used as a noun, to describe the students themselves A freshman (US) or fresher (UK, India) (or sometimes fish, freshie, fresher; slang plural frosh or freshmeat) is a...

 (Midshipman Fourth Class or "Plebe") wears no collar insignia, a sophomore (Midshipman Third Class or "Youngster") wears a single fouled anchor on the right collar point, a Junior (Midshipman Second Class) fouled anchors on each collar point, and a Senior (Midshipman First Class or "Firstie") wears fouled anchors with perched eagles. First class midshipmen in officer billets replace the fouled anchor with perched eagles with the their respective midshipman officer collar insignia.

Midshipman officer collar insignia are a series of gold bars, from the rank of Midshipman Ensign
Ensign (rank)
Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank itself acquired the name....

 (one bar or stripe) to Midshipman Captain
Captain (naval)
Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The NATO rank code is OF-5, equivalent to an army full colonel....

 (six bars or stripes) in the Brigade of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Depending on the season, midshipmen wear Summer Whites or Service Dress Blues as their dress uniform, and summer working blues or winter working blues as their daily class uniform. Since 2008, the First Class Midshipmen have worn service khaki uniforms as their daily uniform (This uniform option has been repealed and they now wear the same working uniform as the rest of the Brigade). First Class Midshipmen may wear their service selection uniform on second semester Fridays (i.e.: Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officer selectees wear flight suits, Submariner and Surface Warfare selectees wear coveralls or Navy Working Uniforms with their new command ballcaps. Marine Selectees wear MARPAT
MARPAT
MARPAT is a digital camouflage pattern in use with the United States Marine Corps, introduced with the Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform , which replaced the Camouflage Utility Uniform. The pattern is formed by a number of small rectangular pixels of color...

 camouflage utilities).

During commissioning week (formerly known as "June week"), the uniform is summer whites.

Campus

The campus (or "Yard") has grown from a 40000 square metres (9.9 acre) Army post named Fort Severn
Fort Severn
For the trading post in Canada see Fort Severn First Nation Fort Severn, in present-day Annapolis, Maryland, was built in 1808 on the same site as an earlier American Revolutionary War fort of 1776. Although intended to guard Annapolis harbor from British attack, it never saw action during the War...

 in 1845 to a 1.37 square kilometres (338.5 acre), or 1375640 square metres (339.9 acre), campus in the 21st century. By comparison, the United States Air Force Academy
United States Air Force Academy
The United States Air Force Academy is an accredited college for the undergraduate education of officer candidates for the United States Air Force. Its campus is located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States...

 is 73 square kilometres (18,038.7 acre) and United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

 is 65 square kilometres (16,061.8 acre).

Halls and principal buildings

  • Bancroft Hall
    Bancroft Hall
    Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, is the largest single dormitory in the world. Bancroft Hall, named after former Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, is home for the entire brigade of 4,000 midshipmen, and contains some 1,700 rooms, of corridors, and of...

     is the largest building at the Naval Academy, and the largest college dormitory in the world. It houses all midshipmen. Open to the public are Memorial Hall, a midshipmen-kept memorial to graduates who have died during military operations, and the Rotunda, the ceremonial entrance to Bancroft Hall. The Commander-in-Chief's Trophy
    Commander in Chief's Trophy
    The Commander-in-Chief's Trophy is awarded to each season's winner of the triangular college football series among the United States Military Academy , the United States Naval Academy , and United States Air Force Academy...

     resides in the Rotunda while Navy is in possession of it. It was named for the Academy's founder, Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft
    George Bancroft
    George Bancroft was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845...

     and designed by Ernest Flagg
    Ernest Flagg
    Ernest Flagg was a noted American architect in the Beaux-Arts style. He was also an advocate for urban reform and architecture's social responsibility.-Biography:...

    .
  • The Naval Academy Chapel
    Naval Academy Chapel
    The United States Naval Academy Chapel in Annapolis, Maryland, is one of two houses of worship on the grounds of the Navy's service academy. Protestant and Catholic services are held there. The Naval Academy Chapel is a focal point of the Academy and the city of Annapolis...

    , at the center of the campus, across from Herndon Monument, has a high dome visible throughout Annapolis. Designed by Ernest Flagg. The Chapel was featured on the U.S. Postal Service postage stamp honoring the Academy's 150th anniversary in 1995. John Paul Jones
    John Paul Jones
    John Paul Jones was a Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. Although he made enemies among America's political elites, his actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to...

     lies in the crypt beneath the Chapel.
  • Commodore Uriah P. Levy Center and Jewish Chapel, primarily funded with private donations, was dedicated on 23 September 2005. The Chapel was named for Commodore Uriah P. Levy
    Uriah P. Levy
    Uriah Phillips Levy was the first Jewish Commodore of the United States Navy, a veteran of the War of 1812 and a major philanthropist. At the time, Commodore was the highest rank obtainable in the U.S. Navy and would be roughly equivalent to the modern-day rank of Admiral...

     and houses a Jewish chapel, the honor board, ethics, character learning center, officer development spaces, a social director, and academic boards. Built featuring Jerusalem stone
    Jerusalem stone
    Jerusalem stone is a name applied to various types of pale limestone, dolomite and dolomitic limestone, common in and around Jerusalem that have been used in building since ancient times...

    , the architecture of the exterior is consistent with nearby Bancroft Hall.

  • Alumni Hall
    Alumni Hall (Navy)
    Alumni Hall is an indoor stadium at the United States Naval Academy, in Annapolis, Maryland. Completed in 1991, it seats 5,710 and serves as the primary assembly hall for the Brigade of Midshipmen. It is used for athletic contests — including basketball and wrestling — and is home for the Naval...

     is the primary assembly hall for the Brigade of Midshipmen and has two dining facilities. It hosts various sporting events (including the men's and women's intercollegiate basketball games), is used by alumni for reunions. The Bob Hope Performing Arts Center is located there.
  • archives – see Nimitz Library (below)
  • Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center—inside Gate 1 and attached to the Halsey Field House
    Halsey Field House
    Halsey Field House is a multi-purpose arena at the United States Naval Academy, in Annapolis, Maryland, with a seating capacity of 5,000. It was home to the Navy Midshipmen men's basketball team until the Alumni Hall opened in 1991. It is named after FADM William "Bull" Halsey, a World War II...

    —houses the USNA Guide Service, the USNA Gift Shop, a 12-minute film, and various exhibits, including the Graduates in Space exhibit, a sample midshipman's room, a model of the USS Maryland (BB46), and an exhibit on the life and times of John Paul Jones, who is buried in the crypt beneath the Naval Academy Chapel
    Naval Academy Chapel
    The United States Naval Academy Chapel in Annapolis, Maryland, is one of two houses of worship on the grounds of the Navy's service academy. Protestant and Catholic services are held there. The Naval Academy Chapel is a focal point of the Academy and the city of Annapolis...

    . Walking tours include five types of adult tours and two types of student tours.
  • Athletic Hall of Fame – see Lejeune Hall (below)
  • Chauvenet Hall, housing the departments of Mathematics
    Mathematics
    Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

    , Physics
    Physics
    Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

     and Oceanography
    Oceanography
    Oceanography , also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean...

    , was named for William Chauvenet
    William Chauvenet
    William Chauvenet was an early American educator. A professor of mathematics, astronomy, navigation, and surveying, he was always known and well liked among students and faculty....

    , an early professor at the US Naval Academy.
  • Dahlgren Hall contains a large multi-purpose room and a restaurant area. It was once used as an armory for the Academy and for drill purposes. It was named for John A. Dahlgren
    John A. Dahlgren
    John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren was a United States Navy leader. He headed the Union Navy's ordnance department during the American Civil War and designed several different kinds of guns and cannons that were considered part of the reason the Union won the war...

