United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Overview
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

' official memorial to the Holocaust. Adjacent to the National Mall
National Mall
The National Mall is an open-area national park in downtown Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The National Mall is a unit of the National Park Service , and is administered by the National Mall and Memorial Parks unit...

 in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, the USHMM provides for the documentation, study, and interpretation of Holocaust history. It is dedicated to helping leaders and citizens the world confront hatred, prevent genocide
Genocide
Genocide is defined as "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group", though what constitutes enough of a "part" to qualify as genocide has been subject to much debate by legal scholars...

, promote human dignity, and strengthen democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

.

With an operating budget of just under $78.7 million ($47.3 million from Federal sources and $31.4 million from private donations) in 2008, the Museum has a staff of about 400 employees, 125 contractors, 650 volunteers, 91 Holocaust survivors, and 175,000 members.
Encyclopedia
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

' official memorial to the Holocaust. Adjacent to the National Mall
National Mall
The National Mall is an open-area national park in downtown Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The National Mall is a unit of the National Park Service , and is administered by the National Mall and Memorial Parks unit...

 in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, the USHMM provides for the documentation, study, and interpretation of Holocaust history. It is dedicated to helping leaders and citizens the world confront hatred, prevent genocide
Genocide
Genocide is defined as "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group", though what constitutes enough of a "part" to qualify as genocide has been subject to much debate by legal scholars...

, promote human dignity, and strengthen democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

.

With an operating budget of just under $78.7 million ($47.3 million from Federal sources and $31.4 million from private donations) in 2008, the Museum has a staff of about 400 employees, 125 contractors, 650 volunteers, 91 Holocaust survivors, and 175,000 members. It has local offices in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

, Boca Raton, Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, and Dallas.

Since its dedication on April 22, 1993, the Museum has welcomed nearly 30 million visitors, including more than 8 million school children. It has also welcomed 91 heads of state and more than 3,500 foreign officials from over 132 countries. The Museum's visitors come from all over the world, and more than 90 percent of the Museum's visitors are not Jewish. Its website had 25 million visits in 2008 from an average of 100 different countries daily. 35% of these visits were from outside the United States, including more than 238,000 visits from Muslim-majority countries.

The USHMM’s collections contain more than 12,750 artifacts, 49 million pages of archival documents, 80,000 historical photographs, 200,000 registered survivors, 1,000 hours of archival footage, 84,000 library items, and 9,000 oral history testimonies. It also has teacher fellows in every state in the United States and has welcomed almost 400 university fellows from 26 countries since 1994.

History

On November 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office...

 established the President’s Commission on the Holocaust, chaired by Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
Sir Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel KBE; born September 30, 1928) is a Hungarian-born Jewish-American writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor. He is the author of 57 books, including Night, a work based on his experiences as a prisoner in the Auschwitz, Buna, and...

. Its mandate was to investigate the creation and maintenance of a memorial to victims of the Holocaust and an appropriate annual commemoration to them. On September 27, 1979, the Commission presented its report to the President, recommending the establishment of a national Holocaust memorial museum in Washington, D.C. with three main components: a national museum/memorial, an educational foundation, and a Committee on Conscience.

After a unanimous vote by the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 in 1980 to establish the museum, the federal government made available 1.9 acre (0.7689034 ha) of land adjacent to the Washington Monument
Washington Monument
The Washington Monument is an obelisk near the west end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate the first U.S. president, General George Washington...

 for construction. Under Director Jeshajahu Weinberg and Chairman Miles Lerman
Miles Lerman
Miles Lerman was a Polish-born American who helped to plan and create the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.. Lerman, a Holocaust survivor himself, had fought as a Jewish resistance fighter during World War II in Nazi occupied Poland.-Early life:Lerman was born as Szmuel...

, nearly $190 million was raised from private sources for building design, artifact acquisition, and exhibition creation. In October 1988, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 helped lay the cornerstone of the building, designed by James Ingo Freed
James Ingo Freed
James Ingo Freed was an American architect born in Essen, Germany during the Weimar Republic.His Jewish family fled to the United States when he was 9 to escape the regime of Nazi Germany....

. Dedication ceremonies on April 22, 1993 included speeches by American President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

, Israeli President Chaim Herzog
Chaim Herzog
Chaim Herzog served as the sixth President of Israel , following a distinguished career in both the British Army and the Israel Defense Forces .-Early life:...

