Unani
Overview
 
Unani-tibb or Unani Medicine also spelled Yunani Medicine (icon; Yūnānī in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

, Hindi-Urdu and Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

) means "Greek Medicine", and is a form of traditional medicine
Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine comprises unscientific knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine...

 widely practiced in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

. It refers to a tradition of Graeco-Arabic
Islamic medicine
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, Arabic medicine or Arabian medicine refers to medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization....

 medicine, which is based on the teachings of Greek physician Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles , and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine...

, and Roman physician Galen
Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...

, and developed into an elaborate medical System by Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

, Afghans and Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 physicians, such as Rhazes, Avicenna
Avicenna
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

 (Ibn Sena), Al-Zahrawi, Ibn Nafis.

Unani medicine is based around the concepts of the four humours
Humorism
Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health...

: Phlegm
Phlegm
Phlegm is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammalians. Its definition is limited to the mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal passages, and particularly that which is expelled by coughing . Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of...

 (Balgham), Blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 (Dam), Yellow bile (Ṣafrā') and Black bile (Saudā').
The word Unani or Yunani has its origins in the Greek word Ἰωνία (Iōnía) or Ἰωνίη (Iōníe), a place name given to a Greek populated coastal region of Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

.
Though the threads which comprise Unani healing can be traced all the way back to Claudius Galenus of Pergamum, who lived in the second century of the Christian Era and also to Ancient Iranian Medicine
Ancient Iranian Medicine
The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history. The Iranian academic centers like Jundishapur University were a breeding ground for the union among great scientists from different civilizations...

, the basic knowledge of Unani medicine as a healing system was developed by Hakim
Hakim (title)
' and ' are two Arabic titles derived from the same triliteral ḤKM "appoint, choose, judge". Compare the Hebrew title hakham.-Hakīm :...

 Ibn Sina
Avicenna
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

 (known as Avicenna in the west) in his medical encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine is an encyclopedia of Galenic medicine in five books compiled by Ibn Sīnā and completed in 1025. It presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of the time...

.
Encyclopedia
Unani-tibb or Unani Medicine also spelled Yunani Medicine (icon; Yūnānī in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

, Hindi-Urdu and Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

) means "Greek Medicine", and is a form of traditional medicine
Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine comprises unscientific knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine...

 widely practiced in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

. It refers to a tradition of Graeco-Arabic
Islamic medicine
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, Arabic medicine or Arabian medicine refers to medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization....

 medicine, which is based on the teachings of Greek physician Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles , and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine...

, and Roman physician Galen
Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...

, and developed into an elaborate medical System by Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

, Afghans and Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 physicians, such as Rhazes, Avicenna
Avicenna
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

 (Ibn Sena), Al-Zahrawi, Ibn Nafis.

Unani medicine is based around the concepts of the four humours
Humorism
Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health...

: Phlegm
Phlegm
Phlegm is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammalians. Its definition is limited to the mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal passages, and particularly that which is expelled by coughing . Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of...

 (Balgham), Blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 (Dam), Yellow bile (Ṣafrā') and Black bile (Saudā').

Etymology

The word Unani or Yunani has its origins in the Greek word Ἰωνία (Iōnía) or Ἰωνίη (Iōníe), a place name given to a Greek populated coastal region of Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

.

History

Though the threads which comprise Unani healing can be traced all the way back to Claudius Galenus of Pergamum, who lived in the second century of the Christian Era and also to Ancient Iranian Medicine
Ancient Iranian Medicine
The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history. The Iranian academic centers like Jundishapur University were a breeding ground for the union among great scientists from different civilizations...

, the basic knowledge of Unani medicine as a healing system was developed by Hakim
Hakim (title)
' and ' are two Arabic titles derived from the same triliteral ḤKM "appoint, choose, judge". Compare the Hebrew title hakham.-Hakīm :...

 Ibn Sina
Avicenna
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

 (known as Avicenna in the west) in his medical encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine is an encyclopedia of Galenic medicine in five books compiled by Ibn Sīnā and completed in 1025. It presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of the time...

. The time of origin is thus dated at circa 1025 AD, when Avicenna wrote The Canon of Medicine in Persia. While he was primarily influenced by Greek and Islamic medicine
Islamic medicine
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, Arabic medicine or Arabian medicine refers to medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization....

, he was also influenced by the Indian medical
Ayurveda
Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, words , meaning "longevity", and , meaning "knowledge" or "science". The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India,...

 teachings of Sushruta and Charaka
Charaka
Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, born c. 300 BC was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India...