    .
  • The Dyer Tennis Clubhouse is used by the tennis team and contains locker rooms, offices, a racquet stringing room, a lounge, and a viewing deck overlooking the tennis courts. It was named for Vice Admiral George Dyer (Class of 1919).
  • Halsey Field House
    Halsey Field House
    Halsey Field House is a multi-purpose arena at the United States Naval Academy, in Annapolis, Maryland, with a seating capacity of 5,000. It was home to the Navy Midshipmen men's basketball team until the Alumni Hall opened in 1991. It is named after FADM William "Bull" Halsey, a World War II...

     contains an indoor track, squash and tennis courts, five basketball courts, a 65 tatami
    Tatami
    A is a type of mat used as a flooring material in traditional Japanese-style rooms. Traditionally made of rice straw to form the core , with a covering of woven soft rush straw, tatami are made in standard sizes, with the length exactly twice the width...

     dojo
    Dojo
    A is a Japanese term which literally means "place of the way". Initially, dōjōs were adjunct to temples. The term can refer to a formal training place for any of the Japanese do arts but typically it is considered the formal gathering place for students of any Japanese martial arts style to...

     for Aikido
    Aikido
    is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as "the Way of unifying life energy" or as "the Way of harmonious spirit." Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to...

    /Judo
    Judo
    is a modern martial art and combat sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw or takedown one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an...

    , a climbing wall, and assorted athletic and workout facilities and offices. Before construction of Alumni Hall, it was used by Navy basketball teams and was the site of midshipman assemblies. It was named for William F. Halsey, Jr.
  • Hubbard Hall – used by the crew team – is a three-story building on Dorsey Creek, 250 yards (228.6 m) from the Severn River. Also known as the Boat House, it was renovated in 1993 and now includes the Fisher Rowing Center. It was named for Rear Admiral John Hubbard (Class of 1870).
  • King Hall is the dining hall that seats the Brigade of Midshipmen together at one time. It was named for Ernest J. King
    Ernest King
    Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations during World War II. As COMINCH, he directed the United States Navy's operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the U.S...

    . Daily fare ranges from eggs, to sandwiches, to prime rib and the annual crab feast.
  • Lejeune Hall, built in 1982, contains an Olympic-class swimming pool and diving tower, a mat room for wrestling and hand-to-hand martial arts, and the Athletic Hall of Fame. Named for John A. Lejeune
    John A. Lejeune
    Lieutenant General John Archer Lejeune, was the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps. Known as the "greatest of all Leathernecks" and the "Marine's Marine", he served for nearly 40 years. His service included commanding the U.S...

    , it is the first USNA building to be named for a Marine Corps officer.
  • library – see Nimitz Library (below)
  • Luce Hall, housing the departments of Professional Development and Leadership, Ethics, and Law, was named for Stephen Luce
    Stephen Luce
    Stephen Bleecker Luce was a U.S. Navy admiral. He was the founder and first president of the Naval War College, between 1884 and 1886.-Biography:...

    .
  • MacDonough Hall contains a full-scale gymnastics area, two boxing rings, and alternate swimming pools. It was named for Thomas MacDonough
    Thomas MacDonough
    Thomas Macdonough was an early-19th-century American naval officer noted for his roles in the first Barbary War, and the War of 1812. He was the son of a revolutionary officer, Thomas Sr. who lived close to Middleton, Delaware. Being the sixth child born, he came from a large family of ten...

    .
  • Mahan Hall contains a theater along with the old library in the Hart Room, which has now been converted into a lounge and meeting room. It was named for Alfred Thayer Mahan
    Alfred Thayer Mahan
    Alfred Thayer Mahan was a United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide...

    . Designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • Maury Hall contains the departments of Weapons and Systems Engineering
    Systems engineering
    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over the life cycle of the project. Issues such as logistics, the coordination of different teams, and automatic control of machinery become more...

     plus Electrical Engineering
    Electrical engineering
    Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical...

    . It was named for Matthew Fontaine Maury
    Matthew Fontaine Maury
    Matthew Fontaine Maury , United States Navy was an American astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator....

    . Designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • Michelson Hall, housing the departments of Computer Science
    Computer science
    Computer science or computing science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems...

     and Chemistry
    Chemistry
    Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

    , was named for Albert Abraham Michelson
    Albert Abraham Michelson
    Albert Abraham Michelson was an American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson-Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics...

    , the first American to win the Nobel Prize in Physics
    Nobel Prize in Physics
    The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others are the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and...

    .
  • museum – see Preble Hall (below)
  • The Nimitz Library contains the academy's library collection, the academy's archives (William W. Jeffries Memorial Archives
    William W. Jeffries Memorial Archives
    The William W. Jeffries Memorial Archives, found at the United States Naval Academy in the Nimitz Library, was named in dedication of William Worthington Jeffries , former professor, archivist, and museum director at the Academy from 1942 to 1989.Professor William W...

    ), and the departments of Language Studies, Economics and Political Science
    Political science
    Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...

    . It was named for Chester W. Nimitz.
  • The Officers' and Faculty Club and officers quarters spread around the Yard.
  • Preble Hall houses the U.S. Naval Academy Museum
    U.S. Naval Academy Museum
    The United States Naval Academy Museum is a public maritime museum in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. Being part of the United States Naval Academy, it is located at Preble Hall within the Academy premises. Its history dates back to 1845 . The museum has an area of with four galleries.It is...

    . It was named for Edward Preble
    Edward Preble
    Edward Preble was a United States naval officer.-Early life and Revolutionary War:Preble was born at Falmouth, Eastern Massachusetts, now Portland, Maine, 15 August 1761, the son of Gen. Jedidiah Preble. As a boy, his home was destroyed in the burning of Falmouth by British Naval Commander Henry...

    .
  • Ricketts Hall contains the basketball, football, and lacrosse offices, the locker room for the varsity football team, and one of the academy's three "strength and conditioning facilities," where Midshipman athletes train. It was named for Claude V. Ricketts
    Claude V. Ricketts
    Admiral Claude Vernon Ricketts served in the United States Navy as the Vice Chief of Naval Operations.Originally enlisted in the Navy, Ricketts attended the United States Naval Academy and became an officer upon his graduation in 1929. As a lieutenant, he was the gunnery officer on board the ...

    .
  • Rickover Hall houses the departments of Electrical Engineering
    Electrical engineering
    Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical...

    , Computer Engineering
    Computer engineering
    Computer engineering, also called computer systems engineering, is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering, software design, and...

    , Mechanical Engineering
    Mechanical engineering
    Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the...

    , Naval Architecture
    Naval architecture
    Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a...

     and Ocean Engineering
    Ocean engineering
    Ocean engineering is an ambiguously defined term that may refer to:*Oceanographic engineering, also called marine electronics engineering, concerned with the design of electronic devices for use in the marine environment, such as the remote sensing systems used by oceanographers*Offshore...

    , Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering
    Aerospace engineering
    Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering...

    . It was named for Hyman G. Rickover
    Hyman G. Rickover
    Hyman George Rickover was a four-star admiral of the United States Navy who directed the original development of naval nuclear propulsion and controlled its operations for three decades as director of Naval Reactors...

    .
  • The Robert Crown Sailing Center contains offices, team classrooms, locker rooms, and equipment repair and storage facilities. It also houses the ICSA College Sailing Hall of Fame. Also on display in the Hall are the Naval Academy's sailing trophies and awards.
  • Sampson Hall, housing the departments of English and History, was named for William T. Sampson
    William T. Sampson
    William Thomas Sampson was a United States Navy rear admiral known for his victory in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba during the Spanish-American War.-Biography:...