, Chairman Harvey Meyerhoff, and Elie Wiesel. On April 26, 1993, the Museum opened to the general public. Its first visitor was the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
The 14th Dalai Lama is the 14th and current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are the most influential figures in the Gelugpa lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, although the 14th has consolidated control over the other lineages in recent years...

 of Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

.

In 1999, the Museum’s governing body, the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, elected Sara J. Bloomfield to be the USHMM’s second director. Under Bloomfield’s leadership, the Museum has created various leadership programs, including the establishment of the National Institute for Holocaust Education, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, and Academy for Genocide Prevention. She has also played leading roles in opening the International Tracing Service
International Tracing Service
The International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen, Germany, is the internationally governed archive whose task it is to document the fate of millions of civilian victims of Nazi Germany. The documents in the ITS archives include original records from concentration camps, details of forced labour,...

 archive, negotiating the first-ever loan of Anne Frank
Anne Frank
Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank is one of the most renowned and most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Acknowledged for the quality of her writing, her diary has become one of the world's most widely read books, and has been the basis for several plays and films.Born in the city of Frankfurt...

’s original writings, professionally advising museums such as the Jewish Museum Berlin
Jewish Museum Berlin
The Jewish Museum Berlin , in Berlin, Germany, covers two millennia of German Jewish history. It consists of two buildings. One is the old Kollegienhaus, a former courthouse, built in the 18th century. The other, a new addition specifically built for the museum, designed by world-renowned architect...

, the Argentine government’s memorial to the Dirty War
Dirty War
The Dirty War was a period of state-sponsored violence in Argentina from 1976 until 1983. Victims of the violence included several thousand left-wing activists, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas and alleged sympathizers, either proved or suspected...

, the Holocaust museum in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, the memorial committee at Ground Zero
World Trade Center site
The World Trade Center site , also known as "Ground Zero" after the September 11 attacks, sits on in Lower Manhattan in New York City...

 in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, and the Iraq Memory Foundation.

Since its inception, the USHMM has been under constant threat of violence from extremist groups. In 2002, a federal jury convicted White supremacists Leo Felton and Erica Chase of planning to bomb a series of institutions associated with American black and Jewish communities, including the USHMM. On June 10, 2009, 88-year-old anti-Semite James von Brunn shot Museum security guard
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting was a shooting at that nation's memorial to The Holocaust in Washington, D.C. on June 10, 2009, at 12:50 p.m. Security guard Stephen Tyrone Johns, 39, was shot, and later died from his injuries. Suspect James Wenneker von Brunn, 88, was charged...

 Stephen Tyrone Johns. Johns and von Brunn were both seriously wounded and transported by ambulance to The George Washington University Hospital
George Washington University Hospital
The George Washington University Hospital is a hospital in Washington, D.C. in the United States. It opened on On August 23, 2002, with 371 beds in a 400,000 sq. ft. building, housing than $45 million of medical equipment and cost more than $96 million to construct...

. Johns later died of his injuries and is now permanently honored in an official memorial at the USHMM. Von Brunn, who had a previous criminal record, had been disowned by his family and was being tried in federal court when he died on January 6, 2010 in Butner federal prison in North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

.

Architecture

Designed by Holocaust survivor and architect James Ingo Freed
James Ingo Freed
James Ingo Freed was an American architect born in Essen, Germany during the Weimar Republic.His Jewish family fled to the United States when he was 9 to escape the regime of Nazi Germany....

 of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners is an architectural firm that was founded in 1955 by I. M. Pei as I. M. Pei & Associates, in 1966 called I. M. Pei & Partners, and received its current name and organization in 1989. The founders were I. M. Pei, Henry N. Cobb, and Eason H. Leonard. Pei and Leonard retired...

, in association with Finegold Alexander + Associates Inc
Finegold Alexander + Associates Inc
Finegold Alexander + Associates Inc is an architecture firm based in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. It was established in 1962. Previous firm names include J. Timothy Anderson and Associates, Anderson Notter Associates, Anderson Notter Finegold, Inc., and Notter Finegold + Alexander Inc.The firm is...

, the USHMM is designed to be a "resonator of memory". The outside of the building disappears into the neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

, Georgian
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United...

, and modern architecture of Washington, D.C. Upon entering, each architectural feature becomes a new element of architectural allusion to the Holocaust. In designing the building, Freed researched post World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 German architecture and visited Holocaust sites throughout Europe. The Museum building and the exhibitions within are intended to evoke deception, fear, solemnity, and a lack of the comfort and grandiosity usually associated with Washington, D.C.