.

Unani medicine first arrived in India around 12-13 century CE with establishment of Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 (1206-1527 CE) and Muslim rule over North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

 and subsequently flourished under Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

. Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin Khilji
Ali Gurshap Khan better known by his titular name as Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji was the second ruler of the Turko-Afghan Khilji dynasty in India.He was a well and capable ruler. He belonged to the Afghanized Turkic tribe of the Khiljis...

 (r. 1296-1316) had several eminent Unani physicians (Hakims) in his royal courts In the coming year this royal patronage meant development of Unani practice in India, but also of Unani literature with the aid of Indian Ayurvedic physicians.

Asia

Fortunately, Unani classical literature consists of thousands of books across the world, contains vast knowledge and mention of experiences on all aspects of medicine. According to Unani medicine, management of any disease depends upon the diagnosis of disease.In the diagnosis,clinical features i.e. signs, symptoms,laboratory features and mizaj( temperament)are important.

Any cause and or factor is countered by Quwwat-e- mudabbira-e- badan (the power of body responsible to maintain health) the failing of which may lead to quantitatively or qualitatively derangement of the normal equilibrium of akhlat( humors ) of body which constitute the tissues and organs. This abnormal humor leads to pathological changes in the tissues anatomically and physiologically at the affected site of the body and exhibits the clinical manifestations.

After diagnosing the disease, Usoole ilaj (principle of management) of disease is determined on the basis of etiology on the following pattern.
  • Izalae sabab (elimination of cause)
  • Tadeele akhlat (normalization of humors)
  • Tadeele aza (normalization of tissues/organs)


For the purpose of fulfillment of requirements of principle of management, mode of treatment is decided as per the Unani medicine which may be one or more of the following.
  • Ilaj- bil- tadbeer wa Ilaj-Bil-Ghiza (regimenal therapy) -The disease may be treated by the modification of six essential pre-requisites of health(Asbab-e- Sitta Zarooriya in Unani Tibbi terminology).This method of treatment is called as Ilaj- Bil-Tadbeer.Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya may be modified by the use of One or more regimens i.e. dalak, riyazat, hammam, taleeq, takmeed, hijamat, fasd, lakhlakha, bakhur,Abzan,Shamoomat(Aromatherapy),Pashoya,Idrar,Ishal,Qai,Tareeq,Elam,Laza-e-Muqabil, Imalah and alteration of foods.According to the norms of C.C.I.M. New Delhi, Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer has been established in almost all Unani Tibbi Colleges of India.In the State Unani Medical College,Allahabad,U.P. and State Takmeel-Ul-Tibb College,Lucknow ,Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is known as Moalijat Khususi.Moaliajt Khususi is the old nomenclature of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer,suggested by C.C.I.M. New Delhi.Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is synonym to Panchkarma in Ayurveda.
  • Ilaj bil advia (pharmacotherapy) - For this purpose Mamulate matab nuskha (prescription) is formulated which contain the single and or compound Unani drugs having desired actions as per requirements.
  • Ilaj-Bil-Yad (Surgery)


In India, there are forty(40) Unani Medical Colleges where Unani System of medicine is taught, in five and half year courses and the graduates are awarded BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery). There are about 8 Unani medical Colleges where a Postgraduate degree(Mahir-e-Tib & Mahir Jarahat) is being awarded to BUMS Doctors. All these colleges are affiliated to reputed universities and recognized by the Governments.

As an alternative form of medicine, Unani has found favor in India. These Unani practitioners can practice as qualified doctors in India, as the government approve their practice. Unani medicine is very close to Ayurveda
Ayurveda
Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, words , meaning "longevity", and , meaning "knowledge" or "science". The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India,...

. Both are based on theory of the presence of the elements (in Unani, they are considered to be fire, water, earth and air) in the human body. (The elements, attributed to the philosopher Empedocles
Empedocles
Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for being the originator of the cosmogenic theory of the four Classical elements...

, determined the way of thinking in Medieval Europe.) According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in different fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.

All these elaborations were built on the basic Hippocratic theory of the four humours
Humorism
Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health...

. The theory postulates the presence of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in the human body. Each person's unique mixture of these substances determines his Mizaj(Temperament). a predominance of blood gives a sanguine temperament; a predominance of phlegm makes one phlegmatic; yellow bile, bilious (or choleric); and black bile, melancholic. Whan these humours are in balance, the human system is healthy and whan it is imbalance which can result in disease.