    . Designed by Ernest Flagg.
  • visitor center – see Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center (above)
  • Wesley Brown Field House
    Wesley Brown Field House
    The Wesley Brown Field House is a sports arena at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. It is located between the 7th Wing of Bancroft Hall and Santee Basin. The facility houses physical education, varsity sports, club sports, and personal-fitness programs and equipment...

      houses physical education, varsity sports, intramural athletics, club sports, and personal-fitness programs and equipment. The cross country and track and field teams, the sprint football team, the women’s lacrosse team, and sixteen club sports all use this building. It has a full-length, retractable football field. When the field is retracted, you can then use the 200-meter track (with hydraulically-controlled banked curves) and three permanent basketball courts. It also has eight locker rooms and a medical facility. It was named for Wesley A. Brown
    Wesley A. Brown
    Wesley Anthony Brown was the first African American graduate of the U.S Naval Academy , in Annapolis, Maryland. He served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War and served in the U.S Navy from May 2, 1944–June 30, 1969.-Early life:He graduated from Dunbar High School, where he was Cadet Corps...

    , Class of 1949, who was the Academy's first African American graduate.

Monuments and memorials

  • Japanese Bell. A copy of the original bell which was brought back to the United States by Commodore Matthew Perry
    Matthew Perry (naval officer)
    Matthew Calbraith Perry was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy and served commanding a number of US naval ships. He served several wars, most notably in the Mexican-American War and the War of 1812. He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854...

     following his mission to Japan in 1855. The bell is placed in front of Bancroft Hall
    Bancroft Hall
    Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, is the largest single dormitory in the world. Bancroft Hall, named after former Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, is home for the entire brigade of 4,000 midshipmen, and contains some 1,700 rooms, of corridors, and of...

     and rung in a semi-annual ceremony for each victory that Navy has registered over Army, to include one of the nation's oldest football rivalries, the Army–Navy Game. The current bell is an exact replica of the original, which the United States Navy returned to the Japanese people in the 1980s.
  • Tecumseh Statue. This statue is a bronze replica of the figurehead of ship-of-the-line USS Delaware
    USS Delaware (1820)
    The third USS Delaware of the United States Navy was a 74-gun ship of the line, named for the state of Delaware.She was laid down at Norfolk Navy Yard in August 1817 and launched on 21 October 1820...

    . It was presented to the Academy by the Class of 1891. This bust, one of the most famous relics on the campus, is commonly known as Tecumseh
    Tecumseh
    Tecumseh was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812...

    . However, when it adorned the American man-of-war, it commemorated not Tecumseh but Tamanend
    Tamanend
    Tamanend or Tammany or Tammamend, the "affable", was a chief of one of the clans that made up the Lenni-Lenape nation in the Delaware Valley at the time Philadelphia was established...

    , the revered Delaware chief who welcomed William Penn to America. The original wooden figurehead is in the Naval Academy fieldhouse. In times past, the bronze replica was considered a good-luck "mascot" for the midshipmen, who threw pennies at it and offered left-handed salutes whenever they wanted a 'favor', such as a sports win over West Point, or spiritual help for examinations. Today it is used as a morale booster during football weeks and on special occasions when Tecumseh is painted in themes to include super heroes, action heroes, humorous figures, a leprechaun (before Saint Patrick's Day) and a naval officer (during Commissioning Week).
  • Battle ensign
    Battle ensign
    A battle ensign is the name given to a large war flag which is flown on a warship's mast just before going into battle.The flag identified the allegiance of the ship in what could be a very confusing situation, with thick clouds of gunsmoke obscuring the ships in action, hence the large size of...

    s. Famous flags of the U.S. Navy and captured flags from enemy ships are displayed throughout the academy. The most famous, perhaps, is the "Don't Give Up the Ship" flag flown by Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry
    Oliver Hazard Perry
    United States Navy Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry was born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island , the son of USN Captain Christopher Raymond Perry and Sarah Wallace Alexander, a direct descendant of William Wallace...

     at the Battle of Lake Erie
    Battle of Lake Erie
    The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, in Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812. Nine vessels of the United States Navy defeated and captured six vessels of Great Britain's Royal Navy...

     on 10 September 1813; it bears the dying words of Captain James Lawrence
    James Lawrence
    James Lawrence was an American naval officer. During the War of 1812, he commanded the USS Chesapeake in a single-ship action against HMS Shannon...

    , captain of the USS Chesapeake
    USS Chesapeake (1799)
    USS Chesapeake was a 38-gun wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. She was one of the original six frigates whose construction was authorized by the Naval Act of 1794. Joshua Humphreys designed these frigates to be the young navy's capital ships...

    . It was displayed in Memorial Hall, which is in the portion of Bancroft Hall
    Bancroft Hall
    Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, is the largest single dormitory in the world. Bancroft Hall, named after former Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, is home for the entire brigade of 4,000 midshipmen, and contains some 1,700 rooms, of corridors, and of...

     open to the general public (It is currently undergoing restoration and a replica is in its place). The only British royal standard taken by capture was displayed in Mahan Hall. It was taken at Toronto (then York) in the war of 1812.


  • Herndon Monument
    Herndon Monument
    The Herndon Monument on the grounds of the U.S. Naval Academy is a tall grey obelisk. It was erected in memory of Captain William Lewis Herndon who courageously decided to go down with his ship, SS Central America, and the men left aboard rather than save himself on September 12, 1857...

    . Every year as part of the year end festivities, this monument is covered with lard and "Plebes" (freshmen or Fourth Class Midshipmen
    Midshipman
    A midshipman is an officer cadet, or a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Kenya...

    ) attempt to climb the monument, remove a "dixie cup" (the headwear of a plebe) and put a hat ("cover") on top. This symbolizes the successful completion of their first year. Legend also has it that the midshipman who places the sailors cap upon the monument will be the first member of the class to reach the rank of Admiral. The Monument was commissioned by the Officers of the U.S. Navy as a tribute to Commander William Lewis Herndon
    William Lewis Herndon
    Commander William Lewis Herndon was one of the United States Navy's outstanding explorers and seamen. He chose to go down with his ship while other lives were still aboard and while in command of the steamer Central Americas 44th trip, which sank in a three day and night hurricane off Cape...

     (1813–1857) after his loss in the Pacific Mail Steamer Central America
    SS Central America
    SS Central America, sometimes called the Ship of Gold, was a 280-foot sidewheel steamer that operated between Central America and the eastern coast of the United States during the 1850s. She was originally named the SS George Law, after Mr. George Law of New York...

     during a hurricane off the North Carolina coast on 12 September 1857. Herndon had followed a longtime custom of the sea that a ship's captain is the last person to depart his ship in peril. It was erected in its current location on 16 June 1860 and has never been moved even though the Academy was completely rebuilt between 1899 and 1908. In 2008, both the dixie cup removed and the cover placed on Herndon to end the climb belonged to Midshipman Kristen Dickmann, Class of 2011, who died a few days before the Herndon Climb. Midshipman Dickmann's dixie cup and cover were the first women's caps used for the Herndon Climb.

  • Memorial Hall – in Bancroft Hall – is a midshipmen-kept memorial to graduates who died during military operations. It includes an honor roll, scrolls, and plaques.
  • Pearl Harbor memorial. At Alumni Hall, a wall is reserved by the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association
    Pearl Harbor Survivors Association
    The Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, founded in 1958 and recognized by the United States Congress in 1985, is an organization whose members were at or in the vicinity of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii during the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941....

     to commemorate those who were killed during the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Tripoli Monument – the oldest military monument in the U.S., honors the heroes of the First Barbary War
    First Barbary War
    The First Barbary War , also known as the Barbary Coast War or the Tripolitan War, was the first of two wars fought between the United States and the North African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States...