Other partners in the construction of the USHMM included Weiskopf & Pickworth, Cosentini Associates LLP, Jules Fisher
Jules Fisher
Jules Fisher is a lighting designer and producer. He is credited with lighting designs for more than 200 productions over the course of his 45 year career in Broadway and off-Broadway shows, as well extensive work in film, ballet, opera, television, and rock and roll concert tours...

, and Paul Marantz, all from New York City. The Museum's Meyerhoff Theatre and Rubenstein Auditorium were constructed by Jules Fisher Associates of New York City. The Permanent Exhibition was designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates.

Exhibitions

The USHMM contains two exhibitions that have been open continuously since 1993 and numerous rotating exhibitions that deal with various topics related to the Holocaust and human rights.

Hall of Remembrance

The Hall of Remembrance is the USHMM's official memorial to the eleven million victims and survivors of the Holocaust. Visitors can memorialize the event by lighting candles, visiting an eternal flame, and reflecting in silence in the hexagonal hall.

Permanent Exhibition

Using more than 900 artifacts, 70 video monitors, and four theaters showing historic film footage and eyewitness testimonies, the USHMM’s Permanent Exhibition is the most visited exhibit at the Museum. Upon entering large industrial elevators on the first floor, visitors are given identification cards, each of which tells the story of a random victim or survivor of the Holocaust. Upon exiting these elevators on the fourth floor, visitors walk through a chronological history of the Holocaust, starting with the Nazi rise to power, 1933-1939. Topics dealt with include Aryan
Aryan
Aryan is an English language loanword derived from Sanskrit ārya and denoting variously*In scholarly usage:**Indo-Iranian languages *in dated usage:**the Indo-European languages more generally and their speakers...

 ideology, Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, and also Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom or series of attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria on 9–10 November 1938.Jewish homes were ransacked, as were shops, towns and...

, Antisemitism, and the American response to Nazi Germany. Visitors continue walking to the third floor, where they learn about ghettos and the Final Solution
Final Solution
The Final Solution was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of the systematic genocide of European Jews during World War II, resulting in the most deadly phase of the Holocaust...

. The PE ends on the second floor with the liberation of concentration camps by Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 forces and a continuously looped film of Holocaust survivor testimony. First-time visitors spend an average of two to three hours in this self-guided exhibition. Due to certain images and subject matter, it is recommended for visitors 11 years of age and older.

To enter the Permanent Exhibition between March and August, visitors must acquire free timed passes from the Museum on the day of the visit or online for a service fee.

Remember the Children: Daniel's Story

Remember the Children: Daniel's Story is an exhibition designed to explain the Holocaust to elementary and middle school children. Opened in 1993, and reviewed by psychiatrists, it tells the story of Daniel, a fictional child based on a collection of true stories about children during the Holocaust. Due to its popularity among families, it is still open to the public today.

Stephen Tyrone Johns Memorial

In October 2009, the USHMM unveiled a memorial plaque in honor of Special Officer Stephen Tyrone Johns. In response to the outpouring of grief and support after the shooting on June 10, 2009, it has also established the Stephen Tyrone Johns Summer Youth Leadership Program. Each year, 50 outstanding young people from the Washington, D.C. area will be invited to the USHMM to learn about the Holocaust in honor of Johns' memory.

Collections

The USHMM has one of the largest and most comprehensive collections of Holocaust-related materials in the world, separated into eight collection divisions: Archives, Arts and Artifacts, Film and Video, Music, Oral History, Photograph, Management, and Conservation. These collections cover a wide subject area including:
  • Jewish life in Europe before the Holocaust
  • The rise of power of the Nazi movement in Germany and Austria
  • The flight of European refugees from Nazi Germany and refugee communities around the world
  • Nazi racial science and the propaganda campaign against Jews
    Jews
    The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

    , Roma and Sinti
    Sinti
    Sinti or Sinta or Sinte is the name of a Romani or Gypsy population in Europe. Traditionally nomadic, today only a small percentage of the group remains unsettled...

    , and the mentally and physically handicapped
  • Nazi anti-Jewish policy in the 1930s, from the boycott through Kristallnacht
    Kristallnacht
    Kristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, and also Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom or series of attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria on 9–10 November 1938.Jewish homes were ransacked, as were shops, towns and...

  • Nazi persecution of Roma and Sinti
    Sinti
    Sinti or Sinta or Sinte is the name of a Romani or Gypsy population in Europe. Traditionally nomadic, today only a small percentage of the group remains unsettled...

    , homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, political dissidents, Poles
    Poles
    thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

     and Soviet prisoners of war
  • The invasion and occupation of eastern and western Europe
  • The roundup, deportation, and resettlement of European Jews
  • The mass shooting conducted by Einsatzgruppen
    Einsatzgruppen
    Einsatzgruppen were SS paramilitary death squads that were responsible for mass killings, typically by shooting, of Jews in particular, but also significant numbers of other population groups and political categories...

  • Ghettos, concentration camps, and killing centers
  • Nazi collaborators and satellite state
    Satellite state
    A satellite state is a political term that refers to a country that is formally independent, but under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country...

    s
  • Resistance
    Resistance during World War II
    Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns...

    , rescue, and life in hiding during the Holocaust
  • The liberation of Europe and the disclosure of Nazi concentration camps
  • The war crimes trials
  • The displaced persons camps
  • Legal and illegal immigration to Palestine
    Palestine
    Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

  • Postwar immigration to the Americas
    Americas
    The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

  • Holocaust assets and restitution
    Restitution
    The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery. It is to be contrasted with the law of compensation, which is the law of loss-based recovery. Obligations to make restitution and obligations to pay compensation are each a type of legal response to events in the real world. When a court...

  • Holocaust memorials and commemoration

The Museum’s holdings include art, books, pamphlets, advertisements, maps, film and video historical footage, audio and video oral testimonies, music and sound recordings, furnishings, architectural fragments, models, machinery, tools, microfilm and microfiche of government documents and other official records, personal effects, personal papers, photographs, photo albums, and textiles. This information can be accessed through online databases or by visiting the USHMM. Researchers from all over the world come to the USHMM Library and Archives and the Benjamin and Vladka Meed Registry of Holocaust Survivors.

Operations

In order to fulfill its Congressionally mandated mission, the USHMM conducts a variety of programs.

Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies

In 1998, the USHMM established the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies (CAHS). Working with the Academic Committee of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, the CAHS supports research projects and publications about the Holocaust (including a partnership with Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as...

 to publish the scholarly journal Holocaust and Genocide Studies
Holocaust and Genocide Studies
Holocaust and Genocide Studies is an international peer-reviewed academic journal addressing the issue of the Holocaust and other genocides. It has been published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum since 1987 with varying frequency . The journal's...

), helps make accessible collections of Holocaust-related archival material, supports fellowship opportunities for pre- and post- doctoral researchers, and hosts seminars, summer research workshops for academics, conferences, lectures, and symposia. The CAHS’s Visiting Scholars Program and other events have made the USHMM one of the world's principal venues for Holocaust scholarship.

Committee on Conscience

The Museum contains the offices of the Committee on Conscience (CoC), a joint United States government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 and privately funded think tank
Think tank
A think tank is an organization that conducts research and engages in advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, and technology issues. Most think tanks are non-profit organizations, which some countries such as the United States and Canada provide with tax...

, which by presidential mandate engages in global human rights research. Using the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951. It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of...

, approved by the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 in 1948 and ratified by the United States in 1988, the CoC has established itself as a leading non-partisan commenter on the Darfur Genocide, as well as on the war-torn region of Chechnya
Chechnya
The Chechen Republic , commonly referred to as Chechnya , also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria , is a federal subject of Russia . It is located in the southeastern part of Europe in the Northern Caucasus mountains. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny...

 in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, a zone that the CoC believes could produce genocidal atrocities. The CoC does not have policy-making powers and serves solely as an advisory institution to the American and other governments.

National Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (DRVH)

In addition to coordinating the National Civic Commemoration, ceremonies and educational programs during the week of the DRVH are regularly held throughout the country, sponsored by Governors, Mayors, veterans groups, religious groups, and military ships and stations throughout the world.