In India, the Central Council of Indian Medicine
Central Council of Indian Medicine
Central Council of Indian Medicine is a statutory body under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy , Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, set up in 1971 under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, which was passed in 1970...

 (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971 under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy
AYUSH
The Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy is a part of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the Government of India....

 (AYUSH
AYUSH
The Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy is a part of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the Government of India....

), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the Indian government ministry charged with health policy in India. It is also responsible for all government programs relating to family planning in India....

, Government of India
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine including, Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. To fight biopiracy
Biopiracy
- Biopiracy and bioprospecting :Bioprospecting is an umbrella term describing the discovery of new and useful biological samples and mechanisms, typically in less-developed countries, either with or without the help of indigenous knowledge, and with or without compensation...

 and unethical patents, the Government of India
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge, especially about medicinal plants and formulations used in Indian systems of medicine. Set up in 2001, as a collaboration between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and...

 as repository of formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, includes 98,700 Unani formulations. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) established in 1979, also under AYUSH, aids and co-ordinates scientific research in Unani System of Medicine through a network of 22 nationwide research Institutes and Units, including two Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine, at Hyderabad and Lucknow, eight Regional Research Institutes at Chennai, Bhadrak, Patna, Aligarh, Mumbai, Srinagar, Kolkata and New Delhi, six Clinical Research Units at Allahabad, Bangalore, Karimganj, Meerut, Bhopal and Burhanpur, four Drug Standardisation Research Units at New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Lucknow, a Chemical Research Unit at Aligarh, a Literary Research Institute at New Delhi.

Safety issues

According to WHO
Who
Who may refer to:* Who , an English-language pronoun* who , a Unix command* Who?, one of the Five Ws in journalism- Art and entertainment :* Who? , a 1958 novel by Algis Budrys...

, "Pharmacovigilance activities are done to monitor detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of any obnoxious adverse reactions to drugs at therapeutic concentration that is used or is intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of recipient." These drugs may be any substance or product including herbs, minerals, etc. for animals and human beings and can even be that prescribed by practitioners of Unani or ayurvedic system of medicine. In recent days, awareness has been created related to safety and adverse drug reaction monitoring of herbal drugs including Unani drugs.

Notable Unani institutions

  • Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine,India.
  • Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences
    Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences
    Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences is one of the Indian NGOs, which is registered under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Mohammad Hamid Ansari, former vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, formally inaugurated it on April 21, 2001...

    ,India.
  • National Institute of Unani Medicine, (Government of India
    Government of India
    The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

    )
  • A&U Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, (Government of N.C.T. Delhi),India.
  • Faculty of Unani Medicine, Jamia Hamdard
    Jamia Hamdard
    Jamia Hamdard is a university located in New Delhi, India. It was established in 1989.Our Revered Founder Janab Hakeem Abdul Hameed Saheb, a true Gandhian in spirit and simplicity was born in Delhi on September 14, 1908. No account of Hakeem Saheb can be complete without the mention of his...

    , New Delhi,India.
  • Ajmal Khan Tibbia College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,U.P.India.
  • Government Nizamia Tibbi College and Hospital, Hyderabad, A.P.India.
  • Anjuman-i- Islam's Tibbia College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
  • ZVM Unani College and Hospital, Pune, M.S.India.
  • State Takmeel-ut-tib College and hospital, Lucknow, U.P.(Government of U.P.).India.
  • State Unani Medical College & H.A.H.R.D.M. Hospital, Himmatganj, Allahabad, U.P. (Government of U.P.).India.
  • Saifia Hamidia Unani Tibbia College & Saeeda Hospital, Ganpati Naka, Burhanpur,M.P.India.
  • Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College
    Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College
    'Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College' is one of the prominent Institutions in the city of Gulbarga, located in northern part of Karnataka state in India. It is the brainchild of three hardworking and committed individuals, who rose from a humble background to establish this institute of Unani medicine...

    ,Gulbarga, Karnataka.
  • Unani and Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

See also

  • Dawakhana Shifaul Amraz
    Dawakhana Shifaul Amraz
    Dawakhana Shifaul Amraz , was a Unani pharmaceutical company established in 1894 at Tijara, India. It was one of the largest manufacturer of many Unani medicine before the partition of India.-History:...