    : Master Commandant Richard Somers
    Richard Somers
    Richard Somers was an officer of the United States Navy, killed during a daring assault on Tripoli.-Life:...

    , Lieutenant James Caldwell, James Decatur (brother of Stephen Decatur
    Stephen Decatur
    Stephen Decatur, Jr. , was an American naval officer notable for his many naval victories in the early 19th century. He was born on the eastern shore of Maryland, Worcester county, the son of a U.S. Naval Officer who served during the American Revolution. Shortly after attending college Decatur...

    ), John Dorsey, Joseph Israel
    Joseph Israel
    Joseph Israel was an officer in the United States Navy during the Quasi-War with France and the First Barbary War....

    , and Henry Wadsworth. Originally known as the Naval Monument, it was carved of Carrara marble in Italy in 1806 and brought to the U.S. as ballast
    Sailing ballast
    Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail. Insufficiently ballasted boats will tend to tip, or heel, excessively in high winds. Too much heel may result in the boat capsizing. If a sailing vessel should need to voyage without cargo then ballast of...

     on board the ("Old Ironsides"). From its original location in the Washington Navy Yard
    Washington Navy Yard
    The Washington Navy Yard is the former shipyard and ordnance plant of the United States Navy in Southeast Washington, D.C. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.S. Navy...

    , it was moved to the west terrace of the national Capitol and finally, in 1860, to the Naval Academy.
  • USS Samuel B. Roberts memorial. In Alumni Hall, a concourse is dedicated to Lieutenant Lloyd Garnett and his shipmates aboard USS Samuel B. Roberts
    USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413)
    USS Samuel B. Roberts was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy.Samuel B. Roberts was part of the Battle off Samar, an unlikely victory in which relatively light U.S. warships prevented a superior Japanese force from attacking the amphibious invasion fleet off the large...

    , who earned their ship the reputation as the "destroyer escort that fought like a battleship" in the Battle of Leyte Gulf
    Battle of Leyte Gulf
    The Battle of Leyte Gulf, also called the "Battles for Leyte Gulf", and formerly known as the "Second Battle of the Philippine Sea", is generally considered to be the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.It was fought in waters...

     during World War II.

Brigade sports complex

The complex includes McMullen Hockey Arena
McMullen Hockey Arena
The McMullen Hockey Arena is a 1,000-seat ice hockey rink, located on the campus of the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland...

 where the men's ice-hockey team is located; rugby venues, an indoor hitting, chipping and putting facility for the golf team, and the Tose Family Tennis Center – including the Fluegel-Moore Tennis Stadium.

Terwilliger Brothers Field

The Academy baseball team plays at the Terwilliger Brothers Field at Max Bishop Stadium.

Supervision of the Academy

In 1850 the academy was placed under the jurisdiction of the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography
Bureau of Ordnance
The Bureau of Ordnance was the U.S. Navy's organization responsible for the procurement, storage, and deployment of all naval ordnance, between the years 1862 and 1959.-History:...

 but was transferred to the Bureau of Navigation when that organization was established in 1862. The academy was placed under the direct care of the Navy Department
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

 in 1867, but for many years the Bureau of Navigation provided administrative routine and financial management.

As of 2004, the Superintendent of the Naval Academy reports directly to the Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Naval Operations
The Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy. The office is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy...

. The current Superintendent is Vice Admiral Michael H. Miller
Michael H. Miller
Michael Harold "Mike" Miller is a vice admiral in the United States Navy, and was the first active-duty officer to direct the White House Military Office...

.

The current Commandant of Midshipmen
Commandant of Midshipmen
The Commandant of Midshipmen is the second-in-command at the United States Naval Academy. According to the Naval Academy, the Commandant of Midshipmen is "responsible for the professional development and day-to-day activities of all 4,000 Midshipmen in the Brigade" and equates to a dean of students...

 is Captain Robert E. Clark II (USNA Class of 1984), a career submariner and the Academy’s 84th commandant.

Faculty

Roughly 500 faculty members are evenly divided between civilian professors and military instructors. The civilian professors nearly all have a PhD and can be awarded tenure
Tenure
Tenure commonly refers to life tenure in a job and specifically to a senior academic's contractual right not to have his or her position terminated without just cause.-19th century:...

, usually upon promotion from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor. Fewer of the military instructors have a PhD but nearly all have a Master's degree. Most of them are assigned to the Academy for only two or three years. Additionally, there are Adjunct Professors, hired to fill temporary shortages in various disciplines. The Adjunct Professors are not eligible for tenure.

Permanent Military Professors (PMP)
A small number of officers at the Academy are designated as Permanent Military Professors (PMP), initially at the academic rank of Assistant Professor. All PMPs have PhDs, and remain at the Academy until statutory retirement. Most are commanders in the Navy; a few are captains. Like civilian professors, they seek academic promotion to the rank of Associate Professor and Professor. However, they are not eligible for tenure.

Appointment process

By an Act of Congress passed in 1903, two appointments as Midshipmen were allowed for each senator
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

, representative, and delegate
Delegate
A delegate is a person who speaks or acts on behalf of an organization at a meeting or conference between organizations of the same level A delegate is a person who speaks or acts on behalf of an organization (e.g., a government, a charity, an NGO, or a trade union) at a meeting or conference...

 in Congress, two for the District of Columbia, and five each year at large. Currently each member of Congress and the Vice President can have five appointees attending the Naval Academy at any time. When any appointee graduates or otherwise leaves the academy, a vacancy is created. Candidates are nominated by their senator, representative, or delegate in Congress, and those appointed at large are nominated by the Vice President. The process is not political and applicants do not have to know their Congressman to be nominated. Congressmen generally nominate ten people per vacancy. They can nominate people in a competitive manner, or they can have a principal nomination. In a competitive nomination, all ten applicants are reviewed by the academy, to see who is the most qualified. If the congressman appoints a principal nominee, then as long as that candidate is physically, medically, and academically found qualified by the academy, he or she will be admitted, even if there are more qualified applicants. The degree of difficulty in obtaining a nomination varies greatly according to the number of applicants in a particular state. The process of obtaining a nomination typically consists of completing an application, completing one or more essays, and obtaining one or more letters of recommendation and often requires an interview either in person or over the phone. These requirements are set by the respective senator or congressman and are in addition to the USNA application.

The Secretary of the Navy may appoint 170 enlisted members of the Regular and Reserve Navy and Marine Corps to the Naval Academy each year. Additional sources of appointment are open to children of career military personnel (100 per year); and 65 appointments are available to children of military members who were killed in action, or were rendered 100% disabled due to injuries received in action, or are currently prisoners of war or missing in action. Typically five to ten candidates are nominated for each appointment, which are normally awarded competitively; candidates who do not receive the appointment they are competing for may still be admitted to the Academy as a qualified alternate. If a candidate is considered qualified but not picked up, they may receive an indirect admission to either a Naval Academy Foundation prep school or the Naval Academy Preparatory School
Naval Academy Preparatory School
The Naval Academy Preparatory School, or NAPS is the preparatory school for the United States Naval Academy. NAPS is located on a hill at Naval Station Newport, RI. The mission of the school is "To enhance Midshipman Candidates' moral, mental, and physical foundations to prepare them for success...

 in Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

; the following year, these candidates enlist in the Navy Reserve
United States Navy Reserve
The United States Navy Reserve, until 2005 known as the United States Naval Reserve, is the Reserve Component of the United States Navy...

 (or, in the case of prior enlisted members, remain in the Navy) and are eligible for Secretary of the Navy
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy of the United States of America is the head of the Department of the Navy, a component organization of the Department of Defense...

 nominations, which are granted as a matter of course. To receive an appointment to the Naval Academy, students at the Naval Academy Preparatory School must first pass with a 2.0 QPA (A mix of GPA and Fitness Assessments), although this is waiverable. A candidate must receive a recommendation for appointment from the Commanding Officer. The appointment process has been criticized as giving preferential treatment towards athletes.

However, children of Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

 recipients are automatically appointed to the Naval Academy; they only need to meet admission requirements.

Admissions requirements

To be admitted, candidates must be between seventeen and twenty-three years of age upon entrance, unmarried with no children, and of good moral character. The current process includes a college application, personality testing, standardized testing, and personal references. Candidates for admission must also undergo a physical aptitude test (the CFA or Candidate Fitness Assessment [formerly the Physical Readiness Examination]) as well as a complete physical exam including a separate visual acuity test to be eligible for appointment. A medical waiver will automatically be sought on behalf of candidates with less than 20/20 vision, as well as a range of other injuries or illnesses. The physical aptitude test is most often administered by a high school physical education teacher or sports team coach.

A small number of international students, usually from smaller allied or friendly countries, are admitted into each class. (International students from larger allies, such as France and the United Kingdom, typically come as shorter-term exchange students from their national naval colleges or academies.) For the class of 2009, 11 international students were admitted from 10 different countries—two from Guyana
Guyana
Guyana , officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, previously the colony of British Guiana, is a sovereign state on the northern coast of South America that is culturally part of the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana was a former colony of the Dutch and of the British...

 and one each from Honduras
Honduras
Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was previously known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize...

, Ireland, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius
Mauritius
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

, and Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

.

Curricula

The Naval Academy received accreditation as an approved "technological institution" in 1930. In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress providing for the Bachelor of Science Degree for the Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. The Class of 1933 was the first to receive this degree and have it written in the diploma. In 1937, an act of Congress extended to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy the authority to award the Bachelor of Science degree to all living graduates. The Academy later replaced a fixed curriculum taken by all midshipmen with the present core curriculum plus 22 major fields of studies.

Moral education

Moral and ethical development is fundamental to all aspects of the Naval Academy. From Plebe Summer through graduation, the Officer Development Program, a four-year integrated program, focuses on integrity, honor, and mutual respect based on the moral values of respect for human dignity, respect for honesty and respect for the property of others.

One of the goals of the program is to develop midshipmen to possess a sense of their own moral beliefs and the ability to express them. Honor is emphasized through the Honor Concept
Honor Concept
The Honor Concept and Honor Treatise are parts of the United States Naval Academy's Honor Program. Similar to the Cadet Honor Codes of the United States Military Academy and United States Air Force Academy, the Concept formalizes the requirement for midshipmen to demonstrate integrity while...

 of the Brigade of Midshipmen, which states:

Midshipmen are persons of integrity: They stand for that which is right.

They tell the truth and ensure that the full truth is known. They do not lie.

They embrace fairness in all actions. They ensure that work submitted as their own is their own, and that assistance received from any source is authorized and properly documented. They do not cheat.

They respect the property of others and ensure that others are able to benefit from the use of their own property. They do not steal.


Similar ideals are expressed in the honor codes
Cadet Honor Code
Both the United States Military Academy and the United States Air Force Academy have adopted a Cadet Honor Code as a formalized statement of the minimum standard of ethics expected of cadets. Other military schools have similar codes with their own methods of administration...

 of the other service academies. However, midshipmen are allowed to confront someone they see violating the code without formally reporting it. It is believed that this method is a better way of developing the honor of midshipmen as opposed to the non-toleration clauses of the other service academies and is a better way of building honor and trust.

Brigade Honor Committees composed of upper-class midshipmen are responsible for the education and training of the Honor Concept. Depending on the severity of the offense, midshipmen found in violation of the Honor Concept by their peers can be separated from the Naval Academy.

Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference (NAFAC)

Since 1961, the Academy has hosted the annual Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference (NAFAC), the country's largest undergraduate, foreign-affairs conference. NAFAC provides a forum for addressing pressing international concerns and seeks to explore current issues from both a civilian and military perspective.

Each year a unique theme is chosen for NAFAC. Noteworthy individuals with expertise in relevant fields are then invited to address the conference delegates, who represent civilian and military colleges from across the United States and around the globe.

The entire conference is organized and run by Midshipmen, who also serve as moderators, presenters, and delegates. The Midshipman Director is responsible for every aspect of the conference, including the conference theme, and is generally charged with leading a staff of over 250 midshipmen.

Small Satellite Program

The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Small Satellite Program (SSP) was founded in 1999 to actively pursue flight opportunities for miniature satellites designed, constructed, tested, and commanded or controlled by Midshipmen.

The USNA MidSTAR Program
USNA MidSTAR Program
-MidSTAR program mission:MidSTAR is a general-purpose satellite bus capable of supporting a variety of space missions by easily accommodating a wide range of space experiments and instruments....

's first satellite, MidSTAR I
MidSTAR I (USNA)
MidSTAR-1 is an artificial satellite produced by the United States Naval Academy . It was sponsored by the United States Department of Defense Space Test Program , and was launched on March 8, 2007 at 11:32 Eastern Standard Time, aboard an Atlas V expendable launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral...

 was launched 8 March 2007. The planned MidSTAR II was canceled.

Postgraduate Studies

Because the majority of graduates commence directly into their military commissions, the Naval Academy offers no graduate degree programs. However, a number of programs allow Midshipmen to obtain graduate degrees before fulfilling their service obligation. The Immediate Graduate Education Program (IGEP) allows newly commissioned Ensigns or Second Lieutenants to proceed directly to graduate school and complete a Masters Degree. The Voluntary Graduate Education Program (VGEP) allows the midshipman to begin his studies the second semester of his senior year at a local university, usually University of Maryland
University of Maryland
When the term "University of Maryland" is used without any qualification, it generally refers to the University of Maryland, College Park.University of Maryland may refer to the following:...

, Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
The Johns Hopkins University, commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins, is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

, or George Washington University
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private, coeducational comprehensive university located in Washington, D.C. in the United States...

, and complete the degree by the following semester. Midshipmen accepted into prestigious scholarships, such as the Rhodes Scholarship
Rhodes Scholarship
The Rhodes Scholarship, named after Cecil Rhodes, is an international postgraduate award for study at the University of Oxford. It was the first large-scale programme of international scholarships, and is widely considered the "world's most prestigious scholarship" by many public sources such as...

 are permitted to complete their studies before fulfilling their service obligation. Finally, the Bowman Scholarship allows Navy Nuclear Power candidates to complete Masters Degrees at the Naval Postgraduate School
Naval Postgraduate School
The Naval Postgraduate School is an accredited research university operated by the United States Navy. Located in Monterey, California, it grants master's degrees, Engineer's degrees and doctoral degrees...

 before continuing into the Navy.

Athletics

Participation in athletics is, in general, mandatory at the Naval Academy and most Midshipmen not on an intercollegiate
College athletics
College athletics refers primarily to sports and athletic competition organized and funded by institutions of tertiary education . In the United States, college athletics is a two-tiered system. The first tier includes the sports that are sanctioned by one of the collegiate sport governing bodies...

 team must participate actively in intramural
Intramural sports
Intramural sports or intramurals are recreational sports organized within a set geographic area. The term derives from the Latin words intra muros meaning "within walls", and was used to indicate sports matches and contests that took place among teams from "within the walls" of an ancient city...

 or club sports. There are exceptions for non-athletic Brigade Support Activities such as YP Squadron (a professional surface warfare training activity providing midshipmen the opportunity to earn the Craftmaster Badge
Craftmaster Badge
The Craftmaster insignia is a decoration of the United States Navy which is awarded to those personnel who have qualified as underway boat captains of U.S. Navy small vessels and support craft...

) or the Drum and Bugle Corps.

Varsity-letter
Varsity letter
A varsity letter is an award earned in the United States for excellence in school activities. A varsity letter signifies that its winner was a qualified varsity team member, awarded after a certain standard was met.- Description :...

 winners wear a specially-issued blue cardigan
Cardigan (sweater)
A cardigan is a type of machine- or hand-knitted sweater that ties, buttons or zips down the front; by contrast, a pullover does not open in front but must be "pulled over" the head to be worn. The cardigan was named after James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, a British military commander,...

 with a large gold "N" patch affixed. Teams that beat Army
Army Black Knights
Army Black Knights is the name of the athletics teams of the United States Military Academy. They participate in NCAA Division I-A as a non-football member of the Patriot League, a Division I Football Bowl Subdivision independent school, and a member of Atlantic Hockey, the Collegiate Sprint...

 in a year are awarded a gold star to affix near the "N" for each such victory.

The U.S. Naval Academy's varsity sports teams have no official name but usually are referred to in media as "the Midshipmen" (since all athletes are, in fact, midshipmen), or more informally as "the Mids." The term "middies" is generally considered derogatory. The sports teams' mascot is a goat named "Bill."
Bill the Goat
Bill the Goat is the mascot of the United States Naval Academy. The mascot is a live goat and is also represented by a costumed midshipman. There is also a bronze statue of the goat just inside Gate 1, the main gate to the Academy grounds...



The Midshipmen participate in the NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

's Division I FBS as an independent (i.e., not a member of any conference) in football and in the NCAA Division I-level Patriot League
Patriot League
The Patriot League is a college athletic conference which operates in the northeastern United States. It participates in the NCAA's Division I) for a number of sports; in football, it participates in the Football Championship Subdivision...

 in many other sports. The academy fields 30 varsity sports teams and 13 club sports teams (along with 19 intramural sports teams).

The most important sporting event at the academy is the annual Army–Navy Game. The 2010 season marks Navy's ninth consecutive victory over Army. The three major service academies (Navy, Air Force, and Army) compete for the Commander-in-Chief's Trophy
Commander in Chief's Trophy
The Commander-in-Chief's Trophy is awarded to each season's winner of the triangular college football series among the United States Military Academy , the United States Naval Academy , and United States Air Force Academy...

, which is awarded to the academy that defeats the others in football that year (or retained by the previous winner in the event of a three-way tie).

Naval Academy sports teams have many accomplishments at the international and national levels. In 1926, Navy's football team won the U.S. national championship based on both the Boand
Boand System
The Boand System was a system for determining the college football national championship. It was also known as the Azzi Ratem system. The system was developed by developed by William Boand. The rankings were based on mathematical formula...

 and Houlgate mathematical poll systems. and the Navy men's lacrosse team won 21 USILL or USILA national championships and was the NCAA Division I runner-up in 1975 and 2004. The men's fencing team won NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 Division I championships in 1950, 1959, and 1962 and was runner-up in 1948, 1953, 1960, and 1963, and NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 Division I championships were also earned by the 1945 men's outdoor track and field team and the 1964 men's soccer team.

The Academy lightweight crew won the 2004 National Championship. The lightweights are acredited with two Jope Cup Championships as well, finishing the Eastern Sprints with the highest number of points in 2006 and 2007. The college's heavyweight crew won Olympic gold medals in men's eights in 1920 and 1952, and from 1907 to 1995 at Intercollegiate Rowing Association
Intercollegiate Rowing Association
The Intercollegiate Rowing Association runs the IRA Championship Regatta, which is considered to be the United States collegiate national championship of rowing. Since 1995, it has been held on the Cooper River in Pennsauken, New Jersey, and includes both men's and women's events for sweep boats...

 regatta the team earned 30 championships. In intercollegiate shooting, the Naval Academy has won nine National Rifle Association
National Rifle Association
The National Rifle Association of America is an American non-profit 501 civil rights organization which advocates for the protection of the Second Amendment of the United States Bill of Rights and the promotion of firearm ownership rights as well as marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection...

 rifle team trophies, seven air pistol team championships, and five standard pistol team titles. Navy's squash team was the national nine-man team champion in 1957, 1959, and 1967, and the boxing team was National Collegiate Boxing Association champion in 1987, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 2005.

There is an unofficial (but previous National Champion) croquet team. Legend has it that in the early 1980s, a Mid and a Johnnie (slang for a student enrolled at St. John's College, Annapolis), were in a bar and the Mid challenged the Johnnie by stating that Midshipmen could beat St. John's at any sport. The St. John's student selected croquet. Since then, thousands attend the annual croquet match between St. John's and the 28th Company of the Brigade of Midshipmen (originally the 34th Company before the Brigade was reduced to 30 companies). As of 2006, the Midshipmen had a record of 5 wins and 19 losses to the St John's team.

Song

See also: #Naval Academy traditions (below)

Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement
Graduation
Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the ceremony that is sometimes associated, where students become Graduates. Before the graduation, candidates are referred to as Graduands. The date of graduation is often called degree day. The graduation itself is also...

 and convocation
Convocation
A Convocation is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose.- University use :....

, and athletic games is: “Anchors Aweigh
Anchors Aweigh
"Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval Academy, and strongly associated with the United States Navy, composed in 1906 by Charles A. Zimmerman with lyrics by Alfred Hart Miles. Zimmerman was at the time a Lieutenant, and had been bandmaster of the United States Naval Academy...

”, the United States Naval Academy fight song
Fight song
A fight song is primarily an American and Canadian sports term, referring to a song associated with a team. In both professional and amateur sports, fight songs are a popular way for fans to cheer for their team...

. According to “College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology” published in 1998, “Anchors Aweigh" ranks as the fifth greatest fight song of all time.

Other extra-curricular activities

Midshipmen have the opportunity to participate in a broad range of other extracurricular activities including musical performance groups
Musical ensemble
A musical ensemble is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles...

 (Drum & Bugle Corps
Drum and bugle corps (modern)
A drum and bugle corps, also known as a drum corps, is a musical marching unit consisting of brass instruments, percussion instruments, and color guard. Typically operating as independent non-profit organizations, drum corps perform in competitions, parades, festivals, and other civic functions...

, Men's Glee Club
Glee club
A glee club is a musical group or choir group, historically of male voices but also of female or mixed voices, which traditionally specializes in the singing of short songs—glees—by trios or quartets. In the late 19th Century it was very popular in most schools and was made a tradition...

, Women's Glee Club, Gospel Choir, an annual musical, and a bagpipe
Bagpipes
Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones, using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe and Irish uilleann pipes have the greatest international visibility, bagpipes of many different types come from...

 band, the Pipes & Drums), religious organizations, academic honor societies such as Omicron Delta Epsilon
Omicron Delta Epsilon
Omicron Delta Epsilon is an international honor society in the field of economics. Resulting from the merger of Omicron Delta Gamma and Omicron Chi Epsilon, ODE was founded in 1963 . Its board of trustees includes well-known economists such as Robert Lucas, Kenneth Arrow, and Robert Solow...

 (an economics honor society), Campus Girl Scouts, the National Eagle Scout Association
National Eagle Scout Association
The National Eagle Scout Association is an organization of men who have earned the rank of Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America...

, a radio station (WRNV), and Navy and Marine Corps professional activities (diving, flying, seamanship, and the Semper Fidelis Society for future Marines).
The midshipmen theatrical company
Theatre
Theatre is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance...

,The Masqueraders, put on one production annually in Mahan Hall. There is an intercollegiate debate team. Colleges from along the East Coast attend the annual U.S. Naval Academy Debate Tournament. Midshipmen also participate in the Sandhurst Competition
Sandhurst Competition
The Sandhurst Military Skills Competition is a military skills competition at West Point that first began in 1967 with the presentation of a British officer's sword to the United States Corps of Cadets by the British Exchange Officer. Last year's event, dubbed SANCOM10 , was a two-day event...

, a military skills event.
The Brigade began publishing a humor magazine
Humor magazine
A humor magazine is a magazine specifically designed to deliver humorous content to its readership. These publications often offer satire, but some put an emphasis on cartoons, one-liners or humorous essays.-Out-of-print humor magazines:...

 called The Log
Logbook
A logbook was originally a book for recording readings from the chip log, and is used to determine the distance a ship traveled within a certain amount of time...

 in 1913. This magazine was discontinued in 2001 but returned to print in the fall of 2008. Among The Log's usual features were "Salty Sam," an anonymous member of the senior class who served as a gossip columnist, and the "Company Cuties," photos of male midshipmen's girlfriends. (This last was deemed offensive to women, and despite attempts to incorporate the boyfriends of female midshipmen in some issues, the "Company Cuties" were dropped from The Logs format by 1991.) The Log was once featured in Playboy Magazine for its parody of the famous periodical, called "Playmid." "Playmid" was an issue of The Log in 1989 and was ordered destroyed by Rear Admiral Virgil I. Hill, the Academy Superintendent at the time, but a handful of copies did survive, including the one which later showed. Earlier Log attempts to parody were much more successful, with the 18 April 1969, version as the most famous; some sections of this issue can be seen online at an alumni website.

Women at the Naval Academy

The Naval Academy first accepted women as Midshipmen in 1976, when Congress authorized the admission of women to all of the service academies. Women comprise about 22 percent of entering plebes. They pursue the same academic and professional training as do their male classmates, except that certain physical aptitude standards for women are lower than for men, mirroring the standards of the Navy itself. Women have most recently composed about 17 percent of each graduating class, however this number continues to rise. The first pregnant midshipman graduated in 2009. While regulations expressly forbade this, the woman was able to receive a waiver from the Department of the Navy.

In 2006, Michelle J. Howard
Michelle J. Howard
Michelle Janine Howard is an American Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. She currently serves as Chief of Staff to the Director for Strategic Plans and Policy, J-5, Joint Staff....

, class of 1982, became the first female graduate of the Naval Academy to be selected for admiral; she was also the first admiral from her class. Margaret D. Klein
Margaret D. Klein
Margaret DeLuca Klein is a United States Navy officer. She currently holds the rank of rear admiral is commander Expeditionary Strike Group Five....

, class of 1981, became the first female Commandant of Midshipmen in December 2006.

Following the 2003 U.S. Air Force Academy sexual assault scandal and due to concern with sexual assault in the U.S. military
Sexual assault in the U.S. military
There is an ongoing problem with sexual assault in the U.S. military which has resulted in a series of scandals that have received extensive media coverage. Incidents which were publicized include the Tailhook scandal in 1991, the Aberdeen scandal in 1996 and the 2003 US Air Force Academy sexual...

 the Department of Defense was required to establish a task force to investigate sexual harassment and assault at the United States military academies in the law funding the military for fiscal 2004. The report, issued 25 August 2005 showed that during 2004 50% of the women at Annapolis reported instances of sexual harassment
Sexual harassment
Sexual harassment, is intimidation, bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. In some contexts or circumstances, sexual harassment is illegal. It includes a range of behavior from seemingly mild transgressions and...

 while 99 incidents of sexual assault
Sexual assault
Sexual assault is an assault of a sexual nature on another person, or any sexual act committed without consent. Although sexual assaults most frequently are by a man on a woman, it may involve any combination of two or more men, women and children....

 were reported. There had been an earlier incident in 1990 which involved male midshipmen chaining a female midshipman to a urinal after she threw a snowball
Snowball
A snowball is a spherical object made from snow, usually created by scooping snow with the hands, and compacting it into a roughly fist-sized ball. The snowball is often used to engage in games, such as snowball fights. Snowball fights are usually light-hearted and involve throwing snowballs at...

 at him and then taking pictures of her.

Academy Superintendent Vice Admiral Rodney Rempt issued a statement: "With the benefit of the Defense Task Force's assessment and recommendations, we will continue to strive to establish a climate which encourages reporting of these incidents, so we can support the victim and deal with allegations fairly and appropriately. The very idea that any member of the Naval Academy family could be part of an environment that fosters sexual harassment, misconduct, or even assault is of great concern to me, and it is contrary to all we are trying to do and achieve. Preventing and deterring this unacceptable behavior is a leadership issue that I and all the Academy leaders take to heart. The public trusts that the Service Academies will adhere to the highest standards and that we will serve as beacons that exemplify character, dignity and respect. We will increase our efforts to meet that trust." Superintendent Rempt has recently been criticized for not allowing former Navy quarterback Lamar Owens to graduate, despite his acquittal on a rape charge. Some alumni have attributed this to an overeagerness on Rempt's part to placate critics urging a crackdown on sexual assault and harassment.

In 1979, James H. Webb published a provocative essay opposing the integration of women at the Naval Academy titled "Women Can't Fight." Webb was an instructor at the Naval Academy in 1979 when he wrote the article for Washingtonian magazine
Washingtonian (magazine)
Washingtonian is a monthly magazine distributed in the Washington, DC area since 1965. The magazine describes itself as "the magazine Washington lives by." The magazine's core focuses are local feature journalism, guide book-style articles, and real estate advice.-Editorial Content:Washingtonian...

 that was critical of women in combat and of them attending the service academies. The article, in which he referred to the dorm at the Naval Academy that housed 4,000 men and 300 women as "a horny woman's dream," was written three years after the Academy admitted women. Webb said he did not write the headline.

On 7 November 2006, Webb was elected to the U.S. Senate from Virginia. His election opponent, then senator George Allen
George Allen (U.S. politician)
George Felix Allen is a former United States Senator from the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the son of former NFL head coach George Allen. Allen served Virginia in the state legislature, as the 67th Governor, and in both bodies of the U.S. Congress, winning election to the Senate in 2000...

, raised the 1979 article as a campaign issue, depicting Webb as being opposed to women in military service. Webb's response read in part, "I am completely comfortable with the roles of women in today's military.... To the extent that my writings subjected women at the Academy or the active armed forces to undue hardship, I remain profoundly sorry." In a political advertisement for Allen five female graduates of the United States Naval Academy said the article helped foster an air of hostility and harassment towards females within the academy.

Naval Academy traditions

Some traditions have been around for a century or more. Some traditions of the Naval Academy are handed down from class to class. Some have been recorded over the years in academy publications.
  • Anchors Aweigh
    Anchors Aweigh
    "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval Academy, and strongly associated with the United States Navy, composed in 1906 by Charles A. Zimmerman with lyrics by Alfred Hart Miles. Zimmerman was at the time a Lieutenant, and had been bandmaster of the United States Naval Academy...

     – written by 2nd Lieutenant Zimmerman, USMC, bandmaster of the Naval Academy Band starting in 1887, wrote the song "Anchors Aweigh" and dedicated it to the Naval Academy Class of 1907. The song is sung during sporting events, pep rallies, and played by the Drum and Bugle Corps during noon meal formations. Members of the Navy and Marine Corps, unless marching, are supposed to come to attention while it is playing. The first verse (quoted below) is most commonly sung on campus. The second verse is most commonly sung in the fleet:

  • "Beat Army" is a common phrase, most often said after the singing of the Academy's Alma Mater, "Blue and Gold." The phrase is commonly said by plebes while squaring corners. Furthermore, if one is said to have a Beat Army, it means the person drank a stomach-turning concoction of any number of condiments and food at that particular meal. Most often done by plebes to impress upperclass, they scream "BEAT ARMY!" when they are done drinking the beverage, usually to applause.

  • "Blue and Gold" is the name of Naval Academy's Alma Mater. The song is sung at the conclusion of every sporting event, at the end of pep rallies and at alumni gatherings. It is also sung in most companies by the plebes at the conclusion of the day; this event is also referred to as "Blue and Gold," which is a short gathering to review the day for better or worse with the upperclass Midshipmen. The original lyrics are:

The second verse is sung at each graduation and commissioning ceremony and is often performed by the Glee Clubs.

The lyrics were changed in 2004 to make them gender neutral. The current lyrics sung today are:

  • Cover Toss – Midshipmen who graduate to become Ensigns in the Navy or Second Lieutenants in the Marine Corps toss their Midshipmen covers (hats) at graduation in a farewell bid to the three classes below them. Various traditions have been used regarding something to put into the cover, such as putting a small sum of money inside the cover so children attending can collect the covers and money, or putting your name and address inside to receive a letter and cake. Today, the most common tradition is simply leaving a small sum of money for the recipient of the cover. The Cover Toss tradition started in 1912.

  • Goat Court refers to two completely enclosed square sections inside the third and fourth wings of Bancroft, composed of five stories of room windows. The bottom of the courts are composed of the roof of the basement level. The rooms are commonly assigned to Plebes or short-straw drawing Youngsters, since they lack the otherwise lovely view that many other rooms have. The bottom of the courts are composed of the roof of the basement level. The air is stagnant, and the large HVAC units on the basement roof enhance the ambiance. The function of goat court is to hold routine goat court sessions on the Second classmen.

  • Herndon Monument Climb (see above, under "Monuments and Memorials") – the official end of plebe year at the Naval Academy when the plebes raise a classmate to replace a dixie cup sailor cover with the combination cover traditional to Midshipmen.

  • The Jimmy Legs were the civilian patrolmen or masters-at-arms who provided security for the Naval Academy grounds, and were referred to by that name as far back as an entry in the 1923 Lucky Bag. The name stems from old 19th century Navy use of calling the shipboard master-at-arms by that name, since they often yelled out "shake a leg" or "clear the deck" to maintain discipline and prevent unwanted gatherings on board the ship. Not to be confused with the Jimmy Legs, the U.S. Marines have had brief periods of duty guarding the Yard.

  • The Laws of the Navy – a poem of wise advice in the form of twenty-seven laws, often memorized and less often applied, composed by Rear Admiral Ronald Hopwood, Royal Navy, and originally appearing in the Army and Navy Gazette, 23 July 1896. By the mid-1920s the poem began appearing in the USNA's Reef Points.

  • Red Beach – the red tiled plaza behind Memorial Hall on top of the wardroom in between 5th and 6th wings of Bancroft Hall, used as a place of formation for part of the Brigade. It also serves as a place for restrictees to march tours.

  • Ring Dance – held in May, this event is when the Second Class Midshipmen receive their class rings at a formal dance complete with fireworks. The event is held in Dahlgren Hall. Traditionally, the Midshipman's date wears the ring around her/his neck, and the couple dips the ring in water from all seven seas.

  • Salty Sam – is the personification of the reformation movement in the United States Navy through her Naval Academy graduates. Spiritually the first Salty Sam was perhaps the "natural leader of the navy's Young Turks" William Sims
    William Sims
    William Sowden Sims was an admiral in the United States Navy who sought during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to modernize the Navy. During World War I he commanded all United States naval forces operating in Europe...

     (Class of 1880), who became the leading reformer of the Navy, retiring as a full admiral.

In later years Salty Sam led the enlightenment of Sims through The Log at USNA. Salty Sam reflects the spirit of Sims by questioning today's paradigms to ready the Navy for the future. The secret and anonymous tradition of Salty Sam is to teach Midshipman to bridle criticism in the ways of Sims humor, but to seek to inspire change and reform through the argument of the obvious.

  • The Steam Tunnels, also later known as the Ho Chi Minh trail are a network of underground brick-encased tunnels carrying steam pipes from the old Isherwood Hall, named after Benjamin F. Isherwood
    Benjamin F. Isherwood
    Benjamin Franklin Isherwood was an engineering officer in the United States Navy during the early days of steam-powered warships. He served as a ship's engineer during the Mexican–American War, and after the war did experimental work with steam propulsion...

     who served as the Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy during the American Civil War
    American Civil War
    The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

    . The pipes carried steam to Bancroft Hall and Mahan Hall, primarily for heating the buildings. Adjuncts to the tunnels lead underground to the basement levels of Michelson Hall, Chauvenet Hall, and Rickover Hall. The tunnels serve as a natural infiltration route for Midshipmen pranks, especially during the week leading up to the Army-Navy football game. The original Isherwood Hall was located partially under the current Alumni hall and behind Mahan Hall toward the Nimitz Library. The Steam Plant was located under the front left of Rickover Hall and plaza, in the middle of the current 300 feet (91.4 m) tow-tank. The Steam Tunnels were left in place after Isherwood Hall was demolished.

Controversy

In 2009 and 2010, a professor complained that less than qualified candidates were being admitted to the Academy. His complaint has been forwarded to the Chief of Naval Operations.

Alumni

The United States Naval Academy Alumni Association defines “alumni” as graduates of the United States Naval Academy and former midshipmen who did not graduate from the Academy, after the last Academy class of which they were a member has graduated. This policy to include non-graduates dates to 1931 – during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 – when many Midshipmen had to leave the Naval Academy to return home to work and support their families.

Over 50 U.S. astronauts (including six who flew to the Moon) have graduated from the Naval Academy, more than from any other undergraduate institution in the United States. Over 990 noted scholars in a variety of academic fields are Academy graduates, including 46 Rhodes Scholars and 24 Marshall Scholars. Additional notable graduates include 1 President
Jimmy Carter
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office...

 of the United States, 2 Nobel Prize recipients (including the first American scientist to win a Nobel Prize), and 73 Medal of Honor recipients.

The magazine "Shipmate" is the official magazine of the Naval Academy Alumni Association and is distributed worldwide to members of the Alumni Association and to midshipmen, parents, faculty, administrators, donors, legislators, and friends.

See also

  • Annapolis Conference
    Annapolis Conference
    -Attendees:U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice organized and hosted the conference. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, and U.S. President George W. Bush attended the meeting...

  • Hispanics in the United States Naval Academy
    Hispanics in the United States Naval Academy
    Hispanics in the United States Naval Academy account for the largest minority group in the institution. According to the Academy, the Class of 2009 includes 271 minority midshipmen. Out of these 271 midshipmen, 115 are of Hispanic heritage...

  • List of Superintendents of the United States Naval Academy
  • Naval Academy Bridge
    Naval Academy Bridge
    The U.S. Naval Academy Bridge is a bridge that crosses the Severn River in Annapolis, Maryland. It is located downriver from the Severn River Bridge and adjacent to the United States Naval Academy...

  • Philadelphia Naval Asylum
    Philadelphia Naval Asylum
    The Philadelphia Naval Asylum, later the Naval Home, was a hospital, the Philadelphia Naval School, and a home for retired sailors for the United States Navy from 1834 to 1976, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania....

    , precursor of the USNA
  • Punch Sport Drink
    Punch Sport Drink
    Punch Sport Drink is a beverage served to Midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. It is produced by the H.R. Nicholson Company exclusively for the USNA...

  • Naval Academy Band
    United States Naval Academy Band
    The United States Naval Academy Band was officially founded in November 1852. Previously, there had been a band since the founding of the Naval Academy in 1845, consisting of a fifer and a drummer. The band consists of US Navy career musicians...

  • USNA Out
    USNA Out
    USNA Out is an American non-profit organization of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Alumni of the U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland...



External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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