Each year, the USHMM designates a special theme for DRVH observances, and prepares
materials available at no charge to support observances and programs throughout the nation, and in the United States military. Days of Remembrance themes have included:
  • 2010 - Stories of Freedom: What You Do Matters
  • 2009 - Never Again: What You Do Matters
  • 2008 - Do Not Stand Alone: Remembering Kristallnacht
  • 2007 - Children in Crisis: Voices From the Holocaust
  • 2006 - Legacies of Justice
  • 2005 - From Liberation to the Pursuit of Justice
  • 2004 - For Justice and Humanity
  • 2003 - For Your Freedom and Ours
  • 2002 - Memories of Courage
  • 2001 - Remembering the Past for the Sake of the Future

National Institute for Holocaust Education

The USHMM conducts several programs devoted to improving Holocaust education. The Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Conference for Teachers, conducted in Washington, D.C., attracts around 200 middle school and secondary teachers from around the United States each year. The Education Division offers workshops around the United States for teachers to learn about the Holocaust, to participate in the Museum Teacher Fellowship Program (MTFP), and to join a national corps of educators who serve as leaders in Holocaust education in their schools, communities, and professional organizations. Some MTFP participants also participate in the Regional Education Corps, an initiative to implement Holocaust education on a national level.

Since 1999, the USHMM also provides public service professionals, including law enforcement officers, military personnel, civil servants and federal judges with ethics lessons based in Holocaust history. In partnership with the Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
The Anti-Defamation League is an international non-governmental organization based in the United States. Describing itself as "the nation's premier civil rights/human relations agency", the ADL states that it "fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, defends democratic ideals and protects...

, more than 21,000 law enforcement officers from worldwide and local law enforcement agencies such as the FBI and local police departments have been trained to act in a professional and democratic manner.

Outreach technology

A large component of the USHMM is directed towards its website and associated accounts. With a majority of interest coming from the virtual world, the USHMM provides a variety of research tools online.

On its website, online exhibitions, the Museum publishes the Holocaust Encyclopedia
Holocaust Encyclopedia
The Holocaust Encyclopedia is an online encyclopedia, published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, offering detailed information about The Holocaust and the events surrounding it.- External links :*...

—an online, multilingual encyclopedia detailing the events surrounding the Holocaust. It is published in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

, Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

, Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

, Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

, and Mandarin. It contains thousands of entries and includes copies of the identification card profiles that visitors receive at the Permanent Exhibition.

The USHMM has partnered with Apple Inc. to publish free podcasts on iTunes
ITunes
iTunes is a media player computer program, used for playing, downloading, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop computers. It can also manage contents on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad....

 about the Holocaust, anti-semitism, and genocide prevention. It also has its own channel on YouTube
YouTube
YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos....

, an official account on Facebook
Facebook
Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. , Facebook has more than 800 million active users. Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as...

, a Twitter
Twitter
Twitter is an online social networking and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read text-based posts of up to 140 characters, informally known as "tweets".Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched that July...

 page, and an e-mail newsletter service.

The Genocide Prevention Mapping Initiative is a collaboration between the USHMM and Google Earth
Google Earth
Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created by Keyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency funded company acquired by Google in 2004 . It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite...

. It seeks to collect, share and visually present to the world critical information on emerging crises that may lead to genocide or related crimes against humanity. While this initiative focuses on the Darfur Conflict
Darfur conflict
The Darfur Conflict was a guerrilla conflict or civil war centered on the Darfur region of Sudan. It began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and Justice and Equality Movement groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in...

, the Museum wishes to broaden its scope to all human rights violations. The USHMM wants to build an interactive "global crisis map" to share and understand information quickly, to "see the situation" when dealing with human rights abuses, enabling more effective prevention and response by the world.

Traveling exhibitions

Since 1991, the USHMM has created traveling exhibitions to travel all over the United States and the world. These exhibitions have been to over one hundred cities in more than 35 states. It is possible to request and host various subject matters including:
"The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936
Germany at the 1936 Winter Olympics
Nazi Germany was the host nation for the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.-Medalists:- Alpine skiing:MenWomen- Bobsleigh:- Cross-country skiing:MenMen's 4 x 10 km relay- Figure skating:MenWomen...

", "Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals", and others depending on what a community desires.

See also

  • American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors and their Descendants
    American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors and their Descendants
    The American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors and Their Descendants is the foremost umbrella organization of survivors located in North America with a mission to advocate for survivors and to advance and encourage Holocaust remembrance, education and commemoration. It is located in New York...

  • Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service
    Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service
    The Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service is an alternative to Austria's compulsory national military service / alternative service founded in 1992. Since 1998 it is part of the Austrian Service Abroad...

  • List of Holocaust memorials and museums
  • List of museums in the United States
  • List of museums in Washington, D.C.
  • Memorial to Polish Soldiers and German Anti-Fascists
    Memorial to Polish Soldiers and German Anti-Fascists
    The Memorial to Polish Soldiers and German Anti-Fascists is a war memorial in Berlin, dedicated in 1972. Built by the German Democratic Republic during the division of Germany, it is today the principal German monument to the Polish soldiers who died in World War II, as well as an important...

    , includes a dedication to the victims of the Nazis
  • Museum of the Occupation of Latvia
    Museum of the Occupation of Latvia
    Museum of the Occupation of Latvia 1940-1991 is an historic educational institution located in Riga, Latvia. It was established in 1993 to exhibit artifacts, archive documents, and educate the public about the 51-year period in the 20th century when Latvia was successively occupied by the USSR in...

  • Paper Clips Project
    Paper Clips Project
    The Paper Clips Project is a project by middle school students from the small southeastern Tennessee city of Whitwell who created a monument for the Holocaust victims in Nazi Germany. It started in 1998 as a simple 8th-grade project and evolved into one gaining worldwide attention. At last count,...

    , A US school project commemorating the Holocaust
  • Raoul Wallenberg
    Raoul Wallenberg
    Raoul Wallenberg was a Swedish businessman, diplomat and humanitarian. He is widely celebrated for his successful efforts to rescue thousands of Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary from the Holocaust, during the later stages of World War II...

     The Swedish diplomat that gave name to the address of the Museum
  • Righteous among the Nations
    Righteous Among the Nations
    Righteous among the Nations of the world's nations"), also translated as Righteous Gentiles is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis....

  • Shoes on the Danube Promenade
    Shoes on the Danube Promenade
    The Shoes on the Danube Promenade is a memorial created by Gyula Pauer and Can Togay on the bank of the Danube River in Budapest. It honors the Jews who fell victim to fascist Arrow Cross militiamen in Budapest during World War II, and represents their shoes left behind on the bank when they fell...

    , commemorates the deaths of Jews who were shot trying to escape the Holocaust by crossing the Danube rive
  • Stephen Roth Institute
    Stephen Roth Institute
    The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a research institute at Tel Aviv University in Israel. It is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and...

  • Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research
    Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research
    The Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research is an inter-governmental organization established in 1998. The organisation's mandate is founded upon the principles laid out by the Declaration of the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust...

  • The Holocaust and the United Nations Outreach Programme
    The Holocaust and the United Nations Outreach Programme
    United Nations General Assembly resolution 60/7 on Holocaust remembrance called for the establishment of a programme of outreach on the subject of the “Holocaust and the United Nations” and measures to mobilize civil society for Holocaust remembrance and education, in order to help to prevent...

  • Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
    Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
    The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. The site is a former high school which was used as the notorious Security Prison 21 by the Khmer Rouge communist regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979...

  • Yad Vashem
    Yad Vashem
    Yad Vashem is Israel's official memorial to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust, established in 1953 through the Yad Vashem Law passed by the Knesset, Israel's parliament....

    , Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

  • Yom HaShoah
    Yom HaShoah
    Yom HaZikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah , known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews and five million others who perished in the...


Further reading

  • Belau, L. M. 1998. "Viewing the Impossible: The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum". Reference Librarian. (61/62): 15-22.
  • Berenbaum, Michael, and Arnold Kramer. 2006. The world must know: the history of the Holocaust as told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  • Freed, James Ingo. 1990. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: what can it be? Washington, D.C.?: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council.
  • Hasian, Jr, Marouf. 2004. "Remembering and forgetting the "Final Solution": a rhetorical pilgrimage through the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum". Critical Studies in Media Communication. 21 (1): 64-92.
  • Linenthal, Edward Tabor. 1995. Preserving memory: the struggle to create America's Holocaust Museum. New York: Viking.
  • Pieper, Katrin. 2006. Die Musealisierung des Holocaust: das Jüdische Museum Berlin und das U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C. : ein Vergleich. Europäische Geschichtsdarstellungen, Bd. 9. Köln: Böhlau.
  • Strand, J. 1993. "Jeshajahu Weinberg of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum". Museum News - Washington. 72 (2): 40.
  • Timothy, Dallen J. 2007. Managing heritage and cultural tourism resources: critical essays. Critical essays, v. 1. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2001. Teaching about the Holocaust: a resource book for educators. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2007. You are my witnesses: selected quotations at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  • Weinberg, Jeshajahu, and Rina Elieli. 1995. The Holocaust Museum in Washington. New York, N.Y.: Rizzoli International Publications.
  • Young, James E, and John R Gillis. 1996. "The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning". The Journal of Modern History. 68 (2): 427.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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