  • Hakim Abdul Aziz
    Hakim Abdul Aziz
    Hakim Abdul Aziz was a prominent Unani physician from colonial India. He energetically tried to systematise and resurrect the edifice of Unani medicine in British India, and was globally renowned as the pre-eminent practitioner of his time.-Biography:Hakim Abdul Aziz started practising medicine...

  • Hakim Ajmal Khan
    Hakim Ajmal Khan
    Ajmal Khan was an Indian physician specialising in the field of South Asian traditional Unani medicine as well as a Muslim nationalist politician and freedom fighter. Through his founding of the Tibbia College in Delhi, he is credited with the revival of Unani medicine in early 20th century...

  • Hakim Habibur Rahman
    Hakim Habibur Rahman
    Hakim Habibur Rahman was an Unani physician, litterateur, journalist, politician and chronicler in early 20th-century Dhaka, Bangladesh....

  • Hakim Hammad Usmani
    Hakim Hammad Usmani
    Hakim Hammad Usmani is said to have been the foremost hakim and scholar of Unani medical science of modern times. He has been recognized not only by the state government of Uttar Pradesh but also the government of India. He has been a faculty member of many universities and social and academic...

  • Hakim Mohammed Said
  • Hakim Syed Atiqul Qadir
    Hakim Syed Atiqul Qadir
    Hafiz Hakim Syed Atiqul Qadir was a noted Unani Physician from Tijara and Bhopal.-Brief biography:Hakim Syed Atiqul Qadir belonged to the family of Gardēzī Sadaat and was born on 24 Ramadan 1328 AH / 1909 AD at Tijara. He was a practicing Unani Physician from Tijara and Bhopal.-Education:He...

  • Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman
    Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman
    Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman was a noted Unani physician from Tijara and Bhopal.-Brief biography:Syed Fazlur Rahman belonged to the family of Gardēzī Sadaat. Being ‘Hakim’ by profession, he also had deep interest in mysticism and Sufism...

  • Hakim Syed Karam Husain
    Hakim Syed Karam Husain
    Hakim Syed Muhammad Karam Hussain was a prominent Unani practitioner from Tijara, Alwar.-Education:After initial education from his hometown ‘Tijara’, he moved to Meerut at the age of 14 years. In Meerut, he took expertise, knowledge and proficiency on ‘Unani Tibb’ from two leading practitioners...

  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman
    Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman
    Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman , is well known for his contribution to Unani medicine. He founded Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences in 2000...

  • Hamdard (Wakf) Laboratories
    Hamdard (Wakf) Laboratories
    Hamdard Laboratories, India is an Unani and Ayurvedic pharmaceutical company in India & Pakistan. It is the world's largest manufacturer of Unani medicines. It was established in 1906 by Hakeem Hafiz Abdul Majeed in Delhi, and became a waqf in 1948. Some of its most famous products include Safi,...

  • Hamdard Laboratories (Waqf)
    Hamdard Laboratories (Waqf)
    Hamdard Laboratories Pakistan is a famous pharmaceutical company in Pakistan. It was established in 1948 by Hakim Mohammed Said in Karachi, and became a waqf in 1953...

  • Qazi Mazhar Qayyum
    Qazi Mazhar Qayyum
    Qazi Mazhar Qayyum 'Raees-Azam Naushera', came from a qadi's family which had, since the 16th century, been prominent among the landed aristocracy of the Soon Valley. He belonged to Awans tribe of ancient repute. He was the famous "Hakeem" , especially of Muslim medicine and unani medicine of Soon...

  • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
    Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
    Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge, especially about medicinal plants and formulations used in Indian systems of medicine. Set up in 2001, as a collaboration between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and...



Further reading

  • Standardisation of single drugs of Unani medicine. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (India), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 1987.
  • Unani: the science of Graeco-Arabic medicine, by Jamil Ahmad, Hakim Ashhar Qadeer. Lustre Press, 1998. ISBN 8174360522.
  • The Unani Pharmacopoeia of India, Dept. of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy. Pub. Govt. of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Dept. of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy, 1999.
  • Physicochemical standards of Unani formulations, Pub. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2006.
  • Refiguring unani tibb: plural healing in late colonial India, by Guy N. A. Attewell. Orient Longman, 2007. ISBN 8125030174.
  • Hand book on unani medicines with formulae, processes, uses and analysis. National Institute Of Industrial Research, 2008. ISBN 8178330423.
  • 10 Unani medicine books online at Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
    Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
    Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge, especially about medicinal plants and formulations used in Indian systems of medicine. Set up in 2001, as a collaboration between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and...

     (Govt. of India)